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First in Asia!ZIPAIR announces cross-Pacific “LCC from Narita to LA”

 
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The JAL Group's LCC / ZIPAIR based at Narita Airport will be the first LCC candy from December XNUMXth ... → Continue reading

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exist

exist(Sonzai, English being, existence, German Be) Is

Overview

"Existence" is eon or ousia in ancient Greek Ousia, Esse Esse in Latin, Sein Zain starting with a capital letter in German, être et (-) in French, etc.[3].

Looking at the history of European philosophy, the thought of "existence", that is, "what exactly is" what "and" what is "is", is one of the ultimate themes. It can be said that there was[3]..In other words, European philosophy is basically (although philosophy in other regions is another story).OntologyIt can be said that it was[3].

On the other hand, in the Orient, in India, "Yes" was sought while being associated with "No".A liberation-oriented approach has emerged, and an approach that emphasizes the delusional nature of the phenomenological world (similar to the West) has emerged. (See below)

Western

Parmenides

ParmenidesLeaves a lot of sentences about "is"[3]..He said:

eon is immortal, whole, only immovable, endless, and it has never been, never will be, because it is now, moment, whole, one, Because it is continuous.

Parmenides said that "something" cannot be proved or should be proved.[3].

Parmenides has made an effort to truly understand the content of "eon".And it's basically nous NousOr logos LogosCan only be understood by[3].

Parmenides said he should not seek the birth of "eon"[3]..Because, first of all, "is" is "not (=)No) ”, Says that it cannot be considered to have arisen from[3].. "Aranu" is "Aranu" and is a non-existence that cannot be spoken or thought about.[3]..Then, if "Aru (A)" arises from "Aru (B)", then there is a self-contradiction that "Aru (A)" was not "Aru".[3].

Therefore, there can be no existence that precedes existence, and there is no existence that comes after existence.In other words, about existence, neither the past nor the future has any meaning.TimeHas no meaning[3]..With the same reasoning, Parmenides denies the inseparability, continuity, and homogeneity of existence.In this way, with the insight using logos, it is said that the "temporal world of generation and change" that human senses based on the true appearance of "eon" is a world of delusion.[3]..This Parmenides tone became one keynote, leading to European ontology and becoming a two-world theory such as "reality and phenomenon."[3].

ア リ ス ト テ レ ス

ア リ ス ト テ レ スMetaphysica "metaphysics』Performs systematic thinking, provides its primordium, and defines and influences European metaphysics to the present day.[3].

First, Aristotle pays attention to the fact that "" is "is spoken in various ways", that is, the ambiguity of existence, and develops a thought about "being" (existence) from the analysis.[3]..Aristotle used "ambiguity of existence" in a broad and narrow sense.In a broad sense, it is an ambiguity consisting of four.that is

  1. "Are" as ancillary
  2. "Are" as true
  3. Categories"Are" as
  4. Dynamis,Energeia"Are" as

It is ambiguity in the sense that there are four types of[3]..Regarding ambiguity in the narrow sense, it was pointed out that it would be divided into 10 categories and developed.[3]..In addition, Aristotle himself emphasized "being" as a "category" in them, so it was inherited by the European tradition, and as a result, "ousia Ousia (ousia Ousia)entity) ”Has become the most important[3].

Then thatOusiaAs for how Aristotle thought of (entity), he had two ways of thinking.

  1. One is (XNUMX) as "a universal personality that represents something that is common to all" things "."[3],
  2. The other is ② "Ultimate being, that is,"[3].

Explaining the substance of (XNUMX), the "universal character that represents something," what is the principle that represents something?For example, if there is a car here as a concrete example, what is the principle that makes the car a car?Some people immediately think that it is a material such as iron or glass, but even if the material is replaced, the car is a car, and those materials are simply collected irregularly. Will not be a car[3]..Considering these facts, what makes a car a car is a blueprint (or something that expresses the intent of the design).[3].. ) (Aristotle said (Hyle, In modern terms, "material")Aids(Form(Although I explained various things using the concept of)) Considering the above, in the end, "It is not (≒ material) but Aidos (≒ material) that makes something exist.Form), And from the principle, Aidos is superior and substance. "[3].

Next, regarding the entity of ②, "the ultimate being, that is, God," Aristotle says that everything in this world is generated and disappears.Energeia(Pure reality)[3].

Medieval philosophy

Especially in medieval philosophyThomasIn the ontology of, "existence itself" was the subject[3].. "Existence itself" does not depend on the category, it is the reality itself, and the only thing that truly deserves its name is God.[3]..It was said that non-god beings are creatures, and existentia is given only through essentia.[3]..In other words, categories such as substance, quantity, and nature are given, and "existence" is established under that format.[3].

Cant

Kant said, "The thing itself"I could never know.

Heidegger

Heidegger said that Aristotle's ontology was focused on "how it exists" rather than "questioning why", and all of Aristotle's metaphysics and the metaphysics of Europe that inherited it Criticized that it was "forgetting existence"[3]..Heidegger said that in order to overcome it, one had to think about "Sein existence (something)" and "Seiende existence (something)" (ontologische Differenz).[3]..This is to realize that "existence" is a paradoxical situation of concealing itself by appearing as an entity.[3]If the truth is Anwesen (present), we are aware that the truth is inevitably associated with the non-truth of concealment (etc.).[3], And.Thus, "existence" is "truth / non-truth" (truth and non-truth at the same time), Abgrund (abyss), Nichts (nothing), Ereignis (call), Zeit-Spiel- Raum (time, play, space), Heideger said[3].

Martin HeideggerAfter that, "BasicOntologyA field of philosophy called "" has come to be widely taken up.

Natural science asks the "things" or "existences" of "things exist", and "exists" does not matter.However, it can be said that Heidegger and others questioned exactly "existence."

The first formulation of this problem dates back to ancient Greece.ParmenidesMet.

On the other hand, some have pointed out the relationship between "existence" in Heidegger and Parmenides and "absolute nothingness" in the Orient.Representative theoristsToshihiko IzutsuIs.It is said that the same thing is said if the existence and the absolute nothing are investigated, and it is considered that it is the fundamental dimension of the world.

Oriental

Although philosophical quests in India were not focused on existence[4]、 《NoWill often appear in a form related to the problem of[4]..In addition, there are abundant vocabularies related to existence, and verbs have vocabularies rooted in as, bhu, vrt, vas, etc., and there are derivative words sat, sattva, satta, astiva, bhava, vrtti, vastu, etc.[4], Svabhava in important compound words (Autonomy)[4].

The Vedic poets, who pondered the beginning of the universe, covered and surpassed both asat "non-existence", sat "existence", or "existence" and "non-existence" of the origin of the universe. Only""Time""BrahmanI asked for the supreme existence such as[4]..They say "non-existence" is not just nihilism, but something like "unlimited chaos", whereas "existence" is an order and a concept related to satya (truth).[4]..In indiaCircular timeAt the same time, the interest in the "primitive" of the world diminished, and the emphasis of inquiry shifted to the constituent principles underlying change.[4].UpanishadPhilosopherWooda Laka ArtniAdvocated "Philosophy of Existence", saying that "Existence", the origin of the world, is also the essence inherent in all things, and it is required to return to the truth and awaken.[4]. this isLiberationIt is a oriented approach that is full of existence and fuses with consciousness and joy.[4].

EarlyVedantaMaintained continuity between the Supreme Being and the Phenomenon World[4],afterwards,ShankaraBegins withFujii monismThe tendency to emphasize the delusional nature of the phenomenon world became mainstream.[4]..They consider only Brahman as paramarthika-sattva (true reality), and the phenomenon world and the individual (suffering and hesitation) think as if they exist because of the lack of awareness (= avidyā) about the Supreme Being. It is nothing more than vyavaharika-sattva (common wisdom), and it is said that "it cannot be defined as having or not."

(Note that these hierarchical understandingsBuddhismCorresponds to the understanding of << >> and << >>, or << >> and << >> in[4]. )

natural Science

As Heidegger and others pointed out (from the philosopher's point of view), the natural sciences (in the lineage of the tradition of Western philosophy) are ① "existence (①) exists (②)". Asking "existence", ② "existence" means that it has not been sought.

Part ofTheoretical physicsNow, from the mathematical consideration of the process of the birth of the universe and the behavior of matter in the micro world, other than our real world.Parallel universe,Imaginary timeMay refer to the physical process in.Here, there is a situation outside the world that is generally considered as the real world, and there is a situation that can be called if something is present and progressing there.

In addition,Copenhagen Interpretationと 呼 ば れ るQuantum mechanicsAccording to a powerful interpretation of, when grasping matter at the quantum level, there is no such thing as fine particulate matter and the space that separates them.A single quantum is probabilistically distributed in space with a spread, and does not exist at a specific point.ObservationOnly when an act occurs is it said that a specific position is fixed (Schrodinger's cat,Einstein-Podolski-Rosen paradox,Bell's theoremSee also)

Example of existence

Existence that is difficult to position and draw

  • material..Due to the influence of Cartes, it was thought to be the only entity in natural philosophy in the 18th century, and it was absolutely regarded in the mechanistic theory that was once advocated, but as electromagnetics developed after that (non-material magnetic field It has come to be recognized that magnetic fields and the like play an important role in physics), the position of matter has declined relatively considerably, and Einstein in the early 20th centuryTheory of relativityThe importance of the concept of matter has been completely reduced by saying that matter (mass) is just one state of energy.The substance isAntimatterWhen colliding withAnnihilationThe substance (material) turns into energy, that is, the substance disappears.It was decided that something that would disappear is no longer special and certain enough to be the basis of theory.[5]
  • Electromagnetic wave,Light.PhotonHas a rest mass of 0Elementary particlesIt is a delicate existence that can be regarded as both matter and energy.
  • electric field,magnetic field,Gravitational field..BothQuantizationThe corresponding elementary particles appear, and it is a delicate existence that can be regarded as both matter and energy.
  • Power(Ernst Mach et al. Deny the reality of the Newtonian concept of "power")
  • Energy[6]
  • 空间[7]
  • Time[8]
  • life[9]
  • Law of nature[10]

Informational existence

Existence of the heart

Culture in general

Social existence

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d Kojien 1586th Edition p.XNUMX Existence
  2. ^ a b c d Daijisen "Existence"
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Thought 1998 pp.991-992 Yasuo Iwata Written by "Existence"
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Encyclopedia of Philosophy and Thought 1998 pp.992-993 Hiroshi Marui Written by "Existence"
  5. ^ Heibonsha "Encyclopedia of the World" written by Yoichiro Murakami [Material]
  6. ^ Energy is not usually considered an "entity" (see Energy articles in encyclopedias and philosophical dictionaries).Energy itself does not literally (as defined) exist as an "entity" (for details, read the articles on "entity" such as Aoki Shoten's "Philosophy Dictionary" or Iwanami's "Philosophy / Thought Dictionary"). ..For example, the kinetic energy of a golf ball is a very conceptual existence that it exists in the mathematical formula of physics because there is a golf ball and it is moving, but after the theory of relativity It has come to be said that energy may be materialized, and this is also a delicate existence that is no longer difficult to classify in the old concept frame. )
  7. ^ A very controversial entity
  8. ^ A very controversial entity
  9. ^ Biology It can be said that is made of matter, but life is not matter itself.In modern (that is, old) biology, the idea and debate that adopts a very simplified scheme (a kind of binary confrontational thinking) such as "mechanical theory ⇔ animation theory" has spread to the community of scholars. Even scientists who treat it like a dogma without realizing that the explanation is just one hypothesis have appeared, but in modern advanced biologyBioinformaticsHas emerged, and healthy scientists have come to recognize that the intangible existence of the flow of information, which cannot be understood by simply capturing life as matter, is important. (However, there are still many people in the scholarly community (mainly the elderly) who try to grasp everything with the scheme of "mechanical theory ⇔ animation theory". There are cases where the scheme (hypothesis) is denied in this way. The fact that a diagram (hypothesis) cannot be rejected even if presented is no longer a sound scientific thinking process, but a state of being obsessed with ideas, a kind of "StereotypeIt can be said that it is in a state of becoming.Or a kind of dogma hidden within the scientific communityFundamentalismEven though it is a problem, it is a very troublesome problem only for the problems inside the community.) (About the way of thinking about life and the development of the conceptBiologySee also section)
  10. ^ The combination of the concepts of "nature" and "law" itself is an arbitrary thing that Descartes did, and it is doubtful that nature itself really has a law, and how to treat nature arbitrarily by the methodology after Descartes. Many scholars point out that human beings arbitrarily create what is called the "law of nature" (the human description).

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