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🚗 | Formula E releases "Gen2023" teaser scheduled to be introduced in 3.In the world's first "four-wheel regeneration" formula


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Formula E releases "Gen2023" teaser to be introduced in 3.In the world's first "four-wheel regeneration" formula

 
If you write the contents roughly
It is also the first formula car that does not have a hydraulic brake on the rear side.
 

ABB Formula E, which conducted an off-season test for "Season 11" from November 29th for two days ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

brake

brake (Brake) is a device that moves, slows down, or stops a moving object.Since these movements are called braking,Braking deviceIt is also called (Seido Sochi).

Bicycle,Automobile,オ ー ト バ イ,Railway car,aircraft,エ レ ベ ー タ ー, For competitionSled(Bobsled),craneIt is generally installed not only in vehicles but also in moving objects.Also, it has a high-speed rotating object (Washing machine(Drums, etc.), and some machines that require precise stop control also have brakes.It is also used as a word that means to suppress change from the original meaning (""BusinessThe brakes are applied "etc.).

mechanism

To reduce movement speedPhysical energyBy the method of reducingfrictionByHeat energyWhat to convert to (mechanical brake),Electric energyWhat converts to and consumes its electrical energy in some way (Eddy current brake,Electromagnetic retarder,Regenerative brake,Dynamic brake), Utilizing the motion resistance of the fluid (Aerobraking, Fluid retarder), etc.

WheelFor vehicles with tread brakes, apart from railroad vehicles that can use tread brakes, as mechanical brakesDisc brake,Drum brakeThere are many examples of using.These are those in which a turntable or a cylindrical drum is mounted in an axle or a wheel, and frictional resistance is applied to these to obtain a braking action.Drum brakes have a strong braking force and can be made lightly and inexpensively, while disc brakes have the advantage of stable braking force.For details, refer to each item.

AerobrakingSpacecraft,aircraftAnd some racing cars,Linear motor car,ShinkansenTest vehicle etc.High speed trainUsed in vehiclesDrag shoot,SpoilerIt acts on the atmosphere outside the airframe and body.

Automobile

In the case of automobile brakes, in modern timesbreak pedalBecause it is operated with your feetFoot brakeAlso called.Most passenger cars are controlled by flood control,Large carThen.Compressed airUsedAir brakeIs the mainstream.In a car to hold the vehicle when parkedParking brakeThere are some, but this is different from the brakes used when driving in terms of mechanism and purpose.Generally, it was called a handbrake because it is operated by hand, or a side brake from the position of the brake lever, but a type that is stepped on with a foot or a type that automatically locks by operating a switch has also been developed and is generally used.Parking brakeIt is called.

As a braking mechanism,sports car,luxury carThen.Disc brake, Large carsDrum brake,Popular car,Light carIn many cases, disc brakes are used for the front wheels and drum brakes are used for the rear wheels.These mechanical brakes are resistantfadeVentilated discs when sex is required, drum brakes and drum-in discs when restraint when stopping or parking, etc., usage environment, etc.Vehicle total weight, Production cost, profit margin, etc. are taken into consideration when selected and adopted.

Also other than frictionDeceleration,SpeedIt is a mechanism,Engine brake,Diesel car(Especially large cars)Exhaust brake,Compression release brake,Retarder,andHybrid car,Electric carThe regenerative brake (which charges the battery with the electric power generated during deceleration) is also a brake, and part of it is coordinated with the mechanical brake so that the driver is not aware of anything other than the mechanical brake.

Motorcycle (motorcycle)

Motorcycle brakes generally operate the front and rear wheels separately, but large tourers and small ones.scooterThere are also models that use mechanically or electronically controlled front-rear interlocking brakes.For front and rear brakes, operate the front wheel brakes with your right hand and the rear wheel brakes with your right foot or left hand.

As a braking mechanism, disc brakes are generally used for the front and rear wheels, mainly for sports cars and large vehicles, and drum brakes are generally used for the rear wheels or front and rear wheels of small and utility vehicles, but the type of brake is external. There are many exceptions because it has a large effect on (drum brakes are often seen as old-fashioned, low-priced, and low-performance).Since the weight of the vehicle is lighter than that of a four-wheeled vehicle, the amount of heat is small, and the disc rotor is also exposed and easily exposed to the wind, so cooling is not a major problem, so heavy ventilated discs are not usually used.

Parking brakeIt is,gearIt is not equipped with a method to put in other than N or a car model that can be easily replaced with a center stand, and a heavy car that makes it difficult to set up the center stand,scooterAmong them, it is equipped only for utility vehicles that are supposed to get on and off frequently for delivery work and outside, and big scooters that emphasize comfort.

Train

In modern railway vehicles, as a mechanical brake that applies a braking force to a wheel, a tread brake or a disc brake that directly applies a brake shoe to the contact surface of the wheel with the railroad track is generally used.In addition, as a component of the control / drive system for operating the brake, it is usuallyAutomatic air brakeOr apply that basic principleEmergency brakeThe device is installed.

electric motorPowered byElectric train,Electric locomotive, Hybrid systemRailcarIn such cases, the motor can be switched by switching the control circuit.GeneratorBy adopting dynamic braking (generated power is consumed by in-vehicle resistance) and regenerative braking (generated power is returned to overhead wires and batteries for reuse), the tire temperature rises due to the regular use of mechanical brakes. It is common to suppress uneven wear.

It is the most primitive air brake mechanism for trams that do not operate in combination.Direct brakeMay be used to control and drive mechanical brakes.In the past, there were cases where drum brakes were used as mechanical brakes, mainly for trams, and as an emergency brake when used in combination with other brakes.Hand brakeWas standard, but in recent years there have been virtually no examples of adoption.

For steep mountain lines, rail brakes that press the brake shoes directly against the track may be installed as an emergency.

As a characteristic brake for high-speed rail cars, it is installed as a substitute for dynamic braking and regenerative braking in Shinkansen accompanying vehicles that do not have motors.Eddy current disc brakeAnd German high-speed rail carsICE3Equipped withEddy current type rail brakeThere is a non-contact brake.

aircraft

In the case of an aircraft, of course, friction cannot be used for deceleration, unlike railroads and cars that travel due to friction between wheels and rails or roads.For deceleration in flightthrottleBesides the adjustment ofAerobraking,Reverse injection deviceCan be used properly.Especially mobility is importantFighterIn such cases, it is necessary to decelerate without reducing the engine output, so decelerate with an aerodynamic brake using a panel brake attached to the fuselage or the upper surface of the main wing (in passenger aircraft, the panel brake attached to the upper surface of the main wing is called a spoiler). There are many.Air resistance is proportional to the square of speed, making it a very convenient brake for aircraft flying at high speeds.On the contrary, at low speeds, the effect of aerobraking decreases, so when traveling on the runway at the time of landing, aircraft equipped with a jet engine such as passenger aircraftReverse thrust deviceAt the same time as the reverse injection by[Annotation 1], With disc brakes built into the wheelsタ イ ヤDecelerates due to friction between the ground and the ground[Annotation 2]..Disc brakes are mounted in single-plate, double-plate (with two discs) and multi-plate (multiple rotor plates) tire wheels.キ ーThere is a brake disc that is fixed and rotates together, and a plate that is studded with a brake lining plate called a stator plate that is attached and fixed to the brake body, and the two are combined in a staggered manner. ), And the multi-plate type disc brake used in large machines uses the flood pressure from the high-pressure hydraulic oil system by the engine-driven hydraulic pump as the power source when applying the brake.[Annotation 3], Called a segmented rotor type brake.Also, for the rotor plate and stator plate of the multi-plate type disc brakes of recent large machines.Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materialIs used to reduce the weight.

Fighter is shortRunwayWhen landing onspace shuttleParachute for deceleration used when landingdragShoot) is also one of the aerobraking.

rocket

rocketHas no friction or air resistance with the ground宇宙空間Because it flies, you cannot use aerobraking like an aircraft (however, the earth is about several hundred kilometers above the ground).Low orbitSince the atmosphere is not a little present, air resistance cannot be ignored in long-term flights such as months or years).Therefore, many rockets are small.Reverse injection engineIt is equipped with and used when shortening the orbital radius.

AtmosphereToRe-entryWhen doing so, the altitude drops and the air resistance increases, so the parachute is mainly used when landing.Since parachutes cannot be used in celestial bodies with no atmosphere or dilute celestial bodies, the vehicle will consistently decelerate with a reverse injection engine until landing.

Bicycle

Brake type

electric motor

The method of obtaining braking force using the motor itself is described.

Dynamic braking
A brake that uses an electric motor as a generator (Dynamic brake).In a DC motorNew performance trainIt is a brake that has been used for a long time.The control of the braking force is mainly released as heat energy by increasing or decreasing the resistance of the resistor that consumes electric power.Especially to send it back to the power supply side instead of consuming it with a resistorRegenerative brakingCall.Induction motorInSync speedIf the rotation speed of the rotor is faster,Induction generatorTaking advantage of working asVariable voltage variable frequency controlIn, the frequency supplied to the motor is lowered to consume the electric power generated by the resistor, or the control of sending back to the power supply side via the converter is adopted at the time of deceleration.When doing this controlSliding sThe frequency to be supplied is adjusted so that s ≤ 0, but the effect is lost in the low speed range.Permanent magnet synchronous motorIn the case of, the current supplied to the stator must be adjusted so that the slip is always kept at 0, but dynamic braking can be performed up to the extremely low speed range.
DC braking
Direct current (frequency is 0) in the stator of the induction motor HzIt is a brake that converts kinetic energy into Joule heat of the rotor as a rotary armature type synchronous generator that short-circuits the load by flowing alternating current).[1]..The braking force is equivalent to the starting torque of the induction motor.Cage three-phase induction motorIn the case of, the braking force can be exerted in the speed range from low speed to stop.Winding type three-phase induction motorIn the case of, increase the secondary resistance and connect the secondary to the outside.ResistorSince the electric power generated in the rotor can be converted into heat energy, the DC braking range can be increased and the braking force can be exerted in a wide speed range.Especially in cranes, DC braking is also called dynamic braking.[2]..In a permanent magnet synchronous motor, an excessive voltage is induced in the stator and destroys the inverter element unless it is just before the stop, or the overheating of the motor causes demagnetization of the internal permanent magnet, so it is used only near the stop speed.In either case, the braking torque is at most equivalent to the starting torque of the motor, and since the rotor cannot be locked, it cannot be used alone and a friction brake must be used together.
Reverse phase braking
Also called plugging[3]..It is a brake that utilizes the fact that the magnetic field rotates in the opposite direction to the rotor when any two phases of three-phase alternating current are exchanged in a three-phase induction motor.A large braking force can be obtained near the stop speed, and 0rpmBut braking force can be obtained.However, plugging is equivalent to supplying a reverse voltage to the motor that has become a generator, so there is no choice but to limit the applied current, and in the normal rotation range, only braking torque lower than the starting torque can be obtained, so the capacity is small. Applicable only to motors.In addition, if it is left as it is, it will rotate in the reverse direction, so it is necessary to surrender control to a mechanical brake mechanism such as a friction brake and cut off the power supply of the motor just before stopping.In addition, the synchronous motor can generate torque only at the synchronous speed, and if the rotating magnetic field cannot be accompanied by the rotor, it will cause step-out and the rotation will become unstable, so plugging is ineffective.

In addition, mechanical brakes and other brakes may be incorporated coaxially with the electric motor (brake motor), and are used in various fields.

Non-contact brake

Eddy current brake
Attach a conductive disk or cylinder to the rotating shaft and sandwich it with an electromagnet.When the disk rotates with the electromagnet excited by direct current, the eddy current produces torque in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation.[2][4]It is a brake that utilizes this.The eddy current brake reduces the rotational speed and the braking torque, but by using an electromagnet, the braking force can be exerted even at low speeds.Eddy current brakes are disc or cylindricalJoule heatIt requires some kind of heat treatment mechanism to absorb energy.Eddy current disc brakes used in high-speed railways have a hollow disc structure that allows air to escape in the radial direction.Ventilated discOr, the drum structure has a structure that cools by forced ventilation.[5]..The disadvantage is that it is heavy and expensive due to the close proximity of strong electromagnets that create a magnetic field that produces eddy currents.Also for large vehicles and towing vehiclesElectromagnetic retarderThere is an example of mounting, but it is necessary to strengthen the alternator and battery that supply the powerful electromagnet.Powerful because a constant magnetic field is sufficientNeodymium magnetThere is an application example using[6]Although the capacity of the retarder is limited, it is being adopted more and more in Japan because it is small and lightweight and the cost is reasonable.Since the magnetic field generation source is a permanent magnet, it is devised to let the magnetic field lines of the permanent magnet escape when it is not operating.

History

Train

Passenger car,truck CarriageInitially, hand brakes were used, in which the mechanical brakes were operated directly by humans using the principle of leverage, due to the historical background of starting with the help of the technology of.Alsosteam locomotiveLet's use the steam obtained from our own carSteam brakeIs used for each vehicle during linked operationBrakemanThe brakes were operated by arranging operation personnel called.However, with the lengthening of the formation, problems such as operation delay in an emergency, command transmission, and lack of braking force have surfaced, and the development of penetrating brakes that can be collectively commanded from the driver's cab has been promoted.

At that time, the steam locomotive was a power vehicle, so it is the easiest to secure the power source for the brakes.Vacuum brakeIn the 1860sUnited KingdomIt will be put to practical use in.continue1868 ToAmerica OfGeorge WestinghouseByCompressed airUseDirect brakeWas invented.However, if air leaks due to a train separation accident due to damage to the coupler or a rupture of the brake hose / brake pipe, the braking force of the entire train is reduced or cannot be completely obtained, which poses a serious safety problem.

This problem1872 George WestinghouseAutomatic air brakeThe solution was found by inventing.This is an epoch-making system that supplies compressed air to one brake pipe drawn through the entire formation and commands each vehicle to brake by the decompression operation.If the brake hose ruptures, the brakes will automatically operate due to air leaks, dramatically improving safety during long train operations.A wire, reel, and weight are used for this type of penetration brake system.Heberlein brakeHowever, due to the difficulty of connecting and separating work, it remains a minority.

After that, with the exception of the United Kingdom, which has long adhered to vacuum brakes, automatic air brakes have established themselves as the de facto standard, and performance has been improved by improving valve devices and adding electromagnetic synchronous valves to make electromagnetic automatic air brakes. rice field.On the other hand, the direct brake continued to be improved due to its good responsiveness and simple structure.

Regarding direct braking, in the United States in the late 1920sDynamic brakeFacilitated synchronization withElectromagnetic direct brakeBut,1967 Integrated with power generation and regenerative braking in JapanElectric command type brakeHave been developed respectively.Both have exploded in popularity in Japan, but the share of automatic air brakes (including electromagnetic automatic air brakes) is overwhelming worldwide due to compatibility issues with conventional vehicles.Electromagnetic direct brake, electric command type brake, orPure electric brakeEven if the vehicle is equipped withFail-safeIt is common to have a mechanism equivalent to an automatic air brake for the purpose of.

Automobile

Early automobile brakes were often diverted from carriages and had many primitive mechanisms such as rubbing rods against wheels, but as driving performance improves, reliable braking methods are required.Therefore, a mechanism was adopted to transmit the movement of the brake pedal to the drum brakes of the four wheels with a rod, and laterwireHowever, the power transmission to the four wheels was uneven, and when the brake pedal was suddenly depressed, it tended to be "one-sided", and there were difficulties in braking force and vehicle stability.Next, instead of the mechanical type, a hydraulic type that moves the piston via a liquid such as oil has been adopted, and a practical braking force has come to be obtained.

For hydraulically operated vehicle braking devices,1895 For carriagesPatentHowever, it was the technology that was incorporated into automobiles.American Of(English edition).Duesenberg 1921 Adopting a hydraulic brake on the front wheels,ChryslerとAudi 1924 We adopted four-wheel flood control brakes.After that, hydraulic brakes have become common for both automobiles and motorcycles.Initially, most used drum brakes,1950 eraSince then, the adoption of disc brakes has become widespread.Along with that, in order to make up for the drawbacks of disc brakes that do not have self-boosting action,Brake booster (en: Vacuum servo) Can be installed at the same time1960 eraIn the second half, it became common.

Also, with tire performance and bodysuspension OfrigidityWith the improvement, more stable braking became possible, but on the other hand, the vehiclePhysical energySince (weight and speed) have also increased dramatically, each manufacturer has to exert stable braking force even when braking from high speeds, not only the brake components, but also the weight distribution of the vehicle, tire size and characteristics. ,shock absorber,Spring constantOptimization,Center of gravityOf movement and behavioranalysis,Antilock braking system(ABS) andAnti-skid mechanism(ESC) and other attitude control systemsdevelopment ofWe are developing brakes including such as.

Technology

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Propeller aircraft equipped with variable pitch propellers are propellerspitchThe thrust generated by the propeller is reversed by changing the angle to the opposite angle.
  2. ^ An anti-skid system (ABS in automobiles) is built into the brake system of large machines and high-performance machines, and wheel speed sensors are attached to each axle, and when the wheels rotate, an electric signal is generated, which is It is sent to the anti-skid control device through the harness, and the control device sends a signal to the skid control valve based on it, and the skid control valve moves to control the hydraulic pressure of the brake.
  3. ^ This system is also used for control devices such as flaps, ailerons, and spoilers, and for steering gears for landing gears that change the direction of the aircraft while traveling on the ground (taxiing).

Source

References

  • "Airplane Structure" Japan Aviation Technology Association 1989 
  • Takayoshi Nakata et al. "Electrical Equipment II" Asakura Shoten <Electrical and Electronic Information Basic Series 7>, September 1984, 9.

Related item

Formula car

Formula car (Formula car) Is in line with the standard (formula) that "wheels and driver are exposed"Racing carIs.Performed in a formula carCar competition Formula raceIs.This section also describes formula racing.

The term "formula car" in Japanese often refers to "open-wheel car" in American and "single" in British English. -seater car), but there is a slight deviation (-seater car)#Name).

Features

A formula is a "standard", and directlyInternational Automobile Federation According to (FIA)F1Is the topCar competitionVehicle standards for participating in (races), or for similar racesRacing carIs.Among the racing cars, it has a special form for racing, so it can not be compared simply.Prototype racing carIt is on the side of the "race-only car". ("Top Fuel Drag Star" which is the top category of drag racingCar speed recordExcept for vehicles that do not emphasize "turning" and "stopping" such as private cars)

Shape

First of all, regarding the fundamental "formula", as an example, the student formula (w: Formula Student,All Japan Student Formula Tournament(See, outside the tier), quoted from the rules, "The vehicle must be open-wheeled and open-cockpit (a formula style body) (abbreviated below)"[1]a.In other words, "the tires are not covered with the cowl and the cockpit is open."[2]The car body is a formula style.

Other than that, first of all, as a feature from the automobile competition before World War II,

  • Open wheel (mentioned above).That is, the tires are not covered with fenders, etc., and there is sufficient clearance around them (however, it was not clearly defined before the mid-1950s,Mercedes-Benz W196Has a streamlined body and is competing in the F1 Grand Prix). In the 2010sFormula E(Front and rear wheels)IndyCarAlthough it is remarkable in (rear wheels) etc., there are also regulation races that are shaped so that the cowl almost covers the wheels, although it is not a perfect fender.
  • Open cockpit (mentioned above).That is, there is an opening above the seat, and there are no doors or windows because the driver is exposed.
  • Single seater.That is, there is one seat (which, along with the cowl, regulates two seats (albeit corpse)Prototype racing carIt can be said that it contrasts with.In addition, for riding experience event[3]If there are two seats for a special purpose such as, it is impossible to arrange them side by side, so the tandem arrangement is exclusively for the front and back).
  • Rear wheel drive(In the 1960sFour-wheel drive (4WD) Cars have been built (en: Four-wheel drive in Formula One)).Front wheel driveThe car is Mickey Thompson (1960s Mickey Thompson) from the prewar Miller car to the late XNUMXs in IndyCar.en: Mickey Thompson), But it is extremely rare when viewed from the whole.
  • While maintaining the safety of the competition, the weight has been thoroughly reduced (the minimum weight specified in the regulations is about 600 kg).[4]).
  • Because it is not supposed to run on public roadsDirection indicator,HeadlightAnd someSecurity partsThere is no.
  • 4 wheels (since 1983)F1 regulationIt is clearly stated as "up to 4 wheels".Before that, the number of wheels was not clearly stated, so Tyrell took advantage of this deficiency.P34Developed)

There is such a thing.

Next, as a feature added after the 1960s,

  • rearMidshipEngine (formerly front engine[5]Met.Midship #racing carSee also).
  • A huge wing called a wing in front and behind the car bodyAero PartsIs attached (someJunior formulaIn some cases, the use of wings is prohibited. The first wing appeared in F1 around 1967).
  • Negative pressure on the underside of the car body (Venturi effect) As a downforce sourceMinimum ground clearanceThe (vehicle height) is only a few centimeters, and the center of gravity is low (mainly changes in the 1970s. Before that, especially the lightweight body of the 1960s, commonly known as the "cigar type").

There is.

The most distinctive feature of the formula car's appearance is the structure with exposed tires.Air resistance (in technical termsDrag) Is sometimes said to be a small form, but it is not a very correct understanding.The drag coefficient (so-called Cd value), which is often used as a value to evaluate air resistance, is around 1 in formula cars, and if only the coefficients are compared,PriusIt is about four times that of the recent low drag coefficient styling.However, it should be noted here that the drag coefficient depends on the dynamic pressure and area.DimensionlessThe point is that it is a "coefficient".That is, if it is sufficiently small compared to the (forward projection) area, even if the Cd value is large, thatThe air resistance itself that the vehicle receivesIs small.Although it is not possible to simply compare, for exampleGroup CThe Cd value of the vehicle is smaller than that of the formula car, and the maximum speed is before the 1990 renovation.Salt CircuitAt the end of the back straight (Unodiere) in, it exceeds 400km / h and is faster than F1.

From the above, some people wonder why the form with a large drag coefficient is not changed, but the structure with bare tires is the definition of a formula car in the first place.

Not limited to formula cars, it can be said in general for racing cars with high power in recent years, but if there is sufficient propulsive force to compete, the car body will rise rather than having a small drag force.LiftDo not generate, but conversely press downDown forceIt is rather important to have a good balance between stability and maneuverability.Various aero parts attached to the car body are attached to press the car body against the ground to generate downforce that improves the stability of the car body, and to control the airflow to stabilize the running.In particular, the downforce is large, and the maximum downforce in the history of F1 cars is about 2008 kgf in the 2,000 regulation, which is heavier than the vehicle weight (about 600 kg).Some people think that it is possible to drive on the ceiling of a tunnel, but it is necessary to calculate the speed required to obtain that downforce and the grip force required to maintain that speed.

Driving a formula car, rather than maneuvering[6]The behavior is extremely complicated due to many factors such as the engine that emits a large torque, the small mass of the vehicle, the change in behavior due to the difference in airspeed derived from aerodynamic parts, etc., and the required technology is general for passenger cars. Very high skill and skill are required, which is very different from normal driving.

The area around the driver's seat is called the "cockpit."There is only the minimum necessary space.Also, to ensure safety, only the area around the cockpit is made of a special material and is extremely sturdy.In a big crash etc., it can be seen that only the cockpit shell remains and secures a space to protect the driver while other parts are damaged and scattered.According to the theory of so-called monocoque, the wider the opening, the harder it is to secure the strength, so it becomes narrower, but if it is too narrow, it will prevent the driver from escaping in the event of a fire, so the size is set by regulation above a certain level. In some cases.

Performance

Passenger car,Rally carUnlike, the formula car is better at intermediate acceleration than when stopping and starting.Depending on the gear ratio of the transmission,European circuitIt takes a little over 0 seconds to accelerate from 100 to 3km / h. At 100 km / h or more, a large downforce is applied, so the drive wheels generate a large frictional force, and the allowable driving force is improved.As a result, the acceleration power is improved, and 100-200km / h acceleration is faster than 0-100 acceleration and takes only about 2 seconds.

At the same time, this downforce improves the speed of passing through curves (corners). In the case of F1, the maximum is about 5G on the outsideCentrifugal accelerationIs hanging.

The reason why comfort equipment and safety parts are not installed is that these parts increase weight and air resistance, which leads to adverse effects that reduce time and fuel consumption in the race, and the engine position and vehicle height are during the race. This is the result of pursuing the dynamic performance and behavior of the car to the utmost limit.

As mentioned above, the formula car has a large air resistance coefficient, but it also has excellent maximum speed performance.1km / h even in F350 specializing in European circuitsMonza Circuit), And in IndyCar with high maximum speed performance, it reaches 370km / h or more.The maximum speed that the formula car recorded on the circuit is2000 CART,Michigan International SpeedwayIt is 413.518km / h recorded in.

Driving on public roads

In Japan,Road Traffic LawIn the formula carPublic roadThere is no matter prohibiting running on.However, many organizations do not require or prohibit equipment such as "safety parts" that meet the Road Traffic Act as a requirement for participation in the race, so it is similar to vehicles that do not comply with the general Road Traffic Act. I can't drive on public roads.When conducting speed competitions such as races or running exhibitions on public roads, it is necessary to obtain a "road occupancy permit" as with other non-official vehicles.

in the past,Modified carSpecialty storeGarage ribbonAdded safety parts such as blinkers and rearview mirrors to the formula car manufactured for the All Japan F3000, and actuallyLicense plateExample of getting (F3000 public road specification car), But it is legally possible, but practically very difficult, because the application requires enormous procedures and remodeling costs to obtain type approval.Also like modern timesMinimum ground clearanceIt is also unrealistic for a vehicle with an extremely low value to be unable to cope with steps on ordinary public roads (as an example).ShakotanCars are refused warehousing in the semi-underground parking lot because the bottom of the car gets caught at the top of the slope and becomes a turtle.If you force it in, you will not be able to get out because the nose hits the slope this time).

Development of head protection device

1994 A series of serious accidents in F1 (World GP Round 3 San Marino GPDeath of Ayrton SennaIs known as the most important case)1996 Is now obliged to install a side protector on the side of the cockpit (Sauber The1994 Monaco Grand PrixAtKarl WendlingerWas the first to voluntarily hire him in the wake of a major accident that caused him to become seriously ill).

More2009 ToFelipe MassaThe momentum for introducing a head protection device has increased in the wake of an accident that caused a serious injury such as a skull fracture due to a direct hit from a part of the machine in front of him.As a result of the examination, "Halo(Halo)We decided to introduce a device called ".In English, it means "a round ring of light like a back light."at first2017 It was planned to be introduced from, but it was postponed by one year due to opposition such as "damaging the aesthetics of the machine".2018 It was officially introduced from.

Formula racing

There are many races using formula cars.International Automobile Federation The highest class defined by (FIA)Formula 1 (F1) Class.Below thatFormula 2 (F2), and below thatFormula 3 (F3),Formula 4 Continue with (F4).

Also, as a series by other famous formula cars, in North AmericaIndyCar SeriesAnd its subcategoriesIndy Lights, Set in JapanSuper formula(OldFormula Nippon), Held mainly in EuropeWorld Series Formula V8 3.5and so on.Especially in the category held in North America, the name "open-wheel car" is used.

Formula 1 (F1)

F1Is held as a world championship, a series under the jurisdiction of the FIA ​​that travels around the world. F1 raceGrand PrixIt is called and is held in about 20 countries excluding the African continent.The biggest feature is the only formula car race in the worldChassis originally developed by participating teamsThe point is that the race will be held at.So in F1 the teamConstructorCalled. The development and production cost of one unit is estimated to be several million dollars, and even if the operating cost of the team is low, it will reach billions of yen, and if it becomes a top team, it will reach tens of billions of yen.Therefore, in F1, drivers who bring in a large amount of dowry (sponsor costs) to maintain management (so-called so-called), centered on private teamsPay driver) Exists.The drivers participating in the race will be issued by the FIA.Super licenseMust be held.

IndyCar

The highest open wheel car category in North America.Originally what is "IndyCar"Indy 500It is a term that refers to a racing car that runs in the United States, and has since become synonymous with American open-wheel cars.The IndyCar Series has been held by multiple governing bodies for over 500 years since the Indy100 was held, and in the pastAAA Automobile Association (AAA),United States Auto Club (USAC),CART, The Indy Racing League (IRL) existed. From 2011IndyCarSponsored byIndyCar SeriesThen, mainly in the United States,Oval truck, Permanent European circuit (road course), etc., around 16 races are held annually.Especially in the oval, a super high speed battle with a maximum speed of 350km / h or more will be developed.International A grade (grade A) license is required for participating drivers.

Super Formula (SF)

Super FormulaJapan Automobile Federation In the highest peak championship stipulated by (JAF),Japan race promotion Operated by (JRP). From the 1970s to the early 90s, Japan adopted the F2 and F3000 regulations, which will be described later.All Japan F2 Championship,All Japan F3000 ChampionshipWas held, but in 1996, the predecessor Formula Nippon inherited the F3000 regulations and was launched.Then, in 1999, it adopted its own vehicle regulations that incorporated the new international F3000 safety standards.About 2 races are held annually at grade 7 or higher circuits in Japan.Most of the participating drivers have fewer races per year than the F1 and IndyCar above.FIA World Endurance Championship (WEC)SUPER GTWe are also participating in the war in parallel.Drivers who participate in the race must have an international B grade (grade B) license or higher.

Formula 2 (F2 or equivalent class)

The F2 Championship is a championship located directly under F1, but the name isFormula 3000,GP2It has been a long time since it was replaced by.In the meantime, F2 equivalent category (formerly) in EuropeFormula Renault 3.5→ World Series Formula V8 3.5,AUTO GP, FA1 etc.) was in a rush, but now it is declining and disappearing due to cost and super license, and with the disappearance of V2017 8 in 3.5, Europe is only F2.

In the United States, it is directly under the IndyCar Series.Indy LightsIn these championships, most races will be held as support events for the F1 and IndyCar Series, respectively.

There is no category that corresponds to F2 in Japan, but because it has all-Japan F2 and all-Japan F3000 as its origin, and because it is questionable that it is on par with F1 and IndyCar.Formula Nippon,Super formulaSome consider to be F2.

In the past, development competition was fierce for F2, and many manufacturers and constructors entered the world, but after that, due to the rise of F1 and cost issues, one-make progress was made.Currently, it also means that it is a category to identify the eggs of F1 and IndyCar drivers, there are almost no examples of multi-make, and if you become a champion, it is considered as "graduation" and it is almost impossible to participate in the next year or later (in that sense, Super Formula, which has a multi-make engine and can continue to participate in the championship, is in the "top category" regardless of whether it is the same as F1 or IndyCar, and can be defined as higher than F2. In recent years, the champions in other categories have participated in Formula Renault 3.5 in 2010, but only participated in one race and two races in the following year.)

Formula 3 (F3 or equivalent class)

F3 classThere are many categories corresponding to in countries where motor sports are popular, and until the 2000s, national championships were held in Japan, Australia, Brazil, Austria, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom in addition to the European championships.Also, for drivers who have achieved good results in the above championships,Macau Grand PrixYou will be given the opportunity to participate in.

Although F3 is relatively inexpensive, it has a high level of driver racing, so it has a multi-makeup soil, and there were a large number of manufacturers and constructors entering engine development in both Japan and Europe.On the other hand, as the cost has been increasing in recent years, the reorganization by FIA has been promoted, and as a result, it will be old from 2019.GP3A two-stage structure (both one-make) has been introduced: the "FIA F3 Championship", which was reorganized, and the "Formula Regional", which is held in each country as a lower category.However, some of the conventional local series do not follow this and continue their own series, for example, Japan.All Japan Super Formula Lights ChampionshipAnd so on.

American Pro Mazda Championship,India OfMRF ChallengeEtc. may also be classified as the same as F3.

Formula 4 (F4)

Formula 4 is an introductory category that assumes a step up from the cart. It can be broadly divided into various national championships held in accordance with the international standard (FIA-F4) stipulated by the FIA, and championships of original standards held in Japan, France, and the United Kingdom.

Formula E

A category of FIA management newly established in 2014.It does not use fossil fuels as power at all, and runs only on the power of the motor.

Although it is not positioned as a world championship, it is a major feature that it has been competing all over the world and many F1 experienced people are also participating.

Chassis is season 5 (2018 - 19) Has been replaced by something called "Gen2", and the maximum speed is 285km / h.On the other hand, because the front and rear tires were designed to be covered with cowls, some people said that it was not a formula car in a strict sense, and in response to that, "Gen8" that will appear in Season 2021 (22-2) In "Evo", the front tires are back exposed.

Other

One-make

In addition, there is also a championship with a formula car made by a specific automobile company, in which case it is held under the name "Formula XX".Many are lower than F3Junior formulaIt is classified into, but some of themWorld Series by NissanThere are some that are positioned in the same rank as F3000.

Formula car racing class

RegionSuperlativeSecond gradeSecond gradeSecond gradeSecond gradeSecond grade
EuropeFormula 1Formula 2GP3
World Series by Renault
AUTO GP
Formula 3Formula Renault2.0Formula Ford


French F4 Championship
North AmericaIndyCar SeriesIndy Lights-Pro Mazda ChampionshipUSF2000




JapanSuper formula--All Japan Super Formula Lights Championship
Formula Regional Japanese Championship
JAF-F4
FIA-F4 Championship
Super FJ
FJ1600

Designation

The term "formula car" in Japanese often refers to "open-wheel car" in American and "single" in British English. -seater car).However, since both words basically have literal meanings, there is a slight difference.

The English version of the article corresponding to this article on Wikipedia is Formula Racing (en: Formula racing) Is the article.The English version of the article about vehicles is an open wheel car (en: Open-wheel car, Japanese version pear), and in British English it is a single-seater car.Formula cars are usually open-wheel and single-seater.

In addition to formula cars, open-wheel cars are sprint cars for short-distance competitions that are competed on dirt roads (en: Sprint car racing) Etc. are also included.In addition, there are some pre-war Grand Prix cars that are open-wheel but not single-seater.

Monster sportsE-RUNNER Pikes Peak Special is a single-seater but not an open wheel.

またFormula driftIs a modification of a commercial vehicle, in which case the word formula is used purely to mean "standard".

See also each category of Wikimedia Commons.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ 2014 Formula SAE Rules, T2.1 Vehicle Configuration
  2. ^ See the abstract translation on the All Japan Student Formula Student web page.
  3. ^ Example: https://www.indyracingexperience.com/experiences/experience_types/ride
  4. ^ The minimum weight of the car body "includes" and "does not include" the driver's weight (Dry weight) May break up.If it is less than the minimum weightballastIncrease with the installation of.
  5. ^ However, the engine is completely behind the front axle and the overhang is minimal, so-called "front midship" in modern times.
  6. ^ The word "steering" includes the letters "vertical" in the vertical and horizontal directions.Degree of freedomThere is an implication that you can freely manipulate things that are larger than 2.The word "steering" is appropriate not only for steering like a general passenger car, but also for racing driving where load transfer by acceleration / deceleration and control of under or over are important. The reason why F1 drivers are also called "--pilots"

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