Why are Japan Airlines and ANA looking cool, which should be "a big pinch to soaring crude oil prices!"The person in charge of the unexpected reason ...
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On international flights, cargo planes are also subject to fuel surcharges.
Regular gasoline is finally 1 yen per liter on average!The soaring crude oil price does not stop.Transportation / quantity industry ... → Continue reading
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fuel surcharge(Nenyu surcharge)fuelTooil(Kerosene,Light oil,heavy oilEtc.)PriceToFareCollected separately fromPricesThat. The names are: fuel special surcharge, fuel oil price adjustment, fuel surcharge, fuel surcharge, fuel surcharge, fuel surcharge (English: Fuel Surcharge）Also called.
As a measure to deal with the situation where the fuel cost to operate cannot be covered by the fare at the time of contract or tariff setting due to rapid changes in fuel priceShippingIndustry1970 eraIntroduced from2000 eraToaviation,Land transportationIt has spread to the industry.
Set the price list and set the price according to the fuel price at the time of operationsurchargeAs a general rule, additional charge is collected, and if the fuel price falls below a certain level, it may be a charge list that is not collected.
However, it is not the agreement fee of the International Air Transport Association, and whether or not it is applied and the tariff are basically approved by each airline after application and examination by the aviation authority.
General indicators areKerosenetypeJet fuelThe marketSpot priceso,North AmericaIn the areaGulf Coast(Gulf of MexicoKishi area),AsiaIn the areaSingapore,EuropeThen.Rotterdam Ofmarket priceIs used.
International flightsHowever, since airfares are generally determined by bilateral agreements, fuel surcharges are usually approved by applying to the government after adjustment between both airlines.
JapanThen, it was reported under the name of "fuel special surcharge",Freighterabout2001 (Heisei13 years),passengerabout2005 (HeiseiIt was introduced from 17). Even on domestic flightsFuji Dream Airlines(FDA)2011 (23)May 9Introduced from boarding.
Japan Airlines,All Nippon AirwaysSo SingaporeKeroseneThe average price of the last two months in the market is 2U.S. dollarIt was supposed to be abolished in April, but from April 2015, 27 (Heisei 4)Japanese yenDenominated and with the US dollarExchange rateTaking into account the variable surcharge, 1barrel6,000YenIf it falls below, it will be abolished. About this sudden change,Travel agencyAnd users complained that "it is strange that only users bear the risk of exchange rate fluctuations",South Korea OfKorean Air,Asiana AirlinesAt this point, customers were complaining because the fuel surcharge fee was abolished..
2016May 4From the ticket issue, JAL and ANA decided to reduce the fuel surcharge to zero for the first time in six and a half years on an international flight from Japan due to a sharp drop in crude oil price, but due to the depreciation of the yen against the US dollar, the performance of the airline company Despite being in good shape, after 6 months2017 (29)May 2Collection of fuel surcharge recovered from ticket issue.
BAF(Bunker Adjustment Factor),BS(Bunker Surcharge), or heavy oil surcharge. In international shipping, the shipping alliances often set the index price, but it is not binding and ultimatelyShipownerWill be decided by negotiation with the shipper.The Pacific OceanIn the route stabilization agreement,A heavy oilとC heavy oil, The European Union has adopted C heavy oil as a price index.
General passenger fares (which are licensed fares in JapanferryEtc.)Fuel oil price fluctuation adjustmentHas been filed under the name of.
In Japan, the report price (internal combustion research price) was used as the standard,2008 (HeiseiFrom 20 years),paperpulpprice(Nippon OilとPrince paperThe number of companies based on the transaction price is increasing.
cruiseabout,,Star cruise,Royal Caribbean International,Carnival cruise lineIn many cruise companies,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クMercantile Exchange WTI American Standard Oil Type (West Texas Intermediate) Is used as an index. Falling fuel prices at most cruise companies2010 (HeiseiIt has been abolished after 22 years).
Gulf WarSince then, introduction has started in the freight transportation field as a measure for the soaring crude oil prices. Whether to set or not and the amount of money are basically decided by each shipping company.
in Japan2008 (Heisei20 years)May 3ToMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Small and mediumCarrier"Fuel surcharge emergency guideline for trucking industry" was established for After that,Light oilThe freight charges for fuel surcharges have been registered based on prices, but small freight transportation (home delivery) Does not apply to
Fuel surcharge problem
Fuel surcharge display
Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIssued a notice instructing the travel industry to display the total amount including fuel surcharge.2008 Issued on June 6th.
In Japan,2001 (Heisei13 years) introduced by air freight,2005 (HeiseiAlthough it has been introduced by air passengers since 17, the price increase continued with the rise in crude oil prices, and the amount reached the world's highest level in 2008, causing the number of passengers of Japanese airlines to decline... The crude oil price was 2008-30 dollars at the end of 40, which was the price before the introduction of the surcharge, but the surcharge is not abolished, and it is expected that the price will finally be about half the maximum amount and the rate of decline will be quite small. The amount of surcharge varies depending on the airline even on the same route,Code share flightsIn the case of, the same flight may differ depending on the flight number purchased..
The soaring fuel prices behind the introduction of fuel surcharges have significantly deteriorated the profits of airlines and shipping companies.2005 (Heisei17 years)OctoberToDelta Airlines,Northwest Airlines Federal Bankruptcy Code Chapter 11Has been applied.
Predicament in the truck industry
Crude oil priceDue to soaringTrackEven by shippingfuelAlthough the cost has risen, the price is not fully passed on to the land transporters, forcing a serious burden on them.All Japan Truck AssociationAccording to the survey, about 4% could pass the price even in part.
2008 (Heisei20 years)May 3,Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismAnnounced "Urgent Guidelines for Fuel Surcharge in Trucking Industry" in order to pass on the increase in diesel oil prices to the fare.
In May of the same year, Japan's largest land transportation companyNippon ExpressDecided to introduce a fuel surcharge,Yamato Transport,Sagawa ExpressIs also positive to introduce. However, it is unclear whether the small and medium-sized enterprises, which account for more than 9% of the trucking, can carry out according to the guidelines because the bargaining power is weak.
- ^ [Important/Urgent] Notice of Fuel Surcharge and Price Revision Star Cruises Japan Office, announced on May 2008, 5.
- ^ Fuel Surcharge FedEx
- ^ JAPAN FUEL SURCHARGE Delta Air Lines
- ^ (PDF) - Fuji Dream Airlines(FDA) Announcements/Press Releases 2011 May 6
- ^ Rika Yanagisawa (September 2015, 9). "Travel companies are puzzled by the depreciation of fuel surcharges". Weekly diamond (Diamond Company) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Ayako Suga (January 2017, 1). “Fuel surcharges, why airlines are back despite good performance”. Weekly diamond (Diamond Company) NovemberBrowse.
- ^ Revision of Notice Regarding Handling of Fuel Surcharges in Travel Transactions Charged by Airlines Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- ^ a b Sugiura, "Who made the surcharge?, Nikkei WagaMaga, dated November 2008, 11, viewed on the same day.
- ^ Results of a study on the impact of diesel prices and freight pass-through (May 2008)
- ^ Emergency guidelines for fuel surcharges in the trucking industry
Aircraft whose main purpose is to transport people and cargoarmyfor·peopleFor bothTransport aircraftThat is.Private transport aircraft are intended for the transportation of passengersPassenger planeAnd are classified into freighters for the purpose of transporting freight..For military aircraftTransport aircraftSee.
Few early freighters were specially designed,Postal transportationAlthough there were aircraft that were used as freight flights, those that could transport both passengers and freight were the mainstream.
The development of freightersSecond World WarIt was later.This is due to the fact that air transportation has become active and aircraft have become larger, and that there has been demand for the transportation of large cargo and large quantities of goods by aircraft in the private sector as well.Passenger planeBecause it has come to have a well-maintained cabin, it was advantageous to design the cabin exclusively for carrying cargo.
Many modern freighters have been redesigned passenger planes and refurbished in-flight.It depends on the model, but it looks like a cabin windowEmergency escape exitThere is only a difference, such as having a large cargo door for loading and unloading luggage.Structurally, the floor of the main deck has been strengthened to accommodate heavy loads, andpayloadIt is commensurate with the strengthening of the base of the main wing (wing body joint) and the accompanying increase in landing weight.Landing gearWill be strengthened.For military transport aircraft, from the convenience of loading and unloadingHigh wing arrangementHowever, low-wing layout is the mainstream for commercial freighters because of the passenger aircraft-based design.
In addition,Boeing 747 Part of A300-600ST BelugaThe nose part is likeト ル トThose with a "nose door" that goes up,CanadaiaCL-44,Boeing 747-LCF There are some that have "" that the rear part of the fuselage folds and opens laterally.
Freighters have more payload than airlinersTo load
- Fuel consumption increases
- When loaded to the maximum payload limitMaximum takeoff weightDepending on the model, only about half of the tank capacity so as not to exceedfuelCannot be installed
For that reason (synergistic effect), the cruising range is generally shorter than that of passenger aircraft.Therefore, for exampleFar East - EuropeMost passenger planes are currently on the routeSystem collapseAfterロシアIt has achieved a flight of 13 to 14 hours over the sky, but it is difficult for freighters to fly this distance non-stop (some of the latest aircraft 747-400F made it possible).Therefore, even today, freighters on Far East-Europe routesAnchorageでRefuelingThe old route to do is alive and well.
A large door was added to the passenger plane so that it could also be used as a freighter.Combi aircraftIs called a "combination plane" and is used on local routes where it is difficult for passengers and freighters to make a profit.
List of freighters
- Boeing 747-200F/-400F/-400ERF/-8F
- It is the only super-large aircraft that has won orders for more than 100 passenger and cargo types (only pure cargo type with nose cargo door, excluding refurbishment from passenger type).
- Boeing 757-200PF
- Boeing 767-300F
- Boeing 777F
- McDonnell Douglas MD-11F
- Aero SpacelinesPregnant Guppy
- Aero SpacelinesSuper guppy
- Airbus A310-200F
- Airbus A380-800F
- Airbus A300-600ST Beluga
- Made by Airbus manufactured in various placesPassenger planeAnd other components,ToulouseA special large transport aircraft made by modifying the A300 for air transportation to our factory.Of the successorAirbus Beluga XLIs in production.
- Boeing has a similar idea, and is a modified 747-400F (747-400LCF) Using several machines,787I am carrying the parts of. (Announced in February 2005).
- Tupolev Tu-134
- Tupolev Tu-154
- Ilyushin Il-76
- Ilyushin Il-86
- Ilyushin Il-96
- Antonov An-2
- Antonov An-3
- Antonov An-12
- Antonov An-26
- Antonov An-28
- Antonov An-32
- Antonov An-38
- Antonov An-72 Cheburashka
- Antonov An-74 Cheburashka
- Antonov An-124 Ruslan
- The largest mass-produced aircraft in the world.
- Antonov An-140
- Antonov An-225 Muriya
- The largest freighter in the world.Has multiple Guinness records.
- ^ According to the classification of Heibonsha World Encyclopedia XNUMXnd Edition
- ^ From the acronym "F", commercial freighters tend to be represented by the "F" at the end of the model number.
- ^ Boeing 747 cargo type with a cargo weight of 100 tons or more, which is passengers, baggage, on passenger planes,In-flight mealMore than double the total weight of water and beverages / toilet water.
- ^ Due to the delay in passenger-type development and delivery, all orders from airlines were lost in March 2007, and development is currently suspended. Although the actual aircraft is not manufactured, orders from airlines are being accepted.However, it is expected to end with the plan when Airbus announced the end of production of the basic A3-2019 series in 2 on February 14, 2021.