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🚗 | “Wheelchair Fighter” Williams Founder Sir Frank Williams dies at age 79


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"Wheelchair Fighter" Williams Founder Sir Frank Williams dies at age 79

 
If you write the contents roughly
He entered the motorsport world as a racing driver and mechanic, and has been the team representative for 50 years, leading Frank Williams Racing Cars and Williams Grand Prix Engineering.
 

On November 11th, Williams Racing issued a statement, so far seven drivers' chas at the F28 World Championship ... → Continue reading

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Car competition

Automobile > Car competition

Car competitionWhat is (Jidoshakyogi)?Motor sportsInAutomobileIs done usingCompetitionIs. MostlyraceIn competition, they are called "car races" or "car races" (British: auto racing, car racing, etc.).

Generally speaking, "car" when referring to "car race" or "car race" is the general name "car", that is, four wheels (or six wheels-6 wheels, partlyThree wheels), Which is a Japanese traffic administration term (Road Traffic LawIt is not the term "car".

Even in English with a motorcyclesidecarThe competition is "Motorcycle racingIt is called separately.

Overview

"Auto racing" and "auto racing" refer to racing using automobiles (races, competitions).

Most of the car races are "SpeedIs a competition[1]..Whether it is the person who completed the specified course in the shortest time or the person who completed the longest distance in a certain time (24 hours etc.), although there are subtle differences in the definition depending on the race, it is essential Is the same in that it competes for speed.

On the other hand, although it is a minority, it is not speed in car racingFuel efficiencyThere is also one that competes (fuel efficiency competition).Rules that compete for how far you can run with the same amount of fuel, measure the fuel consumed after running a certain distance, and fuel efficiency even if it is slower than other cars (if it is within the specified range) The essence of competing for fuel economy is the same, although there are slight differences in the winning conditions, such as winning the good one.

Or, as a special case, "competing for the beauty of the technology of sliding a car"Drift, A competition to compete for the beauty of automobile designCompetition Delegance"and so on.The latter is modernClassic carIt is considered a type of event, and since it does not drive a car, it may not be classified as an auto race.

1887 ToFrance OfParisIt is also believed that it was the earliest car race that ran about 2 km and competed.1894 From ParisRouenIt is recorded that the race of 127 km was held.1900 The first international race (a race in which participants from many countries participated) was held in. →#history

Looking around the world, there are a huge variety of car races currently taking place.Auto racing can be classified into various categories, but most of them can be roughly divided into two types: the road (course) on which the car races run and the vehicle that participates in the competition. →#Classification by course,#Classification by competition vehicle

F1,Indy 500The world's most popular racestv setIt is often seen by people, such as being broadcast on TV, and is well known, but it is a medium-sized race that is not actually broadcast, and even a small number of car races (so-called "grass"). There are various scales up to what is called a "race").

Since it is a race, it is generally competing under some common rules, and most races are "HomologationHas been approved by the vehicle regulations (vehicle regulations). →#Regulation

In modern times, it is common for teams to participate in races. →#Racing team

The person who drives a car in a race (the person in charge of driving in the team) is called a "racing driver" or simply a "driver". (In some cases, qualifications are not clearly defined in grass races, but in many cases some qualifications such as licenses and achievements are defined.)International Automobile Federation(FIA) Official competitions issued by organizations under the FIAMotorsport licenseIs required.

The position of car racing differs depending on the country / region and national character.EuropeMany countries andThe United States of AmericaAuto racing is very popular in Japan, and many races are held, and they are often broadcast in Japan (note that)SwitzerlandIs an exception, prohibiting racing in the country).On the contrary, it is rarely broadcast in Japan,Latin America,Southeast Asia,OceaniaMotor sports are also popular in the region.Japan Theautomotive industrySince its popularity, car racing has become very popular (although not as much as in the West), and many large and small circuits have been built, including those that can be used in international competitions at the world championship level (→).List of Japanese circuits).

History

起源

What is said to be the origin of car racing, that is, car racing1887 March 4France OfParisIt was done in, and the content isNuiFrom the bridgeBoulogne ForestUp to about 2KilometersRun. The winner is(English edition OfSteam carDriven(English editionMet. He(English editionPiagetHe was also the co-founder of De Dion-Bouton. However, of the cars gathered, only this steam car was able to start.[2]It is also said that the content was far from calling this a race.


The record of auto racing1894 7 kilometers held on July 22(English editionIs. This project is a French popular newspaper "(English editionHowever, it was an extension of the popular bicycle race, which was sponsored by the company itself at that time, and the idea was to compete in a new vehicle, the car. Although there were attempts as mentioned above, the event had almost no track record, so it caused various controversies such as consideration of danger. The content of the race is similar to today's rally, starting one by one at Porte Maillot in Paris and passing a checkpoint on the way.CloakThen, it was a leisurely event such as holding a luncheon, and it was stipulated that eligibility as a passenger car would also be subject to scoring.[3].. 10 for participation feeFrancWas collected. As many as 102 people were invited to pre-register for this tournament.

However, some owners did not meet the requirements due to the presentation on documents, so we decided to race with 25 cars.[Note 1].. After that, 4 cars could not participate in the race, and finally 21 cars were held. Many of the drivers who participated were the latest at the timePeugeot,Panhard, De Dion-Bouton's vehicle and its owner, but also participated in the large steam bus "La Nouvelle" of Amédée Boley's father and son, which was made in 1880 and more than 10 years old.[4].. As a result of this race, the first finisher between Paris and Rouen was Count Albert de Dion, who drives his own De Dion Bouton car, with a time of 6 hours and 48 minutes and an average speed of approximately every hour. It was 19 kilometers. However, his car was a steam car, which was powerful and fast at the time, but was disqualified by the rules because an assistant who had to put fuel in the boiler had to be on board (and De Dion's car was too fast, There was an accident that plunged into the field on the way, but the race was able to continue). As a result of comprehensive deliberation on speed and safety, there is also a desire on the management side to sell gasoline cars from now on, and the winner is a gasoline engine carPeugeot Type 3Albert (George) Lemaître, who finished second in 3 minutes and 30 seconds behind De Dion.[5] After all, I got the 33th goal with a gasoline car 30 minutes 4 seconds behind.Panhard LevassolRene Panhard was named two[3].. Of the 21 cars, 17 completed, and 4 retired due to engine trouble.[6].

The dawn of auto racing

It is alleged that the (ACF) was born at a supper held after the 1894 Paris-Rouen race. This is todayFIAIt was the predecessor of the (International Automobile Federation) and will be in charge of all automobile sports from this year. Count De Dion became the leader, and a full-scale speed race was planned as early as the committee in November of that year, and in June 11, the first intercity race between Paris and Bordeaux Was done[3].. Departing from ParisBordeauxIt was a long-distance race with a total mileage of 1,178 kilometers, with the goal being to return to Paris again.

Start Versailles every 6 minutes from 11am on June 10th[7]In the shortest time, I got on a Panhard 2-cylinder car (1843 May 1 - 1897 May 4), The time required was 48 hours and 48 minutes. At this time, Ruvassor said that he ran almost the entire section day and night by himself, without taking a break on the way, without sleep. Considering the performance of automobiles at that time, this record was amazingly fast, and it is no exaggeration to say that it is one of the great records of the dawn of automobile competition.[8].. However, this Levassole runner is a two-seat car, and because it was supposed to be a four-seat car according to the race regulations, it was not recognized as a winner, and officially it was more than 2 hours behind Levassole and finished third. Seated Peugeot Paul Koechlin has won the prize (second goal Rene Ligro's Peugeot was also a two-seat coach). In addition, this race is a tire manufacturerMichelinAndre, the founder of the Michelin brothers, participated in the race and put a large number of spare tubes on Daimler equipped with his own pneumatic tires for automobiles. could not.

XNUM X Year X NUM X Month X NUM X DayAmericaThe first car race in Japan was held.Illinois OfChicagoFrom the southern part of the city, partEvanstonWe competed for a mileage of 87.48km. The race was disastrous due to the heavy snowstorm, and many competitors dropped out. The winner was Frank Durier with a record of 10 hours and 23 minutes.[9].. In 1896, a race will be held using the racetrack, which can be said to be the prototype of the circuit held later. Therefore, these races are called "Horseless Carriage Race = Horseless carriage raceIt was called this way for auto racing, especially in the United States.[9].

It was in 1897 that the car race was held as a regular event.NiceSo, from the latter half of March, it was held regularly with a schedule called "Speed ​​Week". Sprint race,Drag racing,Hill climbMany auto races such as started here.

Introducing international races

The first car race as an international race was held six times from 1900 to 1905.Gordon Bennett CupIs. The first tournament competed for speed between Paris and Lyon. During these tournaments, the French won four times in 1900, 1901, 1904 and 1905, and in the 4 tournamentUnited Kingdom OfNapier & Sun CarWon. It will be held in the winner's country the following year, and the 1903 tournament became Britain's first international auto racing venue. However, it was officially heldIreland OfKildare.. Who won the Gordon Bennett Cup this yearGermany Ofメ ル セ デ スThe following year, 1904, was held in Taunus, Germany. The last tournament in 1905 was in FranceClermont-FerrandCompetition around the Auvergne region (*: laterCharade CircuitLeon Terry, who rides Richard Brasie, won the championship for the second time in a row.[10].

British green (*: British racing green and BRG color) is the color applied to the car of Napier who won the 1902 tournament, and the deep and unique olive green color derived from this is the color that was applied to it in the UK after that. Traditional in car racingNational colorIt became.

On the other hand, in France1901 ToPauAt the race held in, efforts were made separately for each class. "Grand Prix du Palais Doll" given to the lightweight classBuddha: Grand Prix du Palais d'Hiver) ”,“ Grand Prix de Pau (fastest) given to the weight classBuddha: Grand Prix de PauFor the first time in the name of the awardGrand PrixWas used. The Grand Prix is ​​"British: Grand Prize = Grand prize, that is, a word that means "grand prize / highest prize", and due to this, the name "grand prix" has come to be used for the highest race today. 1906 Automobile Club of France (Buddha: Automobile Club de France, ACF) Sponsored by "ACF Grand Prix (commonly known as)1906 French Grand Prix) ”Will be held. Races using public roads were banned due to a fatal accident in the Paris-Madrid race held in 1903, which will be described later, but the Gordon Bennett Cup was used as a hint to use public roads as a closed road "closed road race". AsLe MansIt was a race that was held in 1 lap 103.18km and 12 laps, totaling 1238.16km. Then in 1907, 1908, 1912DieppeIn 1913Amiens, 1914 yearsLyonWorld War IWas held until the outbreak. As an aside, the first French Grand Prix after the end of the war was returned to Le Mans in 1921 and is nowSalt CircuitIt was held in the place that became the prototype of. Po is also the place where the French Grand Prix was held as an international race in 1930. Po has been called "" since 1933, and except for 1934, 1940 to 1946, 1956, and 2010, which were not held, some international competitions such as F1, F2, F3, WTCC were held, etc. The city is a sacred place for racing in France.

In addition, ultra-long-distance races have come to be held as international races. In 1907Beijing-Paris raceIs heldBeijingIt was a race that started from and crossed 14994km to Paris. A total of 5 vehicles participated from ItalyItalaOne, NetherlandsFromSpykerOne, three-wheeled vehicle from FranceContalOne and two steam cars, De Dion-Bouton, participated. Starting on June 1th, the Duke of Borghese in Itala scored and won the championship over 2 days. The winning prize isGHMUMM OfChampagneThere was only one[11].

The following year in 1908New York-Paris raceWas held. ItalianZust, German Protoss, AmericanThomas flyerAnd this time again from France de Dion-Bouton,Motobloc,Sizaire-Naudin3 cars participated, and a total of 6 cars were contested. February 2thニ ュ ー ヨ ー クStartAmericaAfter crossingSeattleからJapan OfYokohamaTraveled toTsurugaCrossed 480 kilometers[12][13].. As an aside, this was the moment when the first car race was held in Japan, where this race was recorded. From thereSea of ​​JapanCrossingVladivostokLand onSiberiaIn the form of crossingEurasiaIt ran from east to west and traveled 22,000 kilometers toward Paris. The first goal was Army Lieutenant Hans Copen, who drove a German Protoss car that arrived in Paris on July 7, but carried the car by rail on some sections when crossing the North American continent. Because I was penalized for 26 days[14]The official victory is for the Americans driving Thomas Motor Co., who finished on July 7th.George SchusterMet. This car race was counted as a "great race" and laterRally-Rally raidIt became the prototype of.

From public road racing to the birth of a circuit

Auto racing, centered on France, was a huge success, but improving car performance was also dangerous. As mentioned above, most of the racesCity raceWhile it was an intercity race, the number of spectators along the road was insufficient, and most of the roads except some were unpaved gravel roads. Under these adverse conditions, by the time 1900 had passed, only automobiles began to run at high speeds of over 10km / h with a huge engine of over 100 liters, but the power had maneuverability and braking performance. I couldn't keep up with it, and the risk was increasing.

As feared, Paris in May 1903- MadridIn the inter-race,RenaultMarcel Renault, co-founder of the company (1872 - 1903 May 5) Caused an accident involving the spectators and killed himself, and the race was suddenly canceled in Bordeaux on the way, but the cumulative death toll reached nine including the spectators. The French government, which saw the situation seriously, made a big ripple, such as announcing the ban on public road races in many local governments.[15][16].

The above accident occurred not only in Europe but also in the United StatescircuitIt is said to have spurred construction. A circuit is a "closed circuit", and as the meaning implies, it is a "circular circuit" (the end point is connected and <closed> in the form of returning to the start point).[17], In Japan, it is used exclusively in the sense that it is a road that has been made impossible for others to enter for competition driving.

The oldest recorded venue in the history of auto racing isNarragansett Trot RacecourseIs[18].. This stadiumtrotRacecourseHowever, on September 1896, 9, using 26 cars, "Horseless Carriage Race = Horseless carriage raceIt was held as. However, in the background of the car race at the Naragan Set Trot Racecourse at that time, the spectator's intention to assess various forms of car performance rather than safety and the name "horseless carriage race" As you can see, it is said that the element as a spectacle was strong. The oldest existing circuit in the worldMilwaukee MileSince 1903, auto racing has been held even now. This circuit was originally a racetrack1876 It was founded in Japan, and it started as a circuit for auto racing.[19].

The first circuit founded for the purpose of auto racing was in EnglandSallyWas inBrooklands circuitMet. Since its founding in June 1907, many races have taken place here. A course with a total length of 6 km with a maximum bank angle of 4.43 ° and a course width of 30フ ィ ー トIt was a completely paved circuit boasting a vast area[20].. Brooklands was a circuit built to the highest standards of the time, with very good road conditions at the time, cars, motorcycles,TricycleAuto racing of all genres was held regardless of. Endurance races such as the world's fastest record and 500-mile race were also held, and it can be said that the circuit played a major role in improving the reliability and performance of automobiles. Brooklands later described in 1939Second World WarBy the influence ofaircraftThe race was closed on August 8th of the same year due to the production of the car.[21], Construction of a circuit dedicated to automobile competition and the box office success of the race held there, and by using it, the automobile performance is dramatically improved and the industrial technology is improved, and not only in automobiles but also in motorcycles Because it was able to provide high safety, circuit construction began to be carried out in various parts of the country following Brooklands.

Automobile company success and national technology competition

Current,International Automobile Federation (Fédération Internationale de I'Automobile, FIA), The predecessor of the International Automobile Official Club Association (Association Internationale des Automobile Clubs Reconnus, AIACR) Was founded in 1904, but one of the most agenda items at the annual meeting was the high level of interest of automobile companies in car racing. The box office success of the race up to that point and the success of automobile companies in France, Germany, the United Kingdom, Italy, the United States, etc. were treated as a symbol of the technological capabilities of the automobile companies. It was clear that there was also enormous significance. Therefore, the AIACR recognizes the need for a car championship.1923 "European Grand PrixIt is a circuit that was just completed in Italy the previous year under the name ofOutdromo Nazionale di MonzaIt was held for the first time in. This European Grand Prix was held in France by 1930Lion,BelgianSpa Francorchamps, SpanishSan SebastianIt was held at.

Automobile companies that have gained international attention are painted in national colors, showing the high technological capabilities of industrialized countries that use automobiles. This tendency is especially1930 eraSince enteringNazi GermanyMercedes (now Mercedes-Benz),Audi(Auto union) Was used as a place to raise national prestige to show off the technological capabilities of one's own country to other countries. In EuropeCar speed recordIn 1928 in EnglandMalcolm CampbellRecorded 281.44 km / h last, but in Nazi Germany in 1934Mercedes-Benz W25Rudolf Caracciola recorded 317.460 km / h.Also, Auto UnionFerdinand PorscheAppointedAuto Union P WagenDeveloped. In 1937Bernd RosemeyerDriven the Auto Union P-Wagen and recorded 401.9 km / h.However, dark clouds hang down in the world situation centered on Europe.Second World WarThe Grand Prix in Europe was not held from 1939 until the end of the war.South AmericaHeld from 1940 to 1942, in 1940Sao PauloCrowned with the Grand PrixBrazil OfIntel Lagos CircuitIt was held in. In Brazil in 1941Rio de JaneiroWith the Grand PrixArgentineブ エ ノ ス ア イ レ スThe Grand Prix was held, and in 1942 in addition to Buenos AiresSanta FeThe Grand Prix was held. After that, all Grand Prix was canceled until the end of the war due to the global intensification of the war.

FIA was launched from the end of the war. Birth of "formula"

The earliest race held after World War II was the Paris Cup on September 1945, 9 in the Bois de Boulogne. The winner isBugattiDriveJean-Pierre WymilMet. He still had military service in the French Army, so he got permission from the Army to compete in the race.

In 1946, as an international competition, FranceSaint-Cloud, SwissCity of Geneva,ItalianTurinA total of 3 Grand Prix was held in 17 countries and 20 other Grand Prix. The International Sports Committee, a subordinate organization that was in charge of the auto racing division at that time (Commission Sportive Internationale, CSI) Aimed to launch a car race with the highest peak single-seater. Although it was an international competition called the Grand Prix that had existed until then, the need for a new definition of competition was taken, and the new "standard" in postwar automobile competition was derived from "Formula = FormulaThe idea of ​​dividing it into several classes was approved. For that reason, 3.0 liters at the prewar Grand PrixSuperchargerWith engine and 4.5 litersNaturally aspirated engineThere was already a division of categories due to the mixture of the two. To correct the performance difference, the 2-liter supercharged engine was abolished, and the rule was to use either the 3.0-liter supercharged engine or the 1.5-liter naturally aspirated engine, and this engine terms of use will be held for the first time in 4.5.Formula 1It became the first rule of. Also, until 1949, "Championship There was no such thing as a "championship", but it was the first time in Formula 1 to compete for annual results.World championship methodWas adopted.

As a political move, in 1947, the International Automobile Official Club Association (AIACR) Was the predecessorInternational Automobile Federation (FIA) Was established.

Birth of the World Sportscar Championship

The diversity of auto racing has evolved into sports car racing, which is as close to a commercial car as possible. Formula 1 mentioned aboveFormula carIt was a relatively short-distance (sprint) race with a single-seater using the, and the content of the championship was also focused on the driver. On the other hand, there are commercial vehicles or vehicles developed on the premise of commercialization, that is, driver's seat and passenger's seat.sports carThe races using the car were mainly made by automobile manufacturers (manufacturers). Therefore, durability, which is one of the indicators of automobile performance, is also taken into consideration, and it will be a very long-distance (endurance) race, but such a race has been done by then.Mille Miglia,24 Hours of Le MansHowever, because the host organization was different for each race, unification as a championship was not realized until then.

Therefore,Endurance raceIn 1953 as a unified version ofSports car world championship (Championnat du Monde des Voitures de Sport) was launched.The first event, 1953, was launched in recent years in addition to the traditional races mentioned above.12-hour endurance grand prix,Francorchamps 24 hours,Carrera PanamericanaA total of 7 races were held.

The rise of sports car racing has greatly stimulated the American racing culture, which had been devoted to oval circuits, not to mention Europe.Can-am,IMSAWas born.

Establishment of rally off-road competition

As mentioned above, the rise of auto racing is from public road racing, and thereforeRallyOff-road races such as the one that has existed for a long time, but as a systematic series.

Therefore, in 1970, the "IMC (International Manufacturers Championship)" was born by organizing traditional rally events in various regions.WRC (WRC) that developed and continued to the present day in 1973World Rally Championship) Was launched.Since the dawn of this period, many automobile manufacturers, including Japanese manufacturers, have participated in the war, and the results have been widely touted in Japan.Also in 1973 in EuropeRally crossChampionship, in 1979Paris-Dakar RallyIs born.

Establishing the design concept of modern racing cars

Although various technologies were tried and errored in the early days of automobiles, most of the important design ideas in modern racing cars were established in the 1960s and 1980s.

The front engine of the conventional formula car was the mainstream like the commercial car, but in the latter half of the 1950sMidshipWhen engine cars began to appear, all cars in F1960 in the 1s adopted midship, and the common wisdom that "midship is advantageous for racing cars" became common.

As the engine power increases, the force that aerodynamically presses the machine down, that is,Down forceThe design to obtain is also required. In the 1960s, it was the mainstream to obtain downforce by installing the rear wing in F1 and Can-Am, but it was not just a matter of installing it due to eddy and safety, so considerable trial and error was done. rice field. Genius in the late 1970sColin ChapmanIs the entire machine or the bottom of the machine (Ground effect) Established a method to obtain the aerodynamic effect, and it became possible to obtain downforce much more stably than before.

Chapman is also an alternative to the space frame chassis.MonocoqueHe invented the structure and laid the foundation for the structure of the formula car that continues to the present day.

ConventionalTurbo lagWas said to be large and not suitable for racing carsTurbochargerAlso in sports car racing and F1970 in the 1sRenaultResearch progressed at once when he began to play an active role. F1 built a heyday until it was banned in 1989 (banned in 2014), and has been adopted for a long time in sports car racing.

4WD(Four-wheel drive) was previously seen only in rally raids, but swept the WRC in the 1980s.Audi quattroSince its appearance, it has been rapidly adopted in rallies and circuit races, and has had a great impact on the 4WD technology and lineup of commercial vehicles.

The spread of TV and the birth of "F1 Circus"

As mentioned above, various car races with different shapes and rules have emerged in each country, and each has enthusiastic fans, but among them, F1 was the one that jumped out.A rare geniusBernie EcclestoneWith his skill, he has grown into an international sporting event that literally travels around the world, described as the "F1 Circus."Behind this is the fact that broadcasting rights have begun to be established as a business due to the spread of television.

As a result, by the 1990s, even the general public who was not interested in automobilesAyrton Senna,Michael SchumacherThe names of F1 stars such as are becoming known.In sports car races of the same periodGroup C, In WRCGroup BWith the introduction of rules with a high degree of freedom, manufacturers competed to develop radical and diverse machines, which were also popular, but they did not reach the general public of F1. In the 2000s, sports car racing and WRC, which had been withdrawn from manufacturers one after another, lost momentum, and the appearance of F1 strength became stronger.Also during this timeTouring car raceAlsoGroup AAnd super touring,Super 2000Although it temporarily became a major force as a major entity due to regulations, etc., due to problems such as rules, operations, and costs, all of them continued to be in an unstable state where they repeatedly disappeared and were born in a few years.

On the other hand, in North America, open-wheel racing and sports car endurance, which have been strong for many years since the 90s, have self-destructed due to organizational division.NASCARHas replaced the pinnacle of motorsport.

Electronic control technology has developed since the 1990s,Semi-automatic transmission,ABS,Traction controlTechnologies that could be used for commercial vehicles were born one after another.

Toward an era of cost reduction and eco

Since the 1990s, not only in Japan but also in Europe and the United StatesYouth away from carAs people became more aware of environmental issues, the commercial significance and cost-effectiveness of participating in races for automobile manufacturers became questionable, and manufacturers who had been enthusiastic about automobile competition until then. However, there have been an increasing number of cases in which people suddenly withdraw from their activities.In order to respond to these changes in the times, the management side has also introduced rules that can reduce the economic and technical burden on the manufacturer side and promote environmental technology, and has begun to focus on attracting automobile manufacturers. ..

In particular

  • Make most of the machine a common part, or make the whole machineOne-makeBy supplying it, we will suppress the increase in costs due to development competition.
  • Steel pipe for racing that is not derived from commercial carsPipe frameBy approving the adoption of, it enables development that is not bound by the superiority or inferiority of the base vehicle.
  • Unify the number of cylinders and displacement of the engine to make it easier to achieve a performance balance
  • Reduce the cost of development by freezing the development of parts that have once acquired homologation for several years.
  • Downsizing turbo,diesel engine,Hybrid car,Electric carIntroducing technologies that are considered to be good for the environment, such as fuelBio fuelReplace with something that is friendly to the global environment

As mentioned earlier, F1, which became the champion of auto racing, lost manufacturers one after another before this trend of the times, so many of the above methods have been introduced to maintain hegemony.

Especially after the 2020s, manufacturers proclaiming the abandonment of internal combustion engines have begun to appear one after another, and the FIA ​​has created many categories that are contested only by electric vehicles.

Racing car business trends

Around the time of heightened eco-consciousness, a method was established that made it possible to participate in various racing cars by adjusting performance.This willGroup GT3/GT4,Group Rally,TCRSince the 2010s, regulations have become popular for automakers to convert commercial cars into racing cars and sell them to privateer teams.For manufacturers, in addition to profits from sales and after-sales service, the purchaser can run their own machines, which has an advertising effect, and for privateers, it is possible to purchase and operate machines with high fighting power at low cost. That is the ideal packaging.

However, on the other hand, due to the entry of many manufacturers, the price and operating cost of machines have risen due to intensifying development competition, and it has not been established as a business from the manufacturer side, and it has become economically impossible for privateers to afford it. The problem of getting rid of it is beginning to be seen.Also, because it is so widespread, spectators have pointed out the harmful effect of being bored with only customer machines with the same regulations no matter which race in the world you see.


Classification by course

Auto racing (competition) can be roughly divided into three types when classified by course type. (There are exceptions)

Closed course

For racing onlycircuit(Race track) or a race course that is temporarily tailored by closing a part of the public road.

Multiple cars will start at the same time on the paved closed course and compete for ranking.In Japan, four-wheel competition is often referred to simply as "race." (Motorcycles often call road races).The start method of the race is from the state where the car was stopped once after the formation lap of one lap.signal,Race flagStart all at once by "Standing start method", Starting from the formation lap with the vehicle accelerating as it is"Rolling start methodThere is[22].

In addition, "In the past, it was used in the 24 Hours of Le Mans.Le Mans methodThere is also a starting method. The Le Mans method is a method in which the driver walks to the vehicle (runs up) and starts the race in the order in which the vehicle is moved quickly.Jackie IxHas been abolished in the current Le Mans as a result of continuing to complain about the danger.The start method of the two-wheeled road race follows the start method of this Le Mans method.The starting method is nowClutch start methodThe rider who heads to the vehicle starts with a starter and a kick to start. Previously, each rider started the engine while pushing it from the state where the engine of the vehicle was not runningPush start methodWas,PushSwitched to the clutch start method from 1987 due to concerns about the danger of[23][24].

Rally / Rally Raid

Rally and rally raid are similar and different competitions, and are strictly different from races because they keep in mind that they are not competitions for time. The start method is the same for both rallies and rally raids, and the starting order is determined by the one announced in advance by the organizer and the tournament ranking. The start order of SS is just beforeTime control(Called TC) is performed at 1-minute intervals in the order of passage[25].
In the rally raid, it is a section that plays almost the same role as the SS mentioned above.Competition section(Called CS) is provided.
The biggest feature of rally rally raid in four-wheel competition is that it assists the driver who is the vehicle driver with course guidance and running speed instruction.Co-driverThis is the point that two people board the vehicle. The driving skills required of rally driversRacing driverThere are many differences from the technology required for driving, and due to the characteristics of the competition, there is basically no practice driving such as "free driving" in the race as well as driving technology for rough roads, so the driver's own driving feeling and visibility Information or information from hearing by navigating from the co-driver, and depending on the starting order, the unpaved road surface may change from moment to moment depending on the preceding vehicle, and it is highly flexible from these comprehensive instantaneous judgments. Power is required. It is said that the relationship of trust between the driver and the co-driver is also very important, and it can be said that it is a team play performed in one vehicle.
Rally raids held in motorcycle competitions require skill and courage to run through the desert alone, and good luck not to be involved in unique sensibilities, mechanical troubles or human troubles.Therefore, the two-wheeled rally raid is often talked about as one of the most dangerous car races, with the underlying cause of death almost every year.[26].

Trial competition (time trial)

Compete for how fast and accurately you can reach a fixed (short) section. Originally, what is a trial?Time trial''(British: Time Trial) In other words, it means a challenge to time.Derby,ボ ー ト,Bicycle competitionSince it refers to the race in, this was derived and in Europe and the United States, the competition in motorcycles was also called a time trial.After that, "Trial = TrialBecause it has the meaning of trials and trials, it is a competition to compete for how to run through complicated terrain (sometimes artificially created) by motorcycles without using your feet.trialCalled. In Japan, it is called "trial competition". A typical competition is slalom competitionJim KhanaOr accelerated competitionDrag racingAnd so on.Dirt trialIs calledJapanglishIn Europe and AmericaDirt trackCalled. Therefore, the abbreviation "Datla" is originally more accurate as a name.
Other
Those that do not belong to the above classification include a drift competition in which the beauty of the vehicle posture due to drift driving is competed, and a fuel efficiency competition (eco-run) in which the superiority or inferiority of fuel efficiency is competed while maintaining a constant speed. Student formula (Formula SAE,All Japan Student Formula TournamentIn addition to the speed of the car, the design itself and the presentation are also evaluated, and the ranking is decided based on the total score. In addition, it is contested by a cart that has no power in the first placeSoap boxIn racing, the flashiness of the car's appearance is one of the important elements of the competition.

Competition location

The places where auto racing competitions are held are shown below.

circuit

asphaltIt is a paved course, and because it is a closed road, it generally completes by traveling multiple laps and traveling the prescribed laps. This includes circuits with sand traps, gravel areas, run-off areas, etc. (*: Outdromo in Italy), and "ovals" that go around oval courses. Another feature is that the pavement is made more for competition than on ordinary public roads.

Public road course

Perform various competitions from F1 to rally. The conditions for the event are that the road width and road surface conditions allow the competition. There are various types of public roads, and asphalt-paved flat roads are common, but in old streetsStone pavementAnd so on. Normally, ordinary vehicles run, so the more traffic there is, the easier it is for ruts to form on the road surface, making it slippery compared to circuits. Depending on the category, there are cases where some public roads are closed and circuit-type competitions are held, or intercity competitions where the start point and finish point are separate.

Singapore City Course,Valencia City CoursePublic roads may be developed on the premise that a race will be held.

Stadium

Permanent spectator with a panoramic view of the entire courseStadiumIt may be done in.Demolition derby, 8 figure race, etc., which is a common pattern in competitions originating in North America.The popularity of oval racing in North America is not unrelated to the fact that you can overlook the course.

Also in competitions originating in Europe, the rally Super SSRally cross,Racing cartEtc. are occasionally held at the stadium.AlsoRace of ChampionsIs always held on the course set up in the stadium.

Unpaved road surface, natural environment, etc.

TypicallyOff-road,dirt,Desert,Prairie,On the snowRefers to (including on ice). It is used for rally and motorcycle trial competitions, and it is naturally slippery because the grip of the tire is weakened by sand and mud. Like the public road course, the course is built so that the vehicle can go around and the competition is held, the course is established from the start point to the finish point, or the start and finish and checkpoints are provided, but until the race is completed There are some competitions that are allowed no matter where you drive in the process.

Gallery

Classification by competition vehicle

There are various types of vehicles in auto racing, but they can be broadly divided into (3) vehicles that are modified from commercial vehicles for racing (touring cars / GT cars, etc.) and (XNUMX) specially designed vehicles that retain a few elements of commercial vehicles (prototype racing cars). , Stock cars, etc.) ③ It is classified into three types: specially designed vehicles (formula cars, racing carts, etc.) that do not leave any elements of commercial vehicles.

In recent years, due to growing awareness of environmental issues, many racing cars that use non-fossil fuels such as electricity, hydrogen, and solar power generation have been born.

Formula car

(1) All the tires of the vehicle are exposed (3) The driver's head is exposed to the outside (XNUMX) The seat is for only one person.For this reason, it is also called an open wheel or monopost (single seater).Designed entirely as a competition vehicle,HeadlightAnd brake lights, etc.Security partsIs not equipped[27].

Since the weight of the vehicle is light, all kinds of exercise performance such as acceleration, cornering, and braking are outstanding.The amount that the tire is exposedAir resistanceAlthough not small, the maximum speed reaches around 1km / h in F380.

Since the seats are cramped and it takes time to get on and off, it is basically for each sprint race, and the competition place is limited to circuits and public roads with smooth paved roads.

In recent years, for safety reasons, most formula cars have tempered glass screensHALOWear a ring-like head protection device called.Also in the early daysFR,Four-wheel driveThere were some, but in modern times the drive layout isMRIs completely unified.

It is synonymous with the shape that ordinary people can think of as a "racing car," and it is truly the flower of four-wheel racing.

(* Main categories:F1~F4,IndyCar,Super formulaSuch)

Prototype sports car

Prototype sports cars are very different in format from formula cars.The fundamental difference is that the tires are covered with fenders, and it's a two-seat car that isn't actually used but has a passenger seat.UNECEEstablished byECE regulationSecurity standards based on (*: in JapanRoad Transport Vehicle ActSecurity standards also comply with this)Headlight-Tail light・ It is obligatory to install a brake lamp.

Prototype cars are characteristically similar to commercial cars, but like formula cars, they are pure race-only cars.Although the vehicle safety standards are compliant to comply with the ECE regulations mentioned above, the shape is completely different from that of commercial vehicles.this"Prototype racing carIs called. These prototype racing carsWec(World Endurance Championship) and USCC (United sports car championship) And many other endurance race categories.prototypeAs the name implies, "prototype" means "prototype", which is originally a "prototype sports car that is not a commercial vehicle, but is produced in small quantities (hence high performance) on the premise of future commercialization, and is for development testing. "I'm in the race" is the original meaning. Therefore, even the same sports car has different properties and meanings from the GT car.

Basically, it is designed with a focus on endurance races at the 24-hour level, and because it is premised on long-term driving and driver changes, driving posture and getting on and off are easier than with formula cars.As mentioned above, it is fully equipped with lights, so there is no problem with driving at night.Furthermore, in the case of a closed body, an air conditioner is also installed.

Many manufacturers have entered the market in recent yearsHyper carHas a form and performance that is as close as possible to a prototype racing car, and in 2021 WEC will replace the prototype racing car category (LM hypercar).

(*: Main categories FIA World Endurance Championship,24 Hours of Le Mans, United SportsCar Championship,European Le Mans Series,Asian Le Mans SeriesSuch)

GT car

Although it is a kind of touring car in terms of mechanism, it is located between the prototype and the touring car in terms of race form and history.

Generally commercially availableSuper carRefers to a modified vehicle or a touring car with comparable combat power.However, going back in history, although the actual situation is clearly a prototype sports car, there was a case in the 1s that the regulation that you can participate in the race if you make only one public road specification was enforced under the name of "GT1990".In addition, as the prototype sports car is a prototype version of a public road car as mentioned in the previous section, the GT car also runs at the same time in most of the endurance races in which the prototype sports car runs because of its closeness to the construction.This mixed race and the race only for GT cars are put together"Sports car racing'Call.

The original meaning of the GT car is the Grand Tourer,Gran Turismo (British: Grand Tourer , Yi: Gran Turismo). GT means "big trip", which is derived from the United StatesSCCALike the name in " Trans-AM = Trans-America It is traced to the meaning of "= crossing the United States". Therefore, unlike formula-type vehicles that specialize in sprints, it can be seen that the machine was originally developed with endurance racing (long-distance racing) in mind (although it is actually a sprint race). Many).

Globally, there were groups GT00 to GT1 depending on the range of modification in the 4s, but now it is almostGroup GT3Group GT4Only.in JapanSUPER GTHas become the most popular race in Japan, especiallyPriusThe GT machine is FerrariMcLarenIt has been a tradition of the last 10 years to compete with the supercars of Japan.

(*: Main categories IGTC,GT World Challenge,SUPER GTSuch)

Touring car

Touring carIs a car that is a modified version of a commercial car that you often see in the city.The boundary with the GT car mentioned above is extremely vague, but touring cars are often based on the popular to intermediate class.

Vehicles participating in touring car competitions are based on the body defined by the participating vehicle (automobile company) as a standard, and the engine, suspension, brakes, wheels and tires, etc. that can be changed according to the rules are used. ..Except for the skeleton, it is generally completely different from the commercial vehicle.

It can be said to be one of the most basic and popular categories in auto racing because it is easy for participants to secure participating vehicles, and it is easy for the race spectators to understand the contents and get excited.Although the entry cost is relatively low, after retiring from F1 due to the depth of the race itself, enter the touring car as a new frontier for yourselfdriverBecause of this, the interest of spectators and the cost-effectiveness of the manufacturers' advertisements are high, so it is easy for various manufacturers to enter as sponsors.

On the other hand, there are few touring car series in the world that can continue to spin history for a long time at the professional level.Since the touring car race is based on commercial cars, the popularity of the base car is biased, so the participating car models are also biased, and only the car models that do not attract the interest of automobile fans, and excellent base vehicles The situation of the race is greatly influenced by the circumstances of the commercial car, such as the automobile manufacturer can not bear the cost of mass production, or on the contrary, it is necessary to spend a huge cost to modify the inferior base vehicle. Is.From such reflections in modern times, modern professional touring car races maintain a variety of car models while reducing costs by using common components and common engines inside, and limiting aerodynamic development, even though the appearance looks diverse. In many cases.In addition, in the case of the sprint format, as points are added in the race, it is called a "lead trophy" for handicap.Weight (ballast)It is not uncommon to eliminate the difference in speed between participants and encourage the motivation of weak entrants to participate by installing the.

Races range from sprints to endurance, but lap sprint races that do not require tire replacement are often held for two to three heats on the same weekend.

(* Main categories:WTCR,DTM,BTCC,Super endurance Such)

Rally car

Since the rally is basically done on a modified commercial car, the appearance is very similar to a touring car.But in the rally, paved public roads (Tarmac) To flat gravel roads (smooth gravel), and even rough gravel roads (rough gravel) on which human head-sized rocks roll, at speeds unthinkable at the design stage of commercial vehicles, so the vehicle body Is required to be more robust than the vehicles used in touring cars. The vehicle used for the rally is first completely disassembled and the interior is made of sturdy steelRoll cageIs incorporated.This ensures the safety of the occupants in the event of an accident.Depending on the regulation, the number of spots will be increased, and when combined with the roll cage, the rigidity of the vehicle body will increase dramatically, resulting in a basic vehicle structure that facilitates drift driving.

Heat measures are taken inside the hood.Although there are differences in homologation depending on the category and there are various modifications that can be made, it is necessary to rotate the engine at a high speed in a relatively low speed state, so countermeasures are also essential.Because it runs on rough roads like the one mentioned above at a speed that is unthinkable in common sense, it is under the car (oil pan andDifferential) Is equipped with an under guard to protect it. To drive further in the above locationssuspensionAlso, a vehicle with a large stroke amount is installed, and the vehicle height may be raised or lowered according to the conditions of the road surface on which the vehicle is traveling. Like the touring car, the rally car has two seats, but in the rally rally raid, a co-driver sits on this seat. They need to read pacenotes and materials to send information to the driver, which only illuminates the co-driver's hands, called the co-driver.lighting equipmentIt is also a feature that is equipped with. When it comes to gearboxes, gears with very high gear ratios tend to be installed at lower speeds than any category of vehicle.[28].. As for the rear wing, there is a need for a structure that can exert high downforce from the low speed range, so in order to fulfill such a demand, "Splitter rear wing (*: commonly known as bookshelf wing)[29]) ”And other uniquely shaped wings made for rallies are used[30].

またRally raidIn exceptional cases, race-specific cars that are not derived from commercial cars may be used, but even in this case, due to the nature of the rally competition, the minimum equipment (lights, etc.) and standards that can run on public roads in the host country. Etc. are required.

(* Main categories:WRC,ERC,APRC,JRC Such)

Stock car

It is one of the most popular auto racing vehicles in racing in the Americas.Since stock cars are defined by the vague definition of "a machine that looks the same as a passenger car," there are almost unmodified vehicles to complete racing machines.The latter is similar to a touring car, but the stock car is a complete race-only design vehicle rather than a commercial modified vehicle like a touring car.However, unlike a vehicle like a GT car that looks like a crystal of the highest technology, the engine isOHVAt first glance, it seems to be a structure that has receded from the current automobile technology. However, its simple structure produces high rpm and horsepower, and it is overwhelming from a large displacement engine.torqueIt can be seen that it is made from a very high level of technology from the fact that is produced. Stock cars are heavier than other racing machines and boast almost the same weight as commercial cars. Its body structurealuminumIn a pipe frame consisting ofFiberglassComplete with a body made of.

Current stock cars are lights (Headlight,taillight) Appears to exist, but in the case of the original commercial vehicle, only the seals and paints that imitate the shape of the lights are applied to the place where the lights are, and the lights are not actually equipped. .. As you can see from the fact that there are no door seams, the driver gets on and off through the window. Due to the nature of the race, it often comes into contact with other vehicles, so its body strength is relatively high. A typical stock car race is NASCAR, but in addition to thisIMCAThere are also stock car races that are held. IMCA stock car races are often held on dirt tracks, but the basic structure is the same as NASCAR.

Among the stock cars, races using old cars are also held, and these things are called "Late car'(English: late carCalled. Since the late car uses an old stock car vehicle, there are few things that are covered with a glass fiber body like the current stock car. Most of the late cars are "commercial car modified vehicles", which is the former, and some are equipped with lights and some can open and close the door. From the history of stock cars, like these late cars, the body is disassembled once to reduce the weight on the premise of clearing compatible homologation, and each body is disassembled.acidThe cost of participation in the war will be enormous, such as making the body thinner and lighter by immersing it in the water, and equipping it with a very expensive commercial product due to the homologation rule that it can be used if it is a commercial product. However, it was devised to get a machine that was as fast as possible.For these reasons, the stock car was based on a modified commercial vehicle, but as a result of searching for a method from the viewpoint of achieving both low cost and high safety, it has evolved into a completely original design vehicle. You can see that.

(* Main categories:NASCAR,Stock car brasilSuch)

Truck system

For racingLorry(Truck, Camion) also exists. The tracks used for competitions are often vehicles developed specifically for competitions. Therefore, even if it looks like a truck, it generally does not have the original function of "cargo carrying" of a freight vehicle.[31].Rally raidThen, ordinary trucks called "support camions" will be introduced separately for the transportation of spare parts, etc., but they are vehicles that participate in the competition but do not participate in the competition (the performance is different from the vehicles dedicated to the competition in the first place). The race cannot be established because it is too much).

Truck racing is not very familiar in Japan, but outside of JapanFormula truck(largeト ラ ク タ ー) And NASCARCamping World Truck Series(Light truck/pick-up truck), Etc. (The Camping World Truck Series is also classified as a stock car).Also, in rally raids, there are often classes that are contested by competition camions in addition to the classes that are contested by regular rally cars, especiallyDakar RallyThe Camion class in is one of the specialties.

Hill climb raceAs an American with a long historyPikes Peak International Hill ClimbAlso,"Sem eyeOf a large tractor calledExhibitionIt is very popular as a specialty of the event because of its dynamic driving performance.

Drag racing system

1/4 mile (about 402m = About 0.4km) Compete for time in a short competition section. The competition is held in a straight line dedicated race track called. Before the startBurnoutDo (also with burnout) andChristmas treeIt starts according to the lightning start system called, accelerates rapidly, and decelerates when it crosses the finish line. In the upper class vehiclesbrakeIs designed not to match the acceleration force of the vehicle,parachuteUsingAir resistanceDecelerate by. Body shapes vary from open-wheel and closed-body space frames to normal vehicles, and are finely categorized into engines and other accessories.

The fastest classes are followed, and these classes areNitromethaneUses a special fuel that accounts for 90%.

It is the second most popular car in North America after stock cars.

(* Main organizers:NHRA, IHRA, ANDRA, etc.)

Alternative energy

Solar car,Electric carAutomobiles that use power other than internal combustion engines, such as the above, are also used for racing. In the case of solar cars, the teams participating in the race often develop their own vehicles. As for electric vehicles, various types have been developed, from a type that modifies a commercial vehicle to a formula car.

HistoricallySolar car racingHas been held since 1985, as a well-known raceWorld Solar Challengeand so on. Since the 1990s, electric car races have been gradually held, from 1994 to 2004.Formula LightningWas held, and FIA started in 2014Formula EHas created a major category of electric formula cars under the name of. Off-road race by electric car in 2021Extreme EBy the touring car of the electric carE-TCRHas appeared, and in the futureWorld Rallycross ChampionshipHowever, with the introduction of electric vehicles, the response to the ban on internal combustion engines in the future is accelerating.

It is not a pure alternative energy, but in recent years24 Hours of Le Mans,F1,Super GT,WRCIn categories such asHybrid systemThe number of competitions that introduce is increasing.

Drift system

It is a commercial vehicle modification system, and it is said that general participation is relatively easy.The feature is that many competitors have remodeled their own vehicles and made modifications suitable for drifting.Therefore, the funds for remodeling and participation in competitions tend to be cheaper than in other automobile competitions.[Source required].

As a representative competition in the drift competitionAll Japan Professional Drift ChampionshipThere is a competition such as (D1 Grand Prix) that purely examines drift driving skills. There are various types of this competition, from rudimentary modifications to advanced modifications, but it is also possible to start by changing the front-rear balance of the vehicle as a rudimentary method, so drifting. The hurdle to start is low[32].. However, on the other hand, in order to drift, it is necessary to have a good understanding of the movement of the vehicle, and it is necessary to use the vehicle that you own and to determine its characteristics and set it.[33].. In addition, some vehicles that participate in large automobile competitions such as the D1 Grand Prix mentioned above may have been modified to the level of participating in touring car competitions. Drift examination competitions, including the D1 Grand Prix, are fundamental to commercial vehicle modifications such as touring cars and rally cars, because the competition is not "competing for speed" but for the excitement and beauty of drifting. The remodeling method is different, and it is a remodeling method that pursues drift that attracts the audience in particular. In generalBoost upAnd retrofitTurbochargerIt is easier to drift because you can earn torque in the low rev range if you keep it in a small modification such as equipping a relatively small turbine, but when it comes to a vehicle that will participate in a big tournament, from the tires Further modifications will be made, such as increasing the size of the turbine to make it easier to emit white smoke. This is because giving out tire smoke is a point to be added in the drift examination, and from these things, the drift competition vehicle is not only modified to make it easier for the driver to drift, but also how dynamic and splendid it is for the audience. It can be seen that the vehicle was remodeled in pursuit of being able to attract drift.

(* Main organizers:All Japan Professional Drift Championship,Formula drift,Drift muscle

Slalom competition system

As a representative of slalom competitionJim KhanaCan be mentioned. GymkhanaMotorsport licenseIt is a competition that can be held with a domestic B-class license, and the competition can also be held on a small circuit or a large paved parking lot. In English-speaking countriesAutocrossIt is very similar to the competition called "Gymkhana", but it is generally said that Gymkhana requires higher skill. As with drift competitions, the competition population is large[34].. The background to this is that, like the drift system, the hurdles are low compared to other automobile competitions, and the participating vehicles are basically small modifications of commercial vehicles. Therefore, the participation cost is also low. Modifications include strengthening suspension and other suspension, body rigidity, and braking. The main purpose of strengthening the suspension and rigidity is to improve handling, and also strengthening the brakes.Side turnIn front of the vehicle when doingloadTo make it easier to move[35].

Besides this, GymkhanaPylon OfslalomSince it is a competition, there is little possibility that the vehicles participating in the competition will be damaged and the safety is very high. Therefore, while reinforcement against impact is not often done, the weight of the competition vehicle may be drastically reduced.[36].. On the other hand, it is a slalom competition held on gravel and mud.Dirt trialThe characteristics and modification methods of the vehicles used in the competition do not change much, and since the competition is held on unpaved roads, it is necessary to tighten the security equipment more than the Gymkhana competition.[37].

In addition, depending on these competition classes, some formula cars may also participate.

Fuel economy competition system

Not speedFuel efficiencyIn the fuel economy competitionShell Eco MarathonPower is often developed exclusively for competitions, such as vehicles participating in the competition.Honda Eco Mileage ChallengelikeHonda cubSome classes are provided by modifying the engine of a commercial vehicle known for its good fuel economy.

Other

There are also many car competitions that do not belong to the above categories.To give a few examples, a midget car (a machine dedicated to dirt oval) andFuji Grand Champion RaceIn the latter half (a machine with a sports car-like full cowl on a monocoque of a formula car), a race in which machines of multiple categories mentioned above participate in a mixture (Drag racing,Hill climband so on.

Major classification of race participants

Participants in car races (competitions) are roughly classified into three categories: works / privateers / semi-works from the viewpoint of participation form.AlsosponsorIs also a car race participant in a broad sense (described later).

Works Team

A direct team organized by automobile manufacturers (manufacturers) such as Toyota and Honda using their own funds, human resources, and technology. Also known as a "factory team".

As an advantage, it is easy to achieve results as a strong team in general because it is possible to enter the automobile competition against the background of abundant financial power and a mother body equipped with all facilities such as an automobile manufacturing company.On the other hand, it is susceptible to secondary effects such as the economy, corporate performance, and world affairs.It's not uncommon for Works to be forced to withdraw due to the backlash of shareholders and internal opposition.

From the management side, the participation of Works tends to attract the attention of many automobile fans and the general public, so the management tends to set rules that encourage the entry of Works.

Privateer

Refers to racing teams that are not works and general individual participation.

The advantage is that it is free from various restrictions such as being able to compete only with the management ability and know-how of individuals and teams, and being able to continue participating in the race purely with a passion for racing.On the other hand, there are many cases where the know-how and funds for automobile manufacturing are scarce, and it is necessary to invest more than Works to win in the top category.

In particular, the larger the category, the more privateers need more know-how and financial power than Works, and some kind of "parent" business or company that can generate abundant financial power is needed.The parent company starts with tuning shops and car dealers, industrial product makers, amusement makers, beverage makers, clothing makers, magazine publishers, etc., and even if the manager himself participates as a racer, he likes cars. If so, they may try to use it only for their own promotion.

A long-established privateer who has been racing for many years is difficult to defeat even with Works.

Semi Works

A privateer supported by an automobile manufacturer.Automakers send machines, drivers, technical staff, funds, etc. to privateers to support them.

Compared to the works system, the automobile manufacturing company can significantly reduce the initial investment and continuous participation cost, and the privateer side can also obtain high fighting power while reducing the operating funds by various benefits from the automobile manufacturing company. Become.In addition, even in the category where the operation claims "prohibition of participation of works teams", it is often possible to evade by insisting on the appearance of "supporting privateers".[38].

The disadvantage is that there are restrictions due to differences in operating policies and temperatures.Since elements such as know-how and principles are mixed in each, the effects and side effects tend to be positioned between works and privateers.If a car manufacturer is serious about it, it may "works" in the form of complete control of the privateer side in exchange for a large amount of money.

Sponsorship

Sponsorship (British: Sponsorship) Means "sponsorship" and, as the name implies, provides technology and funds to teams and players. These funds and technology providerssponsorCalled. Sponsors in auto racing can be broadly divided into "Technical sponsor"When"Commercial sponsorThere are two.

The achievement of excellent results by athletes and teams in automobile competitions leads to the improvement of the image of automobiles and automobile-related parts involved in the athletes and teams.For this reason, manufacturers support competition participants in various ways, and also support individual participating vehicles.As mentioned aboveSemi WorksAlso falls under this category, and by providing benefits such as supply of parts as well as the car body, it becomes a commercial purpose of these companies. From this, the semi-works system can be interpreted as a privateer who received a "technical sponsor".

In addition, participation in competitions basically requires a large amount of funds and staff such as mechanics and engineers, so competition participants usually make efforts to find sponsors not only from automobile manufacturers but also from the entire economy and society. Become.If funded by a sponsor,Racing suit(Uniform advertising) And the "commercial sponsor" with the sponsor's logo posted on the car body and the corporate color are common.

Sponsorship in auto racing began in the late 1960s, and F1Team lotusSince then, a method called "sponsor color" has been established in which sponsor companies and organizations are posted on the car body and the vehicle is painted with the coloring required by the main sponsor.[39]..From the background of succeeding in acquiring a stronger team structure with the income, auto racing has come to be likened to a "running advertising tower".

Auto racing is characterized by the fact that there are many cases where individual drivers are sponsored separately from the team. this"Personal sponsor".Personal sponsors are a type of commercial sponsor, and it is not uncommon for privateer teams to conclude contracts with drivers in anticipation of the funds that this sponsor will bring to the team.This is largely due to the characteristics of the sport of automobile racing, where the cost of running a team is enormous.Inevitably, sponsor companies are limited to relatively large companies due to their high advertising costs.

Teams that have become apparently short of funds are more likely to choose drivers who will bring in a large amount of sponsorship funds rather than the ability of the drivers to compete.In particular, new drivers aiming to be promoted from lower categories are often required to sponsor sponsorship in addition to the notable achievements (regardless of achievements) in the categories they have fought so far.Usually the driver tooathleteIt is one profession as well, and it is usual for the team to pay a contract fee and annual salary as compensation for the results of the battle and struggle, but in the case of pay drivers, on the contrary, from the team side. Sit on the team's regular seat with no payment or a very small annual salary[40]..Then, in return for the seat, the sponsor company brought in by the driver attaches to the team and pays the sponsor fee to the team.In this way, the driver who got the seat by the amount of sponsor funds more than the ability of the competition sometimes included the nuance of ridicule.Pay driver (British: Paying Driver)" It is called[41].

On the other hand, sometimes such new driver contracts aimed at sponsors are regarded as a problem.[42]By participating in long-term races with ample financial resources, they will grow and become more capable, and as a result, there are many cases in which drivers will be successful.In addition, there are cases where a large-scale sponsor is attached after a new driver is active while suffering from a lack of funds and shows his talent, so it is difficult to classify a pay driver as evil.On the team side, there is a view that the survival of the team is an important operational matter, so it is natural, but there are also some who think that it is not preferable to think that it is a team that hires a pay driver, so the pay driver is evaluated. Divides[41][42][43].

As a tendency of sponsor companies, there are many companies that handle automobile-related parts, including parts that are directly linked to victory and defeat, such as suspensions, engine oils, and tires, and small parts such as lamps and wipers.However, in this case, parts are often cheaper or free of charge than being offered a large amount of money.

Formerly as an industry with ample financial resourcesMarlboroughRepresented byTobacco companyWas widespread.But since the late 1980sEU countriesStarted fromCigarette adsTighter regulations will start shrinking tobacco advertising. This regulation was first enforced in the UK and also in F1British GPProhibited the act of listing the name of the cigarette brand[44].. This custom will be laterSmoking problemHas spread to EU countries, and tobacco advertising is now banned throughout Europe.Even in North AmericaWinstonExpandRJ Reynolds Tobacco CompanyHowever, in 30, he dropped the crown sponsor, which had been around for nearly 2003 years.In recent years, the design drawn on the car body resembles a tobacco advertisement, orSubliminal effectIt tends to be a problem just because it is reminiscent of tobacco, and tobacco advertising is virtually eliminated.[45].. Besides this,Alcoholic beverageSponsorsDrunk driving,AlcoholismTend to be regulated due to problems such as[46].

After the tobacco industry withdrewRed bull,Monster energy,rock starEnergy drink makers such as are emerging.AlsoMicrosoft,Lenovo,Hewlett Packard,Docomo,KDDIMajor IT companies such as these are also increasing their names as sponsors. IT companies are basically commercial sponsors, but as in-kind suppliesWork station,Super computerProviding our own products and IT engineers to the team,Numerical analysisThere are also companies that act as technical sponsors, such as supporting vehicle development.

Japanese auto racing sponsorspachinko-slotIs the main forceAmusementThere are many sponsors of affiliated companies,Anime-Comic-GameBy tie-up with XNUMXD industry such asItashaIs a feature of the war.

Regulation

In most car racesHomologationThere is a concept of rules called (official), which is rarely seen in other sports.Many of the vehicle structures and parts used in competitions can only be used with homologation from the operation.

Homologation of the same structure / part cannot be obtained many times, and the number of times is often limited.This is to avoid a situation where a large team is forced to talk about financial power and development is progressing one after another, and other teams can not keep up, and by extension, the participation cost is lowered and new entry or continuous participation of the team This is to encourage.The right to obtain homologation, which is limited in this number of times, is "ジ ョ ー カ ー'[47]It is called.It is still good if you can get it multiple times a year, and depending on the structure or part, you may have to use it for several years once you get homologation.In the top category, the limit on the number of homologation acquisitions tends to be strict, and depending on the mistake in the basic design, the superiority or inferiority of the next few years may be decided.

It goes without saying that it technically complies with the rules, but in competitions that emphasize relevance to commercial vehicles such as touring cars and rallies, in addition, it is produced and sold at the minimum level of hundreds to thousands in the market. In some cases, it is set as a homologation acquisition condition.This minimum production is the reason for many of the seemingly unfavorable cases based on commercial vehicles.

Another regulation peculiar to automobile competition isPerformance adjustment(Balance of Performance, BoP) exists.This is a weight (heavy object) and weight (heavy object) after the management side calculates under common tests and algorithms the competition vehicles that each manufacturer freely developed and acquired homologation.RestrictorThe fighting power is made uniform by installing the fuel tank and increasing / decreasing the fuel tank capacity.This will increase the variety of participating vehicles and entertain both participants and fans, but on the other hand it is impossible to even out the fighting power 100% accurately, so it is inevitably advantageous in different circuits and conditions.・ There will be disadvantages.Therefore, participants and fans may blame the performance adjustment rather than the ability to win or lose, and may cause discussions that are close to fighting.There is also a bargain that participants ask for performance adjustments to be redone in official practice and qualifying so that they can receive advantageous performance adjustments, which is also often the subject of discussion.[48].

With a similar concept, it is often used in GT and touring car racesSuccess ballast,Weight handicapThere is.Performance adjustments are before the race, but these are weights and restrictor handicap imposed on the results after the race, and since they are ex post facto compared to performance adjustments, the effect is slow, but fairness is increased accordingly. There is a merit that it is easy to expect.However, there are also criticisms such as "The more you win, the more you are penalized" and "The stronger the team, the more strange it is that you won't win."In addition, after calculating the point system and the number of remaining races, there are times when tactics are carried out that intentionally let the rivals go forward and make the later races advantageous, and multiple participants are thinking about the same thing. And, even though it is a race competing for speed, there are times when a pitiful spectacle unfolds, such as giving up the front.Therefore, in SUPER GT, such a situation is avoided by reducing or reducing the handicap in the final two races.

The above method is not used in all automobile competitions, for example, it is not found in F1 and rally competitions.However, if different engine cylinder numbers, displacements, drive layouts, etc. are mixed, different participation conditions (engine speed, minimum weight, etc.) will be applied at the stage of regulation distributed before development to balance their forces. It has been set, and discussions have been repeated many times over the balance.For this reason, F1 and WRC are competing for development after completely unifying the number of cylinders and displacement of the engine.

When it comes down to it, everyone uses the same car body and the same parts.One-makeSeems to be the most equal and simple solution, but it raises the issue of another direction: there is no variety of vehicle types and it does not attract companies, engineers and fans who are interested in development competition.Creating regulations that will convince as many participants and fans as possible is an eternal challenge for auto racing management.

Main competition

Major four-wheel competition

Major auto races
Rough classification of competition vehiclesSeries nameAbbreviationHeld yearNotices
Formula car
(Open wheel)
Formula 1 World ChampionshipF1From 1950 yearsThe world championship with the longest history in the FIA.Monaco Grand PrixTo have.Under the current regulationsHybrid carIt has become.
Formula E World ChampionshipFEFrom 2014 yearsalias"Electric carF1 ".Held on a schedule from the beginning of autumn to the end of summer. It was upgraded to the World Championship in 2020.
IndyCar SeriesINDY
ICS
From 1996 yearsThe highest peak of the Americas formula.Indy 500Begin,OvalThe biggest feature is to run the course.
Super formulaSFFrom 2014 yearsThe highest peak of Asian formula.All Japan F2 Championship,All Japan F3000 Championship,Formula NipponHas its predecessor.
Formula 2 ChampionshipF2From 2017 yearsEuropean F2 Championship,International F3000 Championship,GP2Has its predecessor. The category directly under F1.
Formula 3 ChampionshipF3[49]It is a gateway to professional racers that have existed all over the world for a long time, but now it refers only to the European F3 Championship sponsored by the FIA.
Regional F3-From 2020 yearsIt is a compilation of F3 regulations unique to each country under the control of the FIA, and is positioned between F3 and F4.
Formula 4F4[49]Located below Regional F3.Japan has its own standard called JAF-F4.
Indy Lights-From 2002 yearsThe category directly under the indica.
Super Formula LightsSFLFrom 2020 yearsRebelling against the FIA's regional F3 initiative,All Japan F3 ChampionshipThe category directly under Super Formula, which was born from the development of.
CART(End)Champ Car1979 to 2007 yearsThe highest peak series in North America.IRLAbsorbed and abolished.
World Series by Renault(End)WSR2005 to 2017 yearsWorld Series by NissanThe successor categoryFormula Renault 3.5Official name of.
A1 Grand Prix(End)A1GP2005 to 2010 yearsA national competition that was advocating the "World Cup of Motorsports". Held from 2005 to 2010.
Grand Prix Masters(End)-2005 to 2006 yearsA race held only by former F1 drivers.
sports carWorld Endurance ChampionshipWecFrom 2012 yearsFIAACOSports car endurance championship under the jurisdiction of. SWC (Sports car world championship) At first, it has many predecessors.
European Le Mans SeriesELMSFrom 2012 yearsSponsored by ACO.If you achieve a certain grade, you can get the seed right to Le Mans.
United sports car championshipUSCCFrom 2014 yearsIMSAThe highest peak race of North American sports cars sponsored by. ALMS (American Le Mans Series) And the Grund series.
Asian Le Mans SeriesAsLMSFrom 2009 yearsSponsored by ACO.If you achieve a certain grade, you can get the seed right to Le Mans.
InterprotoIPSFrom 2013 yearsHeld only at Fuji Speedway.A one-make race aimed at training drivers.
24 Hours of Le MansLe MansFrom 1923 yearsOne of the highest peaks of automobile racing, which doubles as one of the world's three largest endurance races and the world's three major races. A WEC battle.
Daytona 24-hour raceDaytonaFrom 1962 yearsDaytona International SpeedwayWill be held at.Of the world's three most durable, it uses only a dedicated circuit that does not use any public roads. A battle of USCC.
Sebring 12 hour raceSebringFrom 1950 yearsA battle of USCC.
Petit Le MansPLMFrom 1998 years10 hour race. A battle of USCC.
Fuji Grand Champion Race(End)GC1971 to 1989 yearsDriver's race with a single-seat sports car
All Japan Sports Prototype Car Endurance Championship(End)JSPC1983 to 1992 yearsGroup CNational championship by.
GT carIntercontinental GT ChallengeIGTC2016 SROSponsored by.Works participation is possible,Group GT3The highest peak race of.
GT World ChallengeGTWCFrom 2014 yearsSponsored by SRO.FIA-GT Championship,Blancpain GT seriesTo have the predecessor,Group GT3/ Regional series according to GT4 regulations.The series is being developed in Europe, the United States, Asia, and Australia.
SUPER GTSGTFrom 2005 yearsCurrently the most popular Japanese race. JGTC (All Japan GT Championship) Is the predecessor. There is an original standard called JAF-GT.
Spa-Francorchamps 24-hour raceSpa 24From 1924 yearsSponsored by RACB (Royal Automobile Club of Belgium).One of the world's three largest endurance races. Included in the IGTC battle.
Suzuka 10 hours endurance race-From 2018 yearsThe predecessor isSuzuka 1000km..Currently a battle of IGTC.
FIA GT Championship(End)GTC1997 to 2009 years
FIA GT1 World Championship(End)GT12010 to 2012 years
Touring carWorld touring car cupWTCRFrom 2018 yearsRacing car regulations for customers "TCRThe highest peak of touring car racing.
Super endurance seriesS enduranceFrom 1995 yearsFuji 24 Hours RaceThe highest peak of Japanese grass racing, including.Hydrogen engineThe participation of cars became a hot topic in the general media.
German Touring Car ChampionshipDTM1994-1996 (Phase XNUMX)
2000- (second term)
In recent years, it has adopted its own common chassis regulation called "Class 1", but with the declineGroup GT3Has been changed to.
British Touring Car ChampionshipBTCCFrom 1958 yearsThe highest peak race in England. It has its own regulation called "NGTC".Many Japanese cars will participate in the race.
Super TC2000STCFrom 1979 yearsArgentina's highest peak race.In recent years, it has been attracting attention for producing leading touring car racers.
24 Hours of NürburgringNur 24From 1970 yearsIt will be held at "Nord Schleife", which is known as a difficult course. As the nickname of "Great Grass Race", many privateers participate in the lower class.
Supercars ChampionshipCSRFrom 1996 yearsAustraliaThe highest peak race of.Its predecessor is the V8 supercar.
86/BRZ race-From 2013 yearsTOYOTA GAZOO RacingJapan's largest one-make race sponsored by
World Touring Car Championship(End)WTCC2005 to 2017 yearsSuper 2000World championship by regulation.It got the nickname of "martial arts race" due to the fierce collision.
All Japan Touring Car Championship (End)JTC1985 to 1993 yearsGroup AThe prescribed 3-class system.All Japan Touring Car Championship (1985-1993)See.
JTCC1994 to 1998 yearsClass 2 regulations.All Japan Touring Car Championship (1994-1998)See.
Inter TEC(End)-1985 to 1998 yearsFuji SpeedwayHeld at.Many foreigners participated in the war.
Stock carNASCAR-From 1948 yearsIt is the name of the competition and the name of the organization. There are many NASCAR races all over the United States with the "Cup Series" at the top, and they mainly fight in oval races.In recent years, a European series has also been held.
Daytona 500-From 1949 yearsNASCAR Cup SeriesIt is the opening game of the event, and it is a big event that boasts the largest number of viewers.
Stock car brasilSCBFrom 1979 yearsBrazilian stock car race.This is the main road course.
RallyWorld Rally ChampionshipWRCFrom 1973 yearsWorld championship with the longest history after F1 in FIA. There are WRC-WRC3 and JWRC.
Rally monte carlo-From 1911 yearsWRCOne of the events held in.
Rally japan-2004 ~ 2010[50]
Asia Pacific Rally ChampionshipAPRC
Ajipashi
1988 Regional championships under the jurisdiction of the FIA.The Australian Rally Championship's own regulation "AP4" is widespread.in JapanRally hokkaidoWill be held.
European Rally ChampionshipERCFrom 1953 yearsRegional championships under the jurisdiction of the FIA.At one timeIntercontinental Rally ChallengeHeld as.
Safari Rally-From 1953 yearsOne of the three major rallies in the world that was an event of WRC and IRC. It is also called "the toughest rally in the world". He has returned to the WRC after an ARC (African Rally Championship) event.
All Japan Rally ChampionshipJRCFrom 1980 years
Rally challenge-From 2012 yearsTOYOTA GAZOO RacingA one-day rally for beginners sponsored by.Held all over Japan.
Production Car World Rally Championship(End)PCWRC
PWRC
2002 to 2012 yearsWRC that fights with a vehicle that retains the specifications of a commercial vehicle. Abolished in the form of being integrated with WRC2.
Rally raidDakar Rally-[51]From 1978 yearsThe highest peak event of rally raid.The route isParis~DakarIt is completely different depending on the year, such as Paris-Le Cup and South America.CurrentlySaudi ArabiaHeld in.
Cross Country Rally World Cup-From 1993 yearsAn international series of rally raids sponsored by the FIA.
Baha 1000-From 1967 yearsThe highest peak of the North American rally raid.
Rally Mongolia-From 1995 yearsSponsored by a Japanese company. Held under the name of "Rally Raid Mongolia" until 2002.
-From 2009 yearsDepending on the year, up toMoscow~BeijingA big event next to Dakar.
Rally crossWorld Rallycross ChampionshipWorld RX
W
From 2014 years
European Rallycross ChampionshipERXFrom 1976 yearsIt became the foundation of WRX.
Global Rallycross(End)GRC2011 to 2017 yearsX GamesSeries of competitions.
Jim Khana-
Dirt trial-
Drag racingNHRA Championship Drag Racing SeriesNHRAFrom 1951 years
Off-road racingAll Japan Super Off-Road ATV Championship Race-From 1982 years
Hokkaido ATV Championship Race-
-From 1982 years
Extreme E-From 2021 yearsOff-road racing with electric buggy.
Hill climbPikes Peak Hill ClimbPPIHCFrom 1916 yearsThe highest peak of hill climb competition.Many test vehicles equipped with advanced technology will participate in the race.
European Hill Climb ChampionshipEHCFrom 1930 years
DriftAll Japan Professional Drift ChampionshipD1From 2001 yearsThe world's first series of drifting competitions.
Formula driftFDFrom 2004 yearsInspired by D1, born in North America.It is also reimported to Japan.
Drift Kingdom(End)-2011 to 2019 yearsFormerly known as "Drift Muscle".Born by differentiating from the professional D1. Since 2020, it has been integrated with D1.
Intercontinental Drifting CupIDCFrom 2017 yearsFIA's first drift competition.Currently, it is a single event once a year.
Other four-wheel competitionMacau Grand Prix-From 1954 yearsFestivals such as F3, GT, touring cars.Especially F3 is famous.
Racing cartCart1950s-A race using a racing kart, which is a small single-seater.It is one of the easiest motorsports to do, and many professional drivers are experienced in this competition.
Track racing-TrackHeavyweight auto racing with.
Rock crawling-Rocky placeBuggy carSuch asFour-wheel drive vehicleA competition that aims at the destination.
-Side-by-side vehicleLace using.motocrossPerform laps and jumps in the same way as.
-Classic carLace using.
Race of ChampionsROCFrom 1988 yearsIndividual and national competition championships using touring cars and prototype cars, in which only those who have won the championship in each category of automobile competition participate.
Stadium super truckSSTFrom 2013 yearsRace with tall trucks.
-1930s-The gateway to oval racing in North America.It is in a similar category.
Eco marathon-A race to compete for how much fuel can be used to drive a mileage. Also called "eco-marathon".
K4-GP-From 2002 yearsA race held using a light car.It is aimed at amateurs who have no experience in racing, and is held for the purpose of enjoying regardless of the game.
Figure 8 race-1940s-Run on a course that draws a figure of eight on a flat surface.Due to the high risk of collision, courage is tested.
Demolition derby-1950s-A unique competition in which cars are hit against each other and destroyed, and the last survivor is the winner.
Monster jam-From 1992 yearsMonster truckAuto racing held using. Basically, such as jumping and landingAcrobaticsAnd when landingScrapped carAlthough it is a judging method of how it was able to destroy, there is a slight element as a "race" in this competition because there is a part that aims to arrive at the destination within the time limit. ..
Robo race-From 2019 yearsRaces in self-driving cars. It will be held on a trial basis in 2019 and 2020, and the official opening will be in 2022.

World's three biggest races

The following three races are "World's three biggest racesIs called.

It is no exaggeration to say that each of these races is a "symbol of the race", and at the same time.Second World WarIt is also a race with a long tradition that has started from before.

Indy 500 will be heldIndianapolis Motor SpeedwayThen, an ultra-high speed race with an average speed of about 350km / h will be held for 3 hours.

Monaco Grand PrixPrincipality of MonacoThe centerMonte Carlo city courseIt is a race to be held in. This race, which is held using an ultra-high performance vehicle called an F1 machine, has an average speed of about 160 km / h, which is an ultra-low speed course in F1, but the course width is very narrow and there are almost no escape zones, so mistakes are not allowed. .. Since such a race is held over 78 laps for nearly 1 hour and 40 minutes, it is known as one of the most difficult courses where the ability of the driver is greatly questioned.

Le Mans 24-hour race will be heldSalt CircuitIs a long course with a lap of 1km, and in addition to this, it is an endurance race in which one vehicle continues to run for 13.605 hours.Although there is a change of drivers, not only the speed but also the reliability of the machine is required, and in addition to the driving ability of each driver, the limit of concentration is also challenged.

Although there are drivers who have won many championships in each of the three major races in the world, the drivers who won all the three major races in the world are still in 3.Graham HillOnly.

Meaning of flag color

In auto racing, the organizer during the race provides information and instructions to the driver.flagIs used. The meaning of the color is as follows. There are two methods of posting, "stationary" as it is raised and "vibration" as it is shaken, and the instruction content may differ between the two.

  • Start flag National flagEtc.-Indicates the start of the race. Use national flags and sponsored club flags. However, in most international races, the traffic light is turned on to give a signal.
  • Red flag "Red" --Indicates the cancellation / interruption of the race.
  • Yellow flag yellow --Indicates the beginning of the overtaking prohibited section (single vibration if there is an accident vehicle outside the course, double vibration if there is an accident vehicle on the course).
  • Green flag 绿 --Release the instructions from the previous post. Indicates the end of overtaking prohibition, oil leakage, obstacle scattering section, etc.
  • Blue flag tag --If only the notice is posted, it indicates that a fast vehicle is coming from behind. When a vehicle with a lap delay is instructed by vibration, it indicates that a vehicle with a large number of laps is coming from behind and encourages the vehicle to overtake.
  • Black flag black -Posted with the number and instruct the relevant vehicle to pit in.
  • White flag white --On the courseSafety car,ambulanceIndicates that there is a vehicle traveling at low speed.NASCAR,IndyCarIn some categories (mainly North America), it will be presented on the final lap.
  • Checkered flag Black and whiteCheckered pattern(Check pattern) --Indicates the end of the race. So-called"Checkered flag. "
  • Oil flag With redOrangeVertical stripe pattern-Oil flag. Indicates that the road surface is slippery (posting may be stopped after a certain period of time even if the situation does not recover).
  • Orange ball flag Orange circle on a black background-Orange ball flag. Posted with car number. Indicates that the vehicle has a mechanical problem.
  • White & black flag Black and white on each side divided diagonally-posted with car number. Warning flag for the vehicle. You will be warned of acts that violate sportsmanship.

ACCIDENT

In a car race where a race takes 0.1 seconds while moving at a high speed of several tens of kilometers to several hundreds of kilometers per hour, and sometimes the machines touch each other at that speed, serious fatal accidents are common.This is true not only for amateurs, but also for professional racing drivers with outstanding skills.

In recent years, we have not only improved the safety of competition vehicles by changing vehicle regulations and developing new materials, but also prevented the occurrence of accidents and minimized the damage caused by accidents, such as the safety of race track design and the enhancement of medical systems. Efforts are being made to limit it.As a result, the number of major accidents has decreased, and the damage caused by accidents has also decreased.belowFatal accidentIt can be said that such security is established on the victims represented by.

Fatal accident

The first fatal accident1896 May 5(May 5?)Perigueux"" Held in the suburbsPerigueuxDied in an accident in a "public road race"MarquisIs the first recorded race fatal accident[52].. Marquis Montignac allegedly drove recklessly in an attempt to overtake other participating vehicles in front of him, and the Marquis' vehicle rolled over due to contact, killing Marquis Montignac in the accident. The estimated speed is said to have been 40km / h[53].

The first fatal accident involving an audience is recordedHistory of auto racingBut as mentioned aboveMarcel RenaultIs an accident caused by.At the time of Marquis Montignak mentioned above, the average speed was about 25 km / h, and it was said that even 40 km / h was a dangerous speed.1900 The average speed had already exceeded 60km / h, and by the time of the Renault accident, the car's performance had improved significantly, and it was an event that was worried about the lives of not only the race participants but also their spectators. The accident has led to international public opinion, and the number of local governments that do not allow public road races has increased rapidly, raising the need for circuit construction.

24 Hours of Le MansIn1955 May 6Occurred inMercedes-BenzIs said to be the biggest fatal accident in auto racing. Of the driverPierre RouveDrivesMercedes-Benz 300SLRExplodes and burns, killing 81 people, including Levegh and the audience and staff, the worst disaster in motorsport history. Also, before and after this, F1Albert AscariDied in an accident during the test, aiming for the third straight victory at the Indy 500Bill BukovicWas killed in multiple crashes and other tragic accidents continued in the car race, and the accident at Le Mans caused a tremendous tremor in the racing world such as Mercedes-Benz withdrawing from the race stage, but safety against the race It was an opportunity to bring about a change in awareness of countermeasures and machine performance suppression.

In F1, many fatal accidents have occurred, including drivers, team members, and spectators.Especially in the early days, the neck was amputated by a sharpened barrier.Helmut KonikAnd the body was torn in halfFrancois CevertA terrible accident like this happened.In addition, the placement of course marshalls was less than it is now, and it was natural for marshalls to easily cross the circuit where the race was being held.Tom PriceA fatal accident like this also occurred.Jill VilleneuveCombined with the lack of strength of the seat belt as in the accident of, it was thrown into the air from the machine and struck by the fence and died, orJochen LindtSome of them disliked wearing the seatbelt itself and became a distant cause of fatal accidents.Even if these accidents are technically underdeveloped from a modern point of view, there are many parts that are caused by low safety awareness, but drivers just point their fingers at them. I wasn't looking at it in my mouth, but in 1, the year after the opening of F1961, GPDA (Grand Prix Drivers' Association) Was formed to resist the low safety awareness of the operation. GPDA was once disbanded in 82,1994 San Marino Grand PrixOccurred continuously inRoland RatzenbergerAyrton SennaIt was reunited in the wake of the fatal accident, and safety awareness has been fundamentally reviewed from the design concept of machines and circuits, medical system, etc.

Many of the new Grand Prix circuits since the late 1990sHermann TilkeHowever, all of them have a wide course width and a wide paved run-off area, and it can be seen that they are very careful about safety.There are criticisms that his circuit is boring, but it is true that there have been no fatal accidents at the Grand Prix until 2021.

In the 2000s, 2009 F2Henry Surtees, 2014 F1Jules Bianchi, 2015 IndyCarJustin WilsonDue to fatal accidents such as, there have been a series of voices questioning the safety of open-type vehicles without roofs, and by 2020 most formula car seriesHead protection deviceHas come to be introduced.Similarly, for prototype racing cars, after 2017WecThe open type is prohibited in.Currently, the fully open type remains in only a few categories such as regional junior formulas and hill climbs.

Most of the fatal accidents in automobile competitions are those in which walls, ground, vehicle structures, etc. hit the human body directly and are significantly damaged in the event of a crash. In some cases, the driver couldn't get out and burned to death as it was, or the driver slammed his head against the steering wheel and died even though there was no major damage to the machine.The former is a sufficient installation of staff and digestive organs, the latter isHANSWith the advent of the device, the number has been greatly reduced.Also when the security in Africa was deterioratingParis-Dakar RallyIn some cases, participants died when they stepped on land mines or were shot.

Racing drivers are generally considered deadly, but those who retire due to the fatal accident of the driver they were intimate with, or certain races (IndyCarIt is not uncommon for people to refuse to participate in the race for safety reasons only (such as the oval course).There are many spectators who are so misunderstood that they fight in close quarters at 300km / h, but it is a big mistake to think of them as speed enthusiasts who want to die.

Fatal accidents in competitions are often reported in the general media and in auto racing magazines that do not usually know the category, but there are voices questioning the media's attitude of taking up only the negative part of the competition. There is also.

Works on the theme of auto racing

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ It is said that there were many doubtful contents such as "compressed air", "gravity", and "combined use of livestock power" in the power of the submitted vehicle. It was the one who participated in the actual raceSteam carAnd only gasoline cars and motorcycles.

Source

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  2. ^ Origuchi 1970, p. 20.
  3. ^ a b c Origuchi 1970, p. 22.
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  34. ^ “What is Gymkhana?”Gymkhana Encyclopedia. (December 2004, 12). http://www25.tok2.com/home2/tomotama/gym/dic/w_gym.htm 2011/12/17Browse. 
  35. ^ "Recommendation of Gymkhana". (Twin Ring Motegi). http://www.twinring.jp/tdm_m/about/qanda.html 2011/12/28Browse. 
  36. ^ “Rikkyo University Athletic Association Automobile Club-Welcome to the world of motor sports!”. Rikkyo University Automobile Club (asahi.com). (November 2004, 12). http://www.asahi.com/ad/clients/rikkyo/student02.html 2011/12/17Browse. 
  37. ^ “Introduction to the competition-Dirt trial”. Toyo University Automotive Department. http://toyoac.zouri.jp/sports.html 2011/12/28Browse. 
  38. ^ This is because it is difficult to clearly define and eliminate works and privateers in the text.
  39. ^ Before that, it was as simple as having the car number on the side of the machine.
  40. ^ In some cases, you just have to join the team as a test driver and still ask for sponsorship funding.
  41. ^ a b “Special Feature: Revival of Pay Drivers”. ESPN F1. (May 2011, 1). http://ja.espnf1.com/f1/motorsport/story/39109.html 2011/12/28Browse. 
  42. ^ a b “Jarno Trulli blames pay driver”. ESPN F1. (May 2011, 12). http://f1-gate.com/trulli/f1_13933.html 2011/12/28Browse. 
  43. ^ "Rubens Barrichello" Money Dominates Everything "". F1 Gate.com. (May 2012, 2). http://f1-gate.com/barrichello/f1_14355.html 2012/2/18Browse. 
  44. ^ At that time, it was legal to sponsor, and there were many logos, helmets, racing suits, and circuit signs reminiscent of logos and brands.
  45. ^ “Ferrari suspects subliminal advertising on barcodes”. F1 Gate.com. (May 2010, 4). http://f1-gate.com/ferrari/f1_7300.html 2010/9/25Browse. 
  46. ^ "WHO adopts alcohol regulation guidelines such as bargain sale and all-you-can-drink". AFP. (October 2010, 5). http://www.afpbb.com/article/life-culture/health/2728440/5784223 2010/9/25Browse. 
  47. ^ Here, the meaning of "trump card"
  48. ^ However, in modern times, the accuracy and amount of information of data loggers and data analysis technology have improved dramatically, so it is not easy to cheat.
  49. ^ a b Depends on country or region
  50. ^ Excluding 2009.In addition, although it is included in the calendar for 2020 and 2021, it has not been held as of September 2020.
  51. ^ Currently, the route does not use Paris, but it is still sometimes called the "Paridaka".
  52. ^ The fun of car racingRonsosha. (2002-2). ISBN 978-4846002213  
  53. ^ “Chamiers Histoire et histoires”. Mairie de Coulounieix-Chamiers. (1988). http://www.coulounieix-chamiers.fr/1-33585-Au-Sault-du-Chevalier...-en-1898.php 2011/2/7Browse. 

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Auto racing organizations in each country


 

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