Photo M-346, Italian Air Force system name is T-346A
Air Self-Defense Force dispatches members to Italy for pilot training Arrangement with the Air Force
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Through this agreement, the ASDF positions it as having important significance in defense cooperation and exchanges with the Italian Air Force, in addition to training pilots by dispatching members.
On Thursday, October 2021, 10, the Japan Air Self-Defense Force agreed on an education and training arrangement to be entrusted to the Italian Air Force.child… → Continue reading
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Italian Air Force
Italian Air ForceEuropeIt is an Air Force with one of the best traditions and prestige, and can be said to be one of the oldest Air Force organizations in the world.The history of the Italian Air Force is roughly dividedRoyal eraAnd the republican era.
1884 In the armyballoonAn aviation unit is established as a unit to operate. 1911Ito WarFor the first time in world history, air power (airship・ Airplane) was put on the battlefield. In 1923, the originalServiceAsair forceBecame independent and the Royal Air Force was created.
Second World WarAfter1946 When the royal system was abolished and moved to the Republic of Italy, the Royal Air Force was also renamed the Royal Air Force. The aerobatic corps "" founded in 1961Frecce Tricolori"Has one of the best skills in the world.
In Italy, weather forecasts are under the jurisdiction of the Air Force and are of the Air Force General Staff.Italian Meteorological AgencyProvides domestic weather forecasts.Italian Broadcasting CorporationThe forecaster who explains the weather situation in the news is a soldier belonging to the Meteorological Bureau.
Establishment of Army Air Corps
Outbreak in 1911Ito War(Libyan War, 1911-1912), Army Air Corps had two shipsairshipIn addition to 28 aircraftaircraftIn addition to reconnaissance, bombing is also being carried out.The operation by this bombing corps was the first battle in history when air power was put on the battlefield. In January 1915, it was renamed Corpo Aeronautico and had an aeronautical battalion (airplane), an engineer battalion (airship), and a balloon battalion under its umbrella.note that,Royal NavyAlso created an aviation unit and operated flying boats.
World War I
World War IIn (1914-1918), the Army Air CorpsFighterImported or imported French fighters due to lack ofLicense productionBy doing so, it was the main fighter.Bomberabout,Giovanni Batchasta CaproniFounded byCaproniThe company's excellent domestic machines are adopted,Austria-Hungary EmpireBombing onAllied ForcesContributed to the victory.In the pilotFrancesco BarracaThe lieutenant colonel left an excellent history of shooting down 34 aircraft (note that the highest number of shots down in this war was that of the German army.Manfred von Lichthofen80 aircraft by).Also, at the end of World War II, several Air Force aircraftAustrian Air ForceAn episode in which he broke through the strict warning system and attacked the capital city of Vienna, sprinkled a piece of paper recommending surrender to the citizens of Vienna who fled for fear of a sudden enemy aircraft attack, and then shook off the pursuit of the Austrian Air Force aircraft that attacked and returned calmly. Remains.
Strategically from the experience of this eraJulio DoueThe Major General announced the "Air Control Theory" and received a great deal of attention in Western countries.This is laterUS Air Force OfStrategic bombingIt had a great influence on the concept.
Interwar period: Creation of the Royal Air Force
On March 1923, 3, after the end of World War I, given that air power played an important role in the war.Vittorio Emanuele IIMade the Italian Air Force independent of the Army.This resulted in the Royal Air Force of Italy (Regia Aeronautica,Italian: Regia Aeronautica) Was officially launched.However, after the war, Italy was hit by the Great Recession, the Royal Three Armies also suffered financial difficulties, and the renewal of obsolete equipment was not possible.Meanwhile, it was established with the backing of the royal familyBenito MussoliniLeadFascist regimeDeclared the expansion of its armaments, and the Italian Air Force, which had a particularly high reputation, was greatly favored as a promotional material for the administration.
The fascist regime developed excellent aircraft with national support, which was a "peacetime battle" for the air forces of each country.Schneider Trophy RaceSuch asSpeed raceAnd the long-distance flight record competition broke the record one after another.This series of battles boasting Italian aviation technology and human resourcesItalo BalboTwice by Marshal大西洋It reached the peak of success with no landing crossing.
However, Mussolini's economic policy, which was successful in the latter half of 1930,World DepressionThe Italian Air Force began to suffer financial difficulties again.But in contrast to the plight of the army, Mussolini goes straight to a hasty war to retain his power.
Second World War
On the eve of World War II,Benito MussoliniThe air power has been greatly increased to realize.However, while the bombers had relatively highly practical aircraft, the number of fighters was insufficient and the formation was unbalanced.Moreover, it is reliableMoverIt has been pointed out that it was a fatal problem not to have.
Polish invasionWhen World War II broke out, Italy belonged to the three majorAxis powersAmong (Italy, Germany, Japan), the size of the Air Force was still the smallest.Of the 3,296 aircraft, only about 2,000 were actually expected to be usable.In terms of equipment, it is clearly worse than the potential enemy, the Royal Air Force, especiallyFighterWith regard to, while possessing advanced technology, sticking to the war lessons of the First World War eraBiplaneAdopted (Fiat CR.42) Because it was made of all metal, which was already mainstream at that timeMonoplaneType fighter (MackiMC.200And fiatG.50) Was only 166.In addition, the aviation industryFiat,MackiThe fact that it was divided into multiple small companies also produced the result of further diversifying the small industrial power.As a result, the introduction of domestic fighter aircraft, which can compete with the latest Allied aircraft, began operation several months before the defeat.Fiat Centauro,Macchi Orione / Vertoro,Reggiane SagitarioI had to wait until.
June 1940, German troopsInvasion of FranceThe fascist administration declared war on both Britain and France.Immediately, the Italian Air Force began supporting the Army and bombing backwards, making a total of 716 sorties and launching 276 tons of bombs in Southern France.Occitania) Was dropped.Soon GermanyParisOccupied and France surrendered,Vichy administrationWhen (Vichy France) was established and the mainland of France came under the control of the Axis powers, the battlefield became地中海Each placeRoyal Air ForceWas switched to.
Middle East Airlines Battle
Italian Air ForceSecond World WarAgainstItaly kingdomFrom the beginning to the end ofMiddle EastHe was deeply involved in the Axis air strikes on.Was under the influence of England(I.e.While the Italian Air ForceGerman Air ForceTogether with the establishment of the "Iraqi Airways", under the command of the Iraqi army, Vichy French territoryLebanonEngaged with the Royal Air Force based on. In July 1940, the Italian Air ForceBritish Palestine OfHaifaSuccessful bombing, oilpipelineWas destroyed.RiceTime MagazineBut after the much-reported attack, in mid-OctoberFascist partyThe long-range bomber corps that I was also an executive of(I.e.Sortie,バーレーンSucceeded in destroying the oil zone of.
This underwater support by the Axis Air Force ultimately gave the British troops(I.e.・ The invasion of Lebanon was started.
North African Campaign
When the battle in North Africa began, a fierce air battle of the Royal Air Force fought over the sky.The battles between the two are almost in competition, and the equipped fighters are the same.BiplaneWas the center.Royal Air ForceGladiatorWhile the main force is the Italian Air ForceFiat CR.32とCR.42This is because it was the main force.Later, both received new fighters, and although the appearance of individual air battles changed dramatically, they remained on par with each other overall.It was not the result of the Air Force battle, but the result of the battle between the Army that the battle situation changed significantly.Army defeat (Operation Compass), The Italian Air Force (to the enemy)CatchingI had to destroy a lot of aircraft and withdraw backwards (to prevent them from being killed).
After that, the situation leaned toward the British side, and when the German army later joined the front, the sky over North Africa changed to the battlefield of the British-German air force.The Italian Air Force in North Africa had no choice but to fall into the guise of entrusting its fate to the German Air Force.Nevertheless, in 1942, the Italian Air Force recovered its operational capacity to 400 aircraft, and although it was the second most contented form after the German Air Force, it had a solid result.German African CorpsCommanderErwin RommelWhen the first rebellion against the British was launched, Italian Air Force troops ousted the Royal Air Force and secured air superiority.AlsoOperation CrusaderWhen the Germans retreated, the Italian Air Force did a great deal of damage to the British bombers and helped them retreat.
HoweverBattle of El AlameinThe Italian Air Force suffered a lot of losses in the engagement with the Royal Air Force, and the situation of struggling with the Royal Air Force has always continued since then.In addition, the disadvantage on the Axis side became decisive even on land, and the inferiority gradually deepened.Tunisian CampaignBy the time it reached, there was almost no force left in the Italian Air Force in North Africa.
East African Campaign
In June 1940, there were about 6-200 Italian Air Force aircraft in East Africa.A certain number of these aircraft were antiquely old, but relatively new.Savoia Marchetti OfSM.79,SM.81, And also equipped with Fiat CR.42.At this point, CR.42 was still at a level that could be used on the front lines.In addition, the Italian Air Force is vastColonyUnlike the UK, which managesEast AfricaWas building a strong air base in the United Kingdom andFederalIt succeeded in securing a better airfield than the military.Therefore, when the war began, Italian pilots showed their trained skills to the British.
However, the situation of being separated from the mainland of Italy caused a particularly serious shortage of fuel and parts even within the Italian army, which is already suffering from chronic fuel and industrial shortages.In contrast, the British troops brought in abundant supplies from all over the world (as they did on all fronts) and improved the situation. January 1940, 1, Commander General of the Italian East African ArmyAmedeo, Duke of AostaReported to HQ that it left only 67 fighters and a small amount of fuel.The Italian Air Force was eroded by the disproportionate attrition warfare in East Africa, but the Italian pilots continued to fight well.
On October 1941, 10, the last East African Air Corps fighter was shot down a month before Amedeo, Duke of Aosta, surrendered with the remnants of the East African army.
Battle of Britain
On October 1940, 10, 25 Italian Air Force planes were under German occupation during the mainland British air battle, which is a mountainous battle against Britain.ベルギーDeployed to the airfield of. 73 aircraftFiat Br.20The Italian Air Force (Corpo Aereo Italiano), including bombers, had very limited activity due to issues such as range and number of aircraft. In December 1940, most of the Italian Air ForceGreeceHe was dispatched to the front and by April 1941 the remaining aircraft had been withdrawn.
In late 1940, the Italian Air ForceGreek-Italian WarParticipation in, there is also an overwhelming force differenceGreek Air Force77 out of 52 were shot down, but the Italian side also lost 64 (the Greek Air Force claims to shoot an additional 24)...The struggle by the ArmyアルバニアForced to retreat to the border. In the first half of 1941, the German armyInvasion of YugoslaviaParticipated in the war against Greece afterGreek battle) Then the situation of the land war improved, but the role of the Air Force was reduced to the support mission of the German Air Force.When Italy became responsible for much of the security of Yugozlavia and Greece (), the Air Force also engaged in this.
Russian dispatch army
June 1941, 6, GermanySoviet UnionInvades the territory controlled byGerman-Soviet battleHas begun. In August, the Italian Air Force said, "Italian-Russian ArmyAs part of (Corpo di Spedizione Italiano, or CSIR), an air force consisting of 1,900 personnel was dispatched to the Eastern Front.They were known as the "Italy-Russian Air Corps" (Corpo Aereo Spedizione in Russia).These aviations are the firstCaproniEquipped with Ca31 and MC.200, it supported the battle of the Italian Expeditionary Corps from 1941 to 1943.They were rear-based in Ukraine and eventually participated in air combat at the Battle of Stalingrad. Higher performance by mid-1942MC.202Was put into the battle of Russia. In the first half of 1943, when the battles over Stalingrad were decided, Mussolini decided to return to the expeditionary force, and the Air Corps also finished the battle in January 1943.OdessaWithdrew to.By the time it was withdrawn, 88 Soviet planes were shot down, with only 19 losses.
But some Air Force units1944 から1945 Until,Baltic SeaHe continued his military service as an wing under the command of the German Air Force in the region.Called the 10th Air Force "Ital" (Italian: "Terrasiano") by the German army, they have joined the RSI (see next section) Air Force even after the Badoglio administration and continue to fight to the end.
Flight to Japan
May 6ToGuidonia MontecellioWas in a state of war with Italy after takeoffSoviet UnionAvoiding the German occupationウクライナ OfZaporizhazia,Aral SeaNorth bank,Lake BaikalEdge,Tarbagatai MountainsPass throughGobi DesertIn the sky,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euVia the sky,May 6Under Japanese occupationInner Mongolia,BaotouArrived at.However, at that time, due to lack of fuel etc., it passed over the Soviet Union and was shot.Then head to TokyoMay 7からMay 7Stay up toMay 7Take off Baotouウクライナ OfOdessaThe aircraft flew to Guidonia Montecellio via the aircraft and completed this mission on July 7.
However, due to diplomatic reasons of flying over the Soviet Union, which is a neutral country for Japan (against Italy), the treatment is not welcome in Japan, such as not letting the outside of the existence of Lieutenant Colonel Antonio Moscatelli and below stay. Met.In addition, the Japanese side requested in advance,Tsuji MasabuThere was also a bonus that the Army Lieutenant Colonel would not be accompanied on the return trip.Moreover, despite the disagreement of the project, ItalyMay 8The event was announced in Japan, and relations between the two countries became chilly, and Italy refused to make this long-distance flight again..
Mainland decisive battle and end of war
When the battle on mainland Italy began, the Italian Air Force was in a position to be forced into a defensive battle.Italian pilots continued to make a lot of efforts to fight the Allied Air Force, which aimed at Navy vessels.A huge number of Allied aircraftSicilyThey attacked various parts of the island and repeatedly bombed them, attacking air force facilities and runways on the ground one after another.This had a fatal blow to the activities of the Italian Air Force, but Vichy territory (Occitania) The Air Force troops stationed atSardiniaWhen he came with his troops, resistance resumed again.Eventually a coup d'etat occurred and Mussolini was defeated.General BadoglioA government headed by the United States was established and they truce with the Allies, but the last battle that had taken place so far was an air defense battle against the United States Air Force.
Mussolini, who had been imprisoned after the coup, was rescued by German troops and, with German support, in Northern Italy.Italian Social RepublicEstablished the (RSI) government, the Italian government split into the RSI government and the Kingdom government (Southern Kingdom, Badoglio administration).Then, the Air Force was divided into the Italian Co-belligerent Air Force (Southern Kingdom) and the Italian National Air Force (RSI), and pledged allegiance to their respective leaders.However, the two did not engage in direct battle until the end.Because the former is mainlyBalkan PeninsulaIn the rear defense in, the latterNorthern ItalyとBaltic SeaThis is because he was engaged in air defense battles in Japan and did not cover the theater.By the end of the war, the Italian Air Force had shot down 5,201 enemy aircraft in exchange for 4,293 aircraft.
1945 May 5The Kingdom Air Force was officially rebuilt,1946 May 6The royal government was abolished by a referendumRepublicDue to the transition to the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Military) Was renamed.
List of pilots
Those who shot down 15 aircraft or more
- Franco Lucchini --26 shot down
- Adriano Visconti--26 shot down
- Teresio Martinori-23 shot down
- Leonardo Ferrelli-22 shot down
- Franco Bordoni Bisleni-19 shot down
- Luigi Gorini-19 shot down
- Mario Visini-17 shot down
- Ugo Drago-17 shot down
Photograph of the aircraft in operation
Other countries' aircraft were also operated by the Italian Air Force.Imported from the German Air ForceJu 87Stuka was used under the name "Pichiatello".
Inauguration of the Republic Air Force and the Cold War
1946 May 6, Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare,Italian: air Force), The Italian Air Force started a new departure,Second World War OfDefeated countryStrict re-arming regulations as a result of the military reconstruction were blocked.1947 May 2The Government of Italy is with the former AlliesParis Peace ConferenceHowever, the treaty imposes various restrictions on military reconstruction.But in 1949Cold WarIn the era of East-West confrontation, Italy1949 Was formed inNATOIn addition to being a founding member of, he was allowed to significantly remove armament restrictions.In addition, equipment provision from the US Air Force has started based on the US-Italy Mutual Defense Assistance Agreement.P-51With MustangP-47Thunderbolt was equipped on the Italian Air Force unit.1952 In the latter half of the fighterF-84とF-86, And of the aircraftC-119Was newly provided by the US military.
The Italian aviation industry also resumed the development of domestic aircraft as the postwar reconstruction progressed.Aermacchi MB-326And fiatG.91,Piaggio AerospacesIn addition to developing and producing aircraft such as the P166,helicopterWe have also started domestic production.Became the Air Force's first supersonic jet fighterLockheedF-104 TheFiatLicensed production was done by the company.1970 era TheG.222(laterC-27J SpartanImprove) and LockheedC-130Was fighting for the Air Force's adoption of transport aircraft.As for the fighter aircraft, the F-104S, which was a modified version of the F-104 to match the air defense doctrine of the Italian Air Force, was deployed.Entered into international collaborative development,Brazilian Air ForceCollaborative development with (in charge of nearly 7%)AMXHas achieved good results and was promoting joint development of Air Force aircraft.Germany-The United KingdomWithTornadoIt led to a development plan.
Since the end of the Cold War, the Italian Air Force has entered an era of increasing international conflicts due to ethnic conflicts and religious issues, and the Italian Air Force has continued from the Gulf War.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu,Mozambique, Dispatched to the Balkan Peninsula.Of these, it occurred especially in EuropeYugoslavia conflictMeans destabilization of areas that can be reached by aircraft within minutes of the border, and the Air Force has been strengthening its equipment and reviewing its air defense system.In place of the U.S.-made fighter that started retirement, we started developing a new fighter jointly developed with the United Kingdom, Spain, and West Germany, and the transport aircraft also changed to G.222.C-27J SpartanIt was improved to strengthen the transportation of troops in an emergency.
2003 years,Eurofighter TyphoonIn the year when the receipt of the Italian Air Force began, the Italian Air Force was an aviation unit specializing in special operations as part of the Air Force reform.17th Special Warfare WingWas organized.
2015 years,F-35Introduction has started.
Major aircraft currently in operation
- Attack aircraft
- Transport aircraft
- Patrol aircraft
- Training machine
- Aerial refueling machine
Aircraft that once operated
- Large fighter
- Transport aircraft, reconnaissance aircraft, etc.
- Training machine
Organization / unit
- air forceChief of Staff (Stato Maggiore Aeronautica Militare)Rome
- Air Force Command (Air Force Command) In Centocelle
- Logistics Command (Logistic Command) In Rome
- air forceMilitary school(Comando Scuole dell'Aeronautica Militare)Bari
- Air Force Operations Command (Comando Operativo Delle Forze Aeree)Poggio Renatico
- 1st Headquarters (Comando 1 Regione Aerea)Milan
- 3st Headquarters (Comando 3 Regione Aerea) In Bari
- Red pig --The main character, Porco Rosso (Marco Rosso), was supposed to have belonged to the Italian Air Force at the time of World War I (the independence of the Air Force in historical facts was after the war).