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🚗 | Motorcycle theft by 3 people in just 40 seconds ... Naha City, Okinawa


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Motorcycle theft by a trio in just 3 seconds ... Naha City, Okinawa

 
If you write the contents roughly
The man has reported the damage to the police along with the video from this security camera.
 

Security camera image of a smartphone repair shop in Naha City, Okinawa.What I caught was the moment of theft of the motorcycle ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Surveillance camera

Surveillance camera(Kanshi camera) is an object for some purposeMonitoringin order toVideo cameraIs. mainlyA humanMonitor andcrimeThose that are installed in search of effects such as deterrencesurveillance camera,active volcanoAnd the weather and riversDisaster preventionThose who seek a superior effectDisaster prevention cameraAlso called. In a broad sense, it may refer to the entire system including the functions of transmitting/processing captured images, recording, and displaying, rather than the camera itself.EnglishThen it is sometimes called video serveillance, closed-circuit television(cableWith a camera tied withmonitorClosed only for a whilecircuitUsing the abbreviation of "TV"CCTVIs more often called.

Surveillance cameras can be installed in various facilities such as stores, on the premises, on the streets, and on railways.station,Railroad crossing,空港,Dedicated to pre-school and extra curricular,GangsterOffices, individuals and gatherings住宅And so on.

Main uses

Disaster prevention

damWater monitoring,道路Disaster (collapse etc.) monitoring,active volcanoSurveillance,(I.e.Monitoring[1],Railway station platformChecking the boarding and alighting status of

Factory production line monitoring,Nuclear power plant,Thermal power plantIt is used in laboratories to monitor abnormalities in places where people cannot enter, and to monitor and record conditions such as dams, rivers, and volcanoes. "Kaguya, Etc.,Artificial satelliteSurveillance cameras are also used for things whose state is difficult to grasp.

Crime prevention

Surveillance cameras help detect various crimes[2][3][4][5].."Relay method" to find out the whereabouts of the criminal by connecting multiple surveillance camera images[6],Artificial intelligenceBy (AI)Face recognition systemHas also been introduced[7].

JapanEach prefectural police department ofDowntownSuch asCrime preventionAs part of this, surveillance cameras are installed in downtown areas, on the streets, and around streets.Metropolitan Police DepartmentThe surveillance camera system that is operated in 5 districts is called "street security camera system", and it is installed in the downtown area of ​​Tokyo, a crowded area, and a parking violation area. Many railway companies have also installed it for the purpose of countering terrorism and checking the status of each station. It is also being installed inside the train cars[8][9].. However, there are some voices from anti-surveillance cameras that each railway company in the metropolitan area has not published a rule to operate surveillance cameras and should disclose this rule.[10].

The main purpose of crime prevention is to see shops (retail stores) andbankな どFinancial institution, Gang office,エ レ ベ ー タ ー, Of public institutionsceilingThere are things that are set up in various places.In the case of financial and public institutions, the purpose is not only to monitor and record intruders and suspicious persons, but also to monitor and record employees.breach of trustIt is also to deter the act. Elevators are used for various purposes, such as detecting abnormal passenger behavior and stopping on a nearby floor. For shops, it depends on face recognitionShopliftingAddiction offenders are also monitored[11].Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euSince there are frequent thefts by freighters at airports, it is considered to attach surveillance cameras to freighters.[12].

In the case of gang offices, it is installed to monitor mischief, conflicting parties and police personnel. Not only in the facility but also in the cityHeapSurveillance cameras are being installed on the roads of Japan. Surveillance cameras are being installed on school roads and school gates, as well as on-campus surveillance cameras.[13][14]..Also, as the price of cameras drops,IndividualAnti-theft in your home parking lot, etc.Running awayIn some cases, inexpensive surveillance cameras are installed for the purpose of prevention.("#Installation location and purpose/effectSee also)

A system has also been developed that can easily retrieve and extract only the necessary information from the video of the surveillance camera.[15].

Police provided by multiple surveillance cameras and individualsSmartphoneThere is also an effort to analyze the video taken at and track the escape destination of the criminal case by "relay method" and lead to arrest[16].

In Japan, the percentage of suspects identified by images acquired by security cameras has increased, and2019 In (31 / first year of Reiwa), 1% of the arrests were due to camera images.[17]..Hard to leave evidenceSpecial fraudIn the investigation such as, the image of the security camera is important[18].

Installation location and purpose/effect

In the case of surveillance cameras installed for crime prevention, there are two cases, one is to seek a crime deterrent effect by "monitoring" and the other is to "provide evidence when a crime occurs". The former case is installed in a conspicuous place, and the latter case is installed in a less conspicuous place. In some cases, a sign saying "surveillance camera is operating" is used to announce that a surveillance camera is installed in order to avoid criticism that it may lead to privacy infringement. In this case, the former purpose will be sought exclusively.

Dummy cameras without shooting function are also sold for crime prevention[19].

Since it is possible that the cameras will be destroyed, multiple cameras may be installed in combination. The surveillance camera body is photographed by another surveillance camera. Also, as a method of camouflage,light bulb OfsocketBuilt-in surveillance camera that can be inserted intoLED bulbAlso exists[20]. Also,TMJ,vending machineMany of these machines are equipped with surveillance cameras.

Wearable surveillance cameras installed on people are(English editionAnd body-worn CCTV, etc.AmericaUnited Kingdom,Hong KongIt is rapidly spreading in police such as[21][22][23][24].. Tried to use it in school[25][26], The largest body camera in the United StatesAxonAnd the largest droneDJITeamed up to monitor for policeDroneIs selling[27][28].. Even in Japan, surveillance cameras are being installed in drones for civilian crime prevention.[29][30].. In addition, police in China equipped with a surveillance camera function.Mech robotHas been deployed[31]Equipped with surveillance camera functionSunglassesType ofWearable computerIs also using[32].懐 中 电灯The function of the surveillance camera is also installed in the[33].

Crime deterrence

United KingdomIn 2005May 7Happened tobus-subwayTargeted atLondon simultaneous bombingThe reason why the arrest of the criminal was carried out promptly depends on the records of the surveillance camera. EspeciallyPurposelyA deterrent effect on crimes is expected. Even in Japan,Narita International AirportKIXA surveillance camera with a face recognition system is installed in[34],Also2007 (19) February 7Tokaido/Sanyo ShinkansenStarted commercial operation inN700 seriesEven in public transportation, surveillance cameras are being installed at public transportation, especially at all passenger entrances and exits and driver's entrances and exits in Japan.

Features

Information extraction from video

In the beginning, it was only to shoot and store images, but in recent years, a combination of image processing systems has appeared one after another. For example, if you install it on the road,License plateDetect images and extract as dataAutomatic vehicle number reader(JapanThen, the "N system" used by the police is famous, but there are also commercial ones), and car name recognition that identifies the car model from car images and videos (JapanThen the "F system" used by the police is famous[35]But there is also commercial[36]),空港Take a picture of the traveler's face with a photo of the criminal's faceDatabaseA face recognition system that automatically collates with2016 (HeiseiAs of 28), it has already been introduced.Estimate gender and age from face recognition,MarketingHas already been used to[37][38].

Furthermore, software that analyzes behavior patterns and detects abnormal behaviors has already been developed.[39][40]In addition, people tremble (TremorA system that analyzes the psychological state from (etc.) has also been developed.[41].. Also, use gait features for individual identificationGait analysisHas also been done[42]Used for criminal investigation[43][44]. Also,IndividualIn addition to the analysis of the crowd, the analysis of the crowd is also performed, and it is possible to detect anomalies from changes in crowd density.[45]Predicting congestion[46]Has also been done. It is also done to display the stay time on a heat map[47].. Technology for tracking a person across multiple surveillance cameras has also been developed[48][49][50]..Also, at ATMs to prevent fraudMobile phoneUsage detection[51]AndarmsDetection systems are also beginning to appear[52].. A smoke detection system is also being developed[53].

As of June 2016, large-scale monitoring by face recognition is difficult[54].米 国Then about 1.2 million face recognition database[55]Although it is maintained, it boasts the highest specific rateGoogleFaceNet even has uncertainty in distinguishing a large number of faces[54] (In addition, there is OpenFace as an open source implementation of FaceNet).However, it has one of the largest populations in the worldChugokuLarge-scale monitoring by face recognition is actively used in, and a face recognition database of about 13 billion people who are said to exceed Google's specific rate is maintained[56]. JapaneseTokyoThen, in order to raise the specific rate, take a photo of the criminal's collation face after April 2016 (Heisei 28).3DIs going in[57].

Recording of accompanying information such as voice

The number of surveillance cameras that have sound collection microphones and are capable of recording voice is increasing. Further, even if the surveillance camera does not have a microphone, a sound collecting microphone can be separately installed. Some devices can detect suspicious sounds such as screams, glass breaking, machine breaking sounds, etc., and automatically notify/report.[58][59][60].. Sound is also used to measure liveliness[60].

In addition, temperature, humidity and odor are recorded.[61][62].

Collection of mobile phone information

Mobile phoneSpecific information of (MAC address)Bluetooth,Wi-FiIt is also possible to install a device (Fake Access Point) that collects and records via via.

iPhoneThen.iOS8ThanMAC addressRandomization is performed so that the eigenvalues ​​are not scattered.[63]However, device anonymization is not sufficient, so it is still possible to track using sequence numbers and timing information.[64].

Collection and use of depth information

The range image (depth information) can be used to measure actual dimensions and assist image analysis.[65]Used in parking lots, ATM surveillance cameras, etc.[65].. It is also used to prevent false detections by insects and animals.[66].

To acquire depth information, the depth is estimated by image processing from images from multiple synchronized cameras.PhotogrammetryOr near infrared lightlaserIrradiation and detection (TO DEALDepth camera () that calculates the depth by(English edition, Phase difference laser scanner, etc.).In photogrammetry,Stereo cameraSurveillance cameras equipped with are beginning to appear, and high-precision image analysis is being performed by 3D reconstruction of stereo images.[67][68][69].. There is also a system that estimates depth from multiple videos using multiple surveillance cameras.[70].. LIDAR has begun supplying TOF depth cameras for surveillance systems, etc.[71][72][73].. LiDAR is said to be effective when people overlap and it is difficult to distinguish them from images[49].

Temperature measurement/detection

ThermographyThere is also a surveillance camera system equipped with temperature measurement by a camera (with heat generation).InfectionTo make it easier to find the affected personImmigration controlIn addition to admission management such as corporate facilities and eventsForest fireUsed for countermeasures, etc.[74][75][76].

In addition, a surveillance camera with a far-infrared camera is also under development to find people hidden behind things.[77].

Intimidation/jamming

Irradiation with sensor light[78]There are also surveillance cameras that can give voice warnings.[78].. Surveillance cameras for calling out are also being researched[79].

In addition,Parking LotFor management, there is also a surveillance camera system that supports cooperation with the gate bar.[80], Which makes it possible to block blacklisted cars[80].

Video composition

Technology has been developed that combines images from multiple surveillance cameras and displays them from a bird's eye view that is easy to view.[81].

Live camera

Monitor a wide area,TV station,インターネットThings that are shooting images that can be published in real timeLive cameraAlso called. In addition, the InternetURLWithout publishingLogin of timeUser namePasswordIf you keep it in a company or organization, or in an individual or family, you can monitor distances over the Internet regardless of distance.

Video management

Save image

PreviouslyMagnetic tapeWas stored in thehard disk,Flash memoryThere are many examples of being stored in. The image is a continuous still imageMotion JPEGAnd Motion JPEG 2000, differential compressionMPEG4,H.264It is usually saved as long as there is enough storage area. After the capacity is insufficient, it is common to delete old records,Storage deviceThe capacity of is selected in consideration of the required storage period. Image qualityMagnetic tapeBetter quality.

The image quality or compression rate of differential compression is higher than that of continuous still images.2016 As of (28), the compression rate is highH.264 Surveillance cameras adopting High Profile are increasing, and surveillance cameras adopting H.265 have also appeared.[82].

To prevent overexposure and underexposure, it supports auto white balance and combines multiple exposures.High dynamic range (HDR)There are also surveillance cameras that have a shooting function.There are also surveillance cameras that can save still images in the RAW image format before tone mapping.[83]However, it is not often saved in RAW video format.In addition, since color reproducibility is not so important for surveillance cameras and 18% gray cards and color checkers are not used, it is not possible to record correct color information excluding the effects of light such as lighting and sunlight. Can not.However, there are surveillance cameras that perform color correction according to the face detected by face recognition.In addition, a surveillance camera that supports fog image correction (fog reduction) that reduces the effects of weather such as fog and rain, and a surveillance camera equipped with a polarizing filter / polarizing lens that removes diffused reflection of light.[84]Also exists.

analogThere is a lot of transmission noise in surveillance cameras,InterlaceSince it is a moving image, it will have a large capacity when stored digitally. A digital surveillance camera is not affected by transmission noise and is a progressive moving image, so the capacity is small. In the case of differential compression, the capacity can be further reduced by reducing CCD noise, physical/software motion stabilizer, and heat haze removal. Also,Background difference,Human sensorBy detecting moving objects such as, recording can be started from a few seconds before that, only when a moving object is detected in the shooting range of the camera, instead of always saving the image, and the capacity can be saved.In addition, there are surveillance cameras that can improve the image quality only in a specific area in the video frame and lower the image quality in encoding.

The number of shooting frames is usually 1 per secondTopOr it is common to set it as a 30-frame video, butTMJIn corners, etc., shooting 1 to 1 frames per second tends to prolong the storage period.Record by dropping the number of framesVTRIs "Time-lapse VTR"[Annotation 1]Called.

Image copy

Police may request the installation of surveillance cameras to provide images. In this case, depending on the model and software used, general video software may not be available and dedicated software may be required. Mostly for image storage servermemory card(CF etc.)interfaceThere is, and it is possible to output to the outside. Of course, on the video tape while playingdubbingIt is also possible to do so.

Installation Opposition

In Japan, about 1% of the people are negative about installing surveillance cameras in public places, andNichibenrenThe installation is not progressing mainly in rural areas, partly because of the opposition from other groups.[2][85][86][87].Japan OfNational Police AgencyExplains that it does not perform real-time face recognition in public spaces, but as of March 2019, 3 railway operators have opened a dedicated line to provide surveillance camera images to the police, etc.ブ ラ ッ ク リ ス トSome companies secretly operate surveillance camera systems that include a function to collate with.On the other hand, in Europe and the United States, lawsuits have been filed against the use of police face recognition systems by people who oppose surveillance cameras, which is legally regulated and illegal.Judgment, There are also movements such as discontinuing the provision of technology from companies[7].

Privacy concerns

Of course, the recorded video is strictly managed, and it is often said that "only when a problem occurs" and "viewing requires the permission of the boss".However, it is often unclear how long the recorded data will be stored and who will be able to view the recorded data, as information may be leaked due to the administrator's failure to manage it properly. , Multiple privacy issues have been pointed out[86].

In addition, there are cases where some churches have problems using surveillance cameras with face recognition systems.[88]There are surveillance cameras that are installed without sufficient security measures and left in a state where anyone can access them on the Internet, and there are websites such as "Insecam" that allow you to freely browse the images of those surveillance cameras.[89].

Also, surveillance cameras are interconnectedFace recognition systemIn combination with the current Chinese "Sky netLarge-scale monitoring system such asEnglish: Mass Surveillance)”[90],Freedom of expressionAnd the risk of invasion of privacy has also been pointed out.

Information leakage

2016 October,Russia OfWebsiteIt was revealed that anyone can freely peep at the images of surveillance cameras around the world with "".This site delivers real-time video from surveillance cameras in 120 countries around the world, and covers more than 6,000 cameras in Japan (as of January 2016, 28, 1 on the site). It was.

The target countries for installation of surveillance cameras are Russia, the United States,France,Japan,(I.e.,クウェート,San Marino,(I.e.Over 120 countries. The highest in the United States is 7645, and Japan is second with 6291.ItalyWas the third place with 1992 units. in Japan,Mental hospitalIsolation ward,dental clinic, A famous coffee chain store,convenience store, Mobile phone shop,Conveyor belt sushi restaurant,Department store,Massage shop,Barber shopIt was widely collected regardless of industry. The reason for the leak was because when the camera was purchasedPasswordIn many cases, it was easily discovered because it remained as it was. The site also makes it possible for manufacturers of surveillance cameras to understand[91][92].

2018 OfUS-China trade warAnd with the People's Republic of Chinatrade frictionIn the United States, the world's number one surveillance camera market share[93]wasHike visionAnd second placeDarfa TechnologySurveillance cameras of Chinese companiesPeterson Air Force BaseSecurity concerns that it will be installed in various places in the United States such as US military bases have become a problem[94][95], May 2018, 8(English edition (NDAA 2019) enacted, prohibiting purchases by US federal agencies[96].

Also, the majority of surveillance cameras are banned from government procurement by the Defense Authority Act.HuaweiSubsidiary ofHISILICONUsing other chips was also seen as a problem[97].. Although the US federal agency is required to remove these surveillance cameras made in China,Florida OfUS NavyThe problem was the purchase of bases and the fact that nearly 3,000 Chinese surveillance cameras had not been removed at multiple U.S. military bases and government facilities.[94][98].

America's(English editionWas disguised as a "Made in the United States" surveillance camera made in China and delivered it to the U.S. military for a long time.[99].Republic of ChinaTaichung CityHowever, more than 100 Chinese surveillance cameras in the city have been removed for privacy and security reasons.[100], As wellToyohara StationFace Recognition and Chinese Surveillance Cameras Removed from Next Generation Surveillance System[101].

False arrest

The video of the surveillance camera, which should be "conclusive evidence",False arrest-False accusationIt is also causing an incident.Regarding the background, one active police officer said, "One image of the security camera is far stronger as evidence than we make 100 investigation reports. I am relieved because I seized the security camera, I am a little too proud." There is nothing to say if you look at all the images from the security camera), but even if you look at it quickly, it is the limit of human power. Testifying[102].

The following is an example of misapproved arrest caused by surveillance camera footage.

  • 2012 (24) --A cash robbery case occurred at a convenience store at midnight.A surveillance camera captures the crime, the criminal wore a mask, andAutomatic doorWas touching.Police said based on this video and the testimony of the victim's store employees that their eyes were similar.OsakaIzumiotsu CityOf menArrestdid. Also, from the outside of the damaged store's door,fingerprintWas found. The man insisted, "I was with my friend at home at about the same time as the crime," and showed the photograph taken at that time to the police, but he could not get them to hold it.ProsecutionWas done.ProsecutionAt the trial, he asked an expert to appraise the video, and it was determined that "the similarity between the male and the criminal" was high. But thenLawyerObtained a video from a surveillance camera and checked it one week back from the day of the incident.The video five days before the incident showed a man touching the place where his fingerprint was detected when shopping. Then, it was concluded that "it cannot be concluded that the fingerprint of the automatic door was attached on the day of the incident," and the man said.無罪I was sentenced.Men were detained for 300 days[102].
  • October 2012, 24-FormerChina broadcastingAnnouncerYasuishi HiroshiBut,Hiroshima citySouth wardOn September 9th of the same yearemployeeSuspected of stealing an envelope containing 66,600 yen that was misplacedHiroshima Prefectural PoliceHiroshima South Police StationWas arrested by. Fuseki was subsequently charged and convicted in the first and second trials,Supreme CourtWas convicted of reversal.
  • 2014 (26) June- Yamaguchi A male customer left it on the table at a pachinko parlorWalletThe next day, I sat right behind the man.Female theftOn suspicionYamaguchi Prefectural PoliceWas arrested by. The surveillance camera showed that a woman touched the top of the table when seated and moved to another table one minute later, and Yamaguchi Prefectural Police decided that the woman had stolen his wallet and left. However, after that, a wallet stolen from the trash can in the corner of the store was found, and a surveillance camera there showed another person throwing away the wallet, and misapproved arrest was discovered. The woman was released the morning of the seventh day of his arrest. In addition, when the police again confirmed the surveillance camera at the incident scene, the person who threw away the wallet stole the wallet 1 hour 7 minutes after the woman left the seat.[102].
  • 2017 (29) June- SaitamaFukayaIn the apartment, 1,000 yen in cash was stolen, and a woman in her 30s who came home was injured.Saitama Prefectural PoliceFukaya Police StationConcludes that the man in his thirties is a crime based on the video of the surveillance camera, and this man is in NovemberRobbery,Forced obsceneArrested and detained for 20 days on suspicion of such as (the man denied the suspicion and then released on hold)2018 A man in his twenties, who was arrested in another robbery case in May (30), admitted his involvement in this case and contained information that only the criminal could know, so the Fukaya office announced on August 5. Re-arrested the man and apologized to the man[103].

Number of installations in each country

The number of surveillance cameras installed is increasing in each country. As of 2014, the number of surveillance cameras installed throughout the United Kingdom reached 590 million (11 in 1 people)[104]..In the United States, it is said that more than 2016 million units (3000 in 10.8 people) have been installed as of 1.[105].

AsiaThe number of installations is also increasing.The number of surveillance cameras in China2017 As of December, 12 million units (1 in 7000 people)Artificial intelligenceAlso equipped with (AI)Sky netThe world's largest surveillance camera network called[106],2019 At that time, eight of the ten cities with the most surveillance cameras in the world were said to be in China.[107][108]..In korea2015 It is estimated that 12 million units (800 in 6.4 people) have been installed as of December.[109].

Japan

In Japan, it is estimated that more than 2016 million units (28 in 500 people) are installed as of 25.4, but less than in other developed countries.[2][110][111].

KomeitoIs the delay in the spread of surveillance camerasJapan Communist PartyHe points out that he is in the opposition movement.actually,1996 Tokyo, where the Communist Party member served as the mayor for 8 years from (16)KomaeSince he refused to conclude a "Memorandum of Understanding on Promotion of Community Safety Activities" with the local police station, no security cameras were installed on public roads in the city. Mayor Kunihiko Takahashi, who was elected in 1 after the communist mayor, criticized that "the abnormal situation continued."[112][113].

In Japan, as a legal regulation, there is a draft "Law Concerning the Appropriate Installation of Surveillance Cameras by Administrative Organizations, etc."2003 (July 15, 7)House of RepresentativesIt was submitted to, but it was abandoned because the deliberation was not completed.

Tokyo, depending on the local governmentSuginamiIn some cases, it sets its own standards for camera installation.However, there is no unified standard as of 2016 (Heisei 28).Even so, despite the opposition and resistance of the Communist Party in many parliaments, each local government has included "security camera installation" in the ordinance for crime prevention from around 2003, so it is more regional than before. It was one of the triggers for the installation of security cameras.[112][113].

Occurred in 2018Niigata small 2 girl murder caseThen, the police told the owner of the car that was driving near the crime scene during the investigation processdrive recorderCalled for records.As a result, the drive recorder acts as a surveillance camera and the criminal is arrested.[114]..The number of drive recorders shipped in Japan reached about 2020 million in 340 alone.[115].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ British: time lapse VTR

Source

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  72. ^ Industry First IP Time of Flight Camera (3xLogic) (English) --IPVM April 2016, 4
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  74. ^ "A number of swivel cameras for outdoor surveillance that meet high security needs"RBB Today (December 2016, 3)
  75. ^ Pandemic solution Nippon Avionics
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Related item

外部 リンク

investigation

investigation(That's right,(British: criminal investigation) IscrimeOn the other hand, the investigative agencyCriminalDiscovered and secured, andevidenceIt is a series of actions performed for the purpose of collecting and preserving[1].

Overview

The investigation is conducted on the premise of a crime[2].

On the other hand, for the purpose of finding and arresting a criminal, the investigative agency makes an investigator or a third party a "decoy", and the investigative agency dares to induce a crime, and the criminal of the crime is called.Current offenderThe investigation method to be arrested may be adopted.thisSting operationSay[3].

The investigation is also conducted to carry out the prosecution (common theory).[2]. However,Jury trial systemIn countries that take (jury trials), even prima facie charges can be prosecuted, but in Japan and other countries where this is not the case, prosecutions without certain charges are traditionally not allowed.[2].

Forensics is responding to changes and progress in society, and with the help of forensic medicine, psychology, physics, chemistry, engineering, psychiatry, etc., the nature of forensic investigation is gradually strengthening.[1].

The investigation can include the cooperative exercise of authority such as arrest and search, and the parties concernedhuman rightsBecause it has a strong influence on[1](That is,Human rights violations(Because it can be), strictly by lawRegulationIt must be[1]..Therefore, there are a number of principles for disciplining investigators.#Principles of investigation

All investigations must be conducted within the scope of the law.Do not deviate from the law.In general, collecting evidence through illegal search and seizure, in a broad sense, illegally detaining a suspect, conducting illegal interrogation to obtain a confession, recording conversations by illegal wiretapping, etc. Say[4]..Investigators conducting illegal investigations are no longer investigators, but himselfcriminalTherefore, it is not suitable for an investigator, so it should be dismissed and severely punished.

Delineation and proper use of names

Since a crime is about to occur, the act of preventing and stopping it is not the exercise of judicial police power, but the exercise of administrative police power, not an investigation, even if it is an act of a police officer.[5].. In addition, the investigation is carried out by an investigative agency, and complaints from crime victims are the beginning of the investigation, but not the investigation itself.[6].

From confessions to evidence

ConfessionAvoiding overweight, collect all evidence properly and complete the investigation with its rational comprehensive strength (to clarify the facts with evidence).Evidence investigation principleTo say[7].. The investigation is in response to changes and progress in society.Forensic medicine-Psychology-physics-Chemical-engineering-PsychiatryWith the help of such, it is gradually strengthening the character of forensic science.[1].

Illegal investigation in Japan, improper interrogation in a closed room, confessions

Investigators were still personally in my heart in JapanOUR STORYBased on (fiction), the suspect is detained for a long time and interrogated (“interrogation”) in a closed room, and the suspect is psychologically hunted down or psychologically guided, even to those who have not committed a crime.Coercion of confessions(Depending on the belief of the investigative agencyFalse confession composition, signature coercion, etc.) Is performed, and the evidence is arbitrarily interpreted with an absolute view of the "confession".Investigators hide genuine evidenceAnd so onFalse accusationIs producing many[8]..Originally, if only a legal investigation was conducted, all the cross-examinations would be recorded and there would be no problem. (In the United States, police interrogations are now recorded. Confessions and confession records that do not record the status of confessions are invalid).Normally, all interrogations must be recorded 100% to ensure fairness, but Japanese investigative agencies still have a pre-modern climate, with confessions and problematic interrogations. It seems that the state where the interrogation is carried out without 100% recording is left unattended, and the inappropriate act by the investigator is performed in a closed room, causing a lot of false charges. Still abandoned[8]..A rule was enacted that all interrogations must be 100% recorded in order to improve this barbaric condition in Japan, and if the interrogations were not 100% recorded, the investigation would be "confessions". Even if the official says or the confession record is signed, a judicial principle has been established that does not accept it as a confession, and this principle must be fully adhered to.Unless they do so, investigators will continue to force false confessions and false accusations will continue to occur indefinitely.

For example, in Japan, it is well known that investigative agencies have caused a large number of perverts, and the violent investigation climate has become a social problem.Film director Masayuki Suo interviewed the movie "The problematic investigation climate of Japan.Still I'm not doing itWas released in 2007.Japanese investigative agencies have a terrible disregard for human rights, and even if they happen to be in the same passenger car, they decide that they are the criminal and keep them in a closed room for days and days to contact their wives and children. However, he never allowed a single contact at work, and the person trapped in a closed room said, "My beloved family will be worried for days that I'm missing." They may be worried that they have gone missing. It must be a big problem at work. "" But the investigators in front of us don't even allow one contact. " "If you want to get out of here, confess"Threatening, The investigative agency forces the signature of the composition, and even the people who have not committed the crime are forced to become criminals.

For exampleAbuse case of postal system for persons with disabilitiesThen,Osaka District ProsecutorProsecutorHowever, I was obsessed with the story that happened to come to my mind, and was the director of the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare at that time.Atsuko MurakiI decided that he was the criminal even though there was no evidence,Falsification of evidenceWent up to (Osaka District Public Prosecutor's Office Chief Prosecutor Evidence Tampering Case

Principles of investigation

The principle of fairness and fairness

The principle of fairness and impartiality is that the right of investigation is carried out in a fair and honest manner, because the investigation reveals the truth of the case while maintaining the public welfare and respecting the basic human rights of the individual. The principle that it must not unreasonably infringe on the freedom and rights of[6].

Principle of voluntary investigation

The principle of voluntary investigation means that the investigation should be based on the premise that respect for basic human rights should be taken into consideration, and that the investigation should be in a form with little infringement of human rights.[6].

Principle of smuggling

The principle of smuggling is that the investigation is to guarantee the basic human rights of the persons involved in the case, and also to prevent the destruction of evidence and the escape of the criminal due to the leakage of the investigation contents to the outside.[9].. However, in some cases, some of the investigation information may be disclosed to the public for widespread cooperation.[6].. (Public investigation)

Investigation in Japanese criminal procedure

Investigation structure theory

Inquisitorial and impeachment investigations

1958 years,Ryuichi HiranoShowed two ideas as a completely contrasting view of investigation, an inquisitorial view and an impeachment view.[7].

Inquisitorial view of investigation
The idea is that all investigation activities are carried out by the executive body, and the suspect is nothing more than the object, and the suspect is not in the position of one party. Under the old Code of Criminal Procedure before the war, investigation activities and trial maintenance were carried out based on this idea. The idea is that the state has a strong aspect of fact-finding activities.
Impeachment view
Even in the investigation stage, the investigative agency and the suspect vie on an equal footing, and the idea is that the clarification of the facts is based on the proceedings in the court, and the postwar criminal procedure adopted this impeachment legal system. is there.

It is not a matter of adopting either way of thinking, but it is necessary to clarify the facts, prevent crimes, and harmonize with respect for human rights. In addition to the above two model theories, there is a proposal for an original investigation structure called a litigation investigation view (investigation uniqueness theory).

Uniqueness of the investigation

The conventional wisdom regards investigations as "preparatory nature of trials", but this conventional way of thinking regards only investigative agencies as the subject of investigations, which is not in line with the current Code of Criminal Procedure, which is based on adversarial system. , Not only the investigative agency, but also the suspect's side is said to have a structure that is in opposition to each other as the main body of the investigation.[10].. In the theory of uniqueness of the investigation, the purpose of the investigation is "to clarify the existence of facts for deciding whether to prosecute or not prosecute", and the suspect side also collects evidence and excuses from the stage of the investigation procedure before the trial. By carrying out defensive activities, the suspect side is also the "subject of the investigation" along with the investigative agency, so it is the view to denounce the investigation procedure.[11].

In addition, practitioners have expressed the view of re-questioning the purpose of the investigation from a different perspective than the above-mentioned theory of uniqueness of the investigation. The practical effect of the investigation itself is important because the investigation activity plays an admonition role to the criminal, alleviates anxiety for society and gives satisfaction that justice has been done. , It is said that it cannot be ignored. In addition, as a matter of fact, it has been questioned whether the criminal investigation is aimed at "file a prosecution and maintain a trial" from the beginning. Investigative activities may be carried out even if the litigation conditions are not met (see below).Tolerance of investigation in case of lack of litigation conditions(See) Therefore, it is said that attention should be paid to the functions of the investigation activity itself, such as judgment of suspicion and elucidation of cases. According to it, an investigation to determine the case or suspicion, which is the stage before the prosecution is filed, can be conducted, and prior to that, activities aimed at "file a prosecution and maintain the trial" are carried out. It is said that it does not fit the reality. Therefore, there are criticisms that the idea of ​​limiting the purpose of the investigation to the traditional "file of prosecution and maintenance of trial" is unreasonable and lacks the need to limit it. Not only the investigation for prosecution, but also the investigation to resolve the suspicion of the suspect and confirm that he is not the criminal, and the investigation activity to postpone the prosecution, that is, not prosecution but non-prosecution. An investigation is also underway. In this way, it is narrowly lost that the purpose of the investigation is only to file a prosecution and prepare for execution. Rather, it is simply "discovering the truth including improvement and rehabilitation of the criminal, and realizing justice. It is also argued that it is more correct to say that it is in "the arrest of the criminal and the collection and preservation of evidence".[12].

Police officials have criticized that limiting the purpose of police investigations to "preparing for prosecution and maintaining trials" deviates from actual investigation activities. According to this, in reality, police investigation activities themselves have functions such as prevention and suppression of crimes, rehabilitation of criminals, and maintenance of a peaceful social life. The police investigation, which is also responsible for the prevention and suppression of crimes, is separated from the investigations conducted by other investigative agencies.Police investigation"For the protection of personal life, body and property, the preparation and execution of prosecution, and the maintenance of public safety and order, we will discover and collect evidence, collect and analyze criminal information, and the criminal. There is a view that defines it as "an activity to control and find and secure suspects."[13].

Investigation agency

The investigation is carried out by an investigative agency.Criminal procedure codeThe investigative agencies stipulated by the government are as follows.

In most cases, judicial police officers are in charge of the investigation as the primary investigative agency (Criminal Procedure Code, Article 189, Paragraph 2). The investigation in this case is synonymous with judicial police activities because the prosecutor is not in charge, and is mainly aimed at crime prevention activities.Administrative police activitiesIs distinguished from. However, the regulations of both laws often overlap (for discussions on the distinction between judicial police activities and administrative police activities,Administrative police activitiesSee).

In addition, as a secondary investigative agency, the prosecutor can give necessary instructions and supervise the investigation of the judicial police officers, and supplement if the investigation conducted by the judicial police officers is inadequate. The investigation can be conducted from the standpoint (Criminal Procedure Code, Article 191, Paragraph 1).The prosecutor's right to investigate is not secondary, but has his own right to investigate, so-called "Tokusou DepartmentIn some cases, the prosecutor who belongs to ", etc." is in charge of the investigation directly (Prosecutor's right to investigatereference).

Beginning of the investigation

The investigation is started when the investigative agency considers that there is a crime (Criminal Procedure Code, Article 189, Paragraph 2, Article 191, Paragraph 1). What causes the investigation to start ("The beginning of the investigation" (Code of criminal investigationChapter 2)) includes the following.

  • Charges/accuses(Articles 230 and 239 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Article 63 of the Code of Criminal Procedure)
  • Self(Article 245 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, Article 63 of the Criminal Investigation Code)
  • damage report(Article 61 of the Criminal Investigation Code)
crimeThose who think that they have suffered fromPolicemenSuch asInvestigation agencyReport todamage reportTo say[14]..It merely declares the fact of the damage and seeks the criminal charge.ChargesDifferent from[14]..Those who have been victims of theft of gunpowder or guns are obliged to submit a damage report (the legal name is "accident report") (Explosives Control LawArticle 46 paragraph 1,Gun sword methodArticle 23-2), there is no such obligation for the damage of other crimes[14].
  • Autopsy(Article 229 of the Code of Criminal Procedure)
  • Job question(Article 2 of the Police Officer Duties Execution Law, Article 1 of the Criminal Investigation Code)
  • Guard(Articles 19 and 25, Criminal Investigation Code Article 59)
  • Current offenderDiscovery of a person (Article 212 of the Code of Criminal Procedure)
  • Automobile OfSimultaneous inspection(It was recognized that it is different from the job question according to Article 28, Paragraph 3 of the Regional Police Management Regulations, Saisho 55.9.22)
  • Articles in newspapers and other publications, information provided via the Internet, anonymous declarations, rumors and other widespread social events (Article 59 of the Criminal Investigation Code)
  • Others (Investigation of other cases,Sneak notice,Reputation,News report, Letter to the editor, etc.)

Forced investigation and voluntary investigation

Investigations are divided into forced investigations and voluntary investigations.

Forced investigation

What is a forced investigation?Forced disposalRefers to the investigation by. The specific content of the forced investigation isSuspectTo secure the personality ofArrest-detention,evidenceTo securesearch-Seizure-Verificationand so on.

Regarding compulsory disposition, the judicial precedent is

It does not mean a means that involves the exercise of tangible power, and unless there is a special basis provision such as an act of suppressing the will of an individual and forcibly realizing the purpose of the investigation by restricting the body, housing, property, etc. Means that are not reasonable to tolerate

— Supreme CourtThird Small Court Decided on March 51, 3

And

The part of this case that "does not mean a means that involves the exercise of tangible force" is based on the theory that the conventional method of using tangible force is compulsory disposition.DefendantIn response to the claim, "Means that are not appropriate to tolerate without special grounds"Compulsory disposal statutory principle[15]Natural consequences fromtautology), Therefore, it is considered that the essence is that it is an investigative means that infringes important rights and interests (contrary to the will of the person to be disposed of) (common theory). However, there is strong legal criticism that the jurisprudence requires the requirement that "a means that is not appropriate to allow without special grounds".

On the other hand, the view that all infringement of rights and interests, even if not important, is compulsory is also argued in connection with the so-called "new compulsory disposition theory". The new theory of compulsory disposition is the view that even compulsory dispositions not stipulated by the Code of Criminal Procedure should be tolerated if the warrant-based request is substantially met. There are criticisms that this view is not possible as an interpretation of Japanese law, apart from the legislative theory or the interpretation of American law under Article 4 of the Federal Constitutional Amendment.

If a forced investigation is conducted illegally, whether or not the evidence obtained in the investigation has evidence capacityIllegal Collecting Evidence Exclusion LawIt becomes a problem of.

Voluntary investigation

What is a voluntary investigation?Voluntary disposalSay an investigation by. Voluntary disposal refers to disposal other than compulsory disposal, and in the general sense, "anyThe nuance is slightly different from the word.

In principle, the investigation is voluntary and does not require any special legal basis.[16]Therefore, regarding voluntary disposition, the limit of voluntary investigation is discussed as an important issue.

Tolerance of investigation in case of lack of litigation conditions

Litigation termsIs, under the Code of Criminal Procedure, pursuing a prosecution, substantive trial of the casetrialOf these, the legal requirements for prosecution (indictment) are also called prosecution conditions.

As an example of the lack of litigation conditions, (a)SuspectIf is dead, (b)PrescriptionIf is completed, (c)Guilty chargesvictim OfChargesMay be lacking.

In either case, neither prosecution nor trial maintenance is possible.

Then, can we investigate if we lack the conditions for litigation or prosecution?

If the definition and main purpose of the investigation is to file a prosecution (decision to prosecute or not prosecute) and maintain the trial, the purpose of the investigation cannot be satisfied because neither the prosecution nor the trial can be maintained. Therefore, there is room for interpretational debate as to whether it is possible to conduct an investigation even in such cases.

However, the terms of the lawsuit are different from the terms of the investigation. In addition, for example, even if the criminal dies after the crime, it cannot be left as it is, and since it is necessary to handle the case, it is understood that an investigation within a reasonably reasonable range is permitted. ing.

In addition, it is necessary to carry out a compulsory investigation "when the litigation conditions are completely lacking" (a) whether the request for clarification of the case is not so strong (strength of public interest) or (b) infringe the interests of the subject. Since it is small (comparative with the infringed legal interests), it should be avoided as much as possible.

Investigation in the Criminal Procedure of the International Criminal Court

Beginning of the investigation

International Criminal CourtIf you believe that you are committing a crime subject to the Rome Statute ofUnited Nations Security Council(UN Security Council) and States parties refer the situation to the public prosecutor (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Articles 13 and 14)[17].. In principle, an investigation should be conducted on the referral situation, and the referee must be notified when the investigation is to be stopped due to lack of sufficient grounds (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Articles 13 and 53). 2)[17].

The prosecutor may initiate the investigation on his own initiative, but if there is a reasonable reason to continue the investigation, he must request permission from the prosecutor's office.[17].

The UN Security Council may request by resolution not to start or continue an investigation or prosecution for 12 months, and this request may be renewed (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 16).[18].

Performing an investigation

In principle, the investigation is conducted with the cooperation of the state, and the prosecutor of the International Criminal Court conducts the investigation directly only when there is no domestic institution capable of fulfilling the mission (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 57). 3d)[19].

For situations referred by the UN Security Council, the UN Security Council may exercise the powers of Chapter VII of the Charter of the United Nations even against non-parties (see Article 7, 87 of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court).[20].. In this case, the International Criminal Court can also refer the issue of refusal of cooperation of the State party to the UN Security Council (Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, Article 87-7).[20].

footnote

  1. ^ a b c d e Britannica International Encyclopedia "Investigation"
  2. ^ a b c Kazuo Kawakami & Hiroshi Kawamura 2012, p. 8.
  3. ^ "Complete Book of Japanese Encyclopedia" [Sting Operation]
  4. ^ [https://kotobank.jp/word/%E9%81%95%E6%B3%95%E6%8D%9C%E6%9F%BB-1270868 Kotobank Illegal Investigation
  5. ^ Kazuo Kawakami & Hiroshi Kawamura 2012, p. 10.
  6. ^ a b c d Kazuo Kawakami & Hiroshi Kawamura 2012, p. 11.
  7. ^ a b Kazuo Kawakami & Hiroshi Kawamura 2012, p. 13.
  8. ^ a b Investigative climate that causes false accusations Absolute confession is not allowed
  9. ^ Kazuo Kawakami & Hiroshi Kawamura 2012, p. 12.
  10. ^ Wazaaki Ishikawa"Defense function in investigation" (Nihon Hyoronsha)
  11. ^ Akira Idota"Intersection of criminal proceeding theory and practice" Yuhikaku
  12. ^ Takeshi Tsuchimoto"Crime Investigation" Kobundo
  13. ^ Hidehiko Sato"The Resurrection of Security" (Tachibana Shobo)
  14. ^ a b c Britannica International Encyclopedia Subitem Encyclopedia. “damage report”(Japanese). Koto bank. 2021/8/23Browse.
  15. ^ Article 31 of the Constitution, Article 197, Paragraph 1 of the Code of Criminal Procedure
  16. ^ Article 197, Paragraph 1 of the Code of Criminal Procedure
  17. ^ a b c Shinya Murase & Keiko Hong 2014, p. 235 "Characteristics of ICC Criminal Procedure" by Kanako Takayama
  18. ^ Shinya Murase & Keiko Hong 2014, pp. 235–236 “Characteristics of ICC Criminal Procedure” by Kanako Takayama
  19. ^ Shinya Murase & Keiko Hong 2014, p. 236 "Characteristics of ICC Criminal Procedure" by Kanako Takayama
  20. ^ a b Shinya Murase & Keiko Hong 2014, p. 237 "Characteristics of ICC Criminal Procedure" by Kanako Takayama

References

  • Kazuo Kawakami, Yoshifusa Nakayama, Yuki Furuta, Kunio Harada, Hiroshi Kawamura, Sakiko Watanabe, ed., "Large Commental Criminal Litigation Law, Volume 4, Volume 189 (Articles 246-XNUMX)"Seirin Shoin,Year 2012
  • Shinya Murase and Keiko Hong, "International Criminal Court-Judging the Most Serious International Crimes, Second Edition," Toshindo, 2014
  • Ryuichi Hirano "Criminal Litigation Law" (Yuhikaku)
  • Atsumi Toyo "Criminal Litigation Law" (Yuhikaku)
  • Osamu Ikeda / Masahide Maeda "Criminal Litigation Law Lecture" (University of Tokyo Press)
  • Hiroshi Tamiya "Criminal Law in Change" (Yuhikaku Publishing)
  • Hiroshi Tamiya "Structure of Investigation" (Yuhikaku Publishing)
  • Hiroshi Kumagai / Koya Matsuo / Hiroshi Tamiya ed., "Investigation Hosei University", all three volumes (Nihon Hyoronsha)
  • Tokio Hirara "Investigation Law" (Seibundo)
  • Takeshi Tsuchimoto "Crime Investigation" (Koubundou Publishers)

 

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