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🚗 | Improved wet and wear performance, to release "Tranpass mp7" tire for minivans ... Toyo Tires


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Wet and wear performance improvement, minivan exclusive tire "Tranpass mp7" to be released ... Toyo Tires

 
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In an actual vehicle evaluation test of braking performance on wet roads, we succeeded in reducing the braking distance by 15% compared to the company's conventional product (Trumpus mpZ).
 

TOYO TIRE will launch a new product "Tranpass mp7" for minivans in 2022 1 ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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brake

brake (Brake) is a device that moves, slows down, or stops a moving object.Since these movements are called braking,Braking deviceIt is also called (Seido Sochi).

Bicycle,Automobile,オ ー ト バ イ,Railway car,aircraft,エ レ ベ ー タ ー, For competitionSled(Bobsled),craneIt is generally installed not only in vehicles but also in moving objects.Also, it has a high-speed rotating object (Washing machine(Drums, etc.), and some machines that require precise stop control also have brakes.It is also used as a word that means to suppress change from the original meaning (""BusinessThe brakes are applied "etc.).

mechanism

To reduce movement speedPhysical energyBy the method of reducingfrictionByHeat energyWhat to convert to (mechanical brake),Electric energyWhat converts to and consumes its electrical energy in some way (Eddy current brake,Electromagnetic retarder,Regenerative brake,Dynamic brake), Utilizing the motion resistance of the fluid (Aerobraking, Fluid retarder), etc.

WheelFor vehicles with tread brakes, apart from railroad vehicles that can use tread brakes, as mechanical brakesDisc brake,Drum brakeThere are many examples of using.These are those in which a turntable or a cylindrical drum is mounted in an axle or a wheel, and frictional resistance is applied to these to obtain a braking action.Drum brakes have a strong braking force and can be made lightly and inexpensively, while disc brakes have the advantage of stable braking force.For details, refer to each item.

AerobrakingSpacecraft,aircraftAnd some racing cars,Linear motor car,ShinkansenTest vehicle etc.High speed trainUsed in vehiclesDrag shoot,SpoilerIt acts on the atmosphere outside the airframe and body.

Automobile

In the case of automobile brakes, in modern timesbreak pedalBecause it is operated with your feetFoot brakeAlso called.Most passenger cars are controlled by flood control,Large carThen.Compressed airUsedAir brakeIs the mainstream.In a car to hold the vehicle when parkedParking brakeThere are some, but this is different from the brakes used when driving in terms of mechanism and purpose.Generally, it was called a handbrake because it is operated by hand, or a side brake from the position of the brake lever, but a type that is stepped on with a foot or a type that automatically locks by operating a switch has also been developed and is generally used.Parking brakeIt is called.

As a braking mechanism,sports car,luxury carThen.Disc brake, Large carsDrum brake,Popular car,Light carIn many cases, disc brakes are used for the front wheels and drum brakes are used for the rear wheels.These mechanical brakes are resistantfadeVentilated discs when sex is required, drum brakes and drum-in discs when restraint when stopping or parking, etc., usage environment, etc.Vehicle total weight, Production cost, profit margin, etc. are taken into consideration when selected and adopted.

Also other than frictionDeceleration,SpeedIt is a mechanism,Engine brake,Diesel car(Especially large cars)Exhaust brake,Compression release brake,Retarder,andHybrid car,Electric carThe regenerative brake (which charges the battery with the electric power generated during deceleration) is also a brake, and part of it is coordinated with the mechanical brake so that the driver is not aware of anything other than the mechanical brake.

Motorcycle (motorcycle)

Motorcycle brakes generally operate the front and rear wheels separately, but large tourers and small ones.scooterThere are also models that use mechanically or electronically controlled front-rear interlocking brakes.For front and rear brakes, operate the front wheel brakes with your right hand and the rear wheel brakes with your right foot or left hand.

As a braking mechanism, disc brakes are generally used for the front and rear wheels, mainly for sports cars and large vehicles, and drum brakes are generally used for the rear wheels or front and rear wheels of small and utility vehicles, but the type of brake is external. There are many exceptions because it has a large effect on (drum brakes are often seen as old-fashioned, low-priced, and low-performance).Since the weight of the vehicle is lighter than that of a four-wheeled vehicle, the amount of heat is small, and the disc rotor is also exposed and easily exposed to the wind, so cooling is not a major problem, so heavy ventilated discs are not usually used.

Parking brakeIt is,gearIt is not equipped with a method to put in other than N or a car model that can be easily replaced with a center stand, and a heavy car that makes it difficult to set up the center stand,scooterAmong them, it is equipped only for utility vehicles that are supposed to get on and off frequently for delivery work and outside, and big scooters that emphasize comfort.

Train

In modern railway vehicles, as a mechanical brake that applies a braking force to a wheel, a tread brake or a disc brake that directly applies a brake shoe to the contact surface of the wheel with the railroad track is generally used.In addition, as a component of the control / drive system for operating the brake, it is usuallyAutomatic air brakeOr apply that basic principleEmergency brakeThe device is installed.

electric motorPowered byElectric train,Electric locomotive, Hybrid systemRailcarIn such cases, the motor can be switched by switching the control circuit.GeneratorBy adopting dynamic braking (generated power is consumed by in-vehicle resistance) and regenerative braking (generated power is returned to overhead wires and batteries for reuse), the tire temperature rises due to the regular use of mechanical brakes. It is common to suppress uneven wear.

It is the most primitive air brake mechanism for trams that do not operate in combination.Direct brakeMay be used to control and drive mechanical brakes.In the past, there were cases where drum brakes were used as mechanical brakes, mainly for trams, and as an emergency brake when used in combination with other brakes.Hand brakeWas standard, but in recent years there have been virtually no examples of adoption.

For steep mountain lines, rail brakes that press the brake shoes directly against the track may be installed as an emergency.

As a characteristic brake for high-speed rail cars, it is installed as a substitute for dynamic braking and regenerative braking in Shinkansen accompanying vehicles that do not have motors.Eddy current disc brakeAnd German high-speed rail carsICE3Equipped withEddy current type rail brakeThere is a non-contact brake.

aircraft

In the case of an aircraft, of course, friction cannot be used for deceleration, unlike railroads and cars that travel due to friction between wheels and rails or roads.For deceleration in flightthrottleBesides the adjustment ofAerobraking,Reverse injection deviceCan be used properly.Especially mobility is importantFighterIn such cases, it is necessary to decelerate without reducing the engine output, so decelerate with an aerodynamic brake using a panel brake attached to the fuselage or the upper surface of the main wing (in passenger aircraft, the panel brake attached to the upper surface of the main wing is called a spoiler). There are many.Air resistance is proportional to the square of speed, making it a very convenient brake for aircraft flying at high speeds.On the contrary, at low speeds, the effect of aerobraking decreases, so when traveling on the runway at the time of landing, aircraft equipped with a jet engine such as passenger aircraftReverse thrust deviceAt the same time as the reverse injection by[Annotation 1], With disc brakes built into the wheelsタ イ ヤDecelerates due to friction between the ground and the ground[Annotation 2]..Disc brakes are mounted in single-plate, double-plate (with two discs) and multi-plate (multiple rotor plates) tire wheels.キ ーThere is a brake disc that is fixed and rotates together, and a plate that is studded with a brake lining plate called a stator plate that is attached and fixed to the brake body, and the two are combined in a staggered manner. ), And the multi-plate type disc brake used in large machines uses the flood pressure from the high-pressure hydraulic oil system by the engine-driven hydraulic pump as the power source when applying the brake.[Annotation 3], Called a segmented rotor type brake.Also, for the rotor plate and stator plate of the multi-plate type disc brakes of recent large machines.Carbon fiber reinforced carbon composite materialIs used to reduce the weight.

Fighter is shortRunwayWhen landing onspace shuttleParachute for deceleration used when landingdragShoot) is also one of the aerobraking.

rocket

rocketHas no friction or air resistance with the ground宇宙空間Because it flies, you cannot use aerobraking like an aircraft (however, the earth is about several hundred kilometers above the ground).Low orbitSince the atmosphere is not a little present, air resistance cannot be ignored in long-term flights such as months or years).Therefore, many rockets are small.Reverse injection engineIt is equipped with and used when shortening the orbital radius.

AtmosphereToRe-entryWhen doing so, the altitude drops and the air resistance increases, so the parachute is mainly used when landing.Since parachutes cannot be used in celestial bodies with no atmosphere or dilute celestial bodies, the vehicle will consistently decelerate with a reverse injection engine until landing.

Bicycle

Brake type

electric motor

The method of obtaining braking force using the motor itself is described.

Dynamic braking
A brake that uses an electric motor as a generator (Dynamic brake).In a DC motorNew performance trainIt is a brake that has been used for a long time.The control of the braking force is mainly released as heat energy by increasing or decreasing the resistance of the resistor that consumes electric power.Especially to send it back to the power supply side instead of consuming it with a resistorRegenerative brakingCall.Induction motorInSync speedIf the rotation speed of the rotor is faster,Induction generatorTaking advantage of working asVariable voltage variable frequency controlIn, the frequency supplied to the motor is lowered to consume the electric power generated by the resistor, or the control of sending back to the power supply side via the converter is adopted at the time of deceleration.When doing this controlSliding sThe frequency to be supplied is adjusted so that s ≤ 0, but the effect is lost in the low speed range.Permanent magnet synchronous motorIn the case of, the current supplied to the stator must be adjusted so that the slip is always kept at 0, but dynamic braking can be performed up to the extremely low speed range.
DC braking
Direct current (frequency is 0) in the stator of the induction motor HzIt is a brake that converts kinetic energy into Joule heat of the rotor as a rotary armature type synchronous generator that short-circuits the load by flowing alternating current).[1]..The braking force is equivalent to the starting torque of the induction motor.Cage three-phase induction motorIn the case of, the braking force can be exerted in the speed range from low speed to stop.Winding type three-phase induction motorIn the case of, increase the secondary resistance and connect the secondary to the outside.ResistorSince the electric power generated in the rotor can be converted into heat energy, the DC braking range can be increased and the braking force can be exerted in a wide speed range.Especially in cranes, DC braking is also called dynamic braking.[2]..In a permanent magnet synchronous motor, an excessive voltage is induced in the stator and destroys the inverter element unless it is just before the stop, or the overheating of the motor causes demagnetization of the internal permanent magnet, so it is used only near the stop speed.In either case, the braking torque is at most equivalent to the starting torque of the motor, and since the rotor cannot be locked, it cannot be used alone and a friction brake must be used together.
Reverse phase braking
Also called plugging[3]..It is a brake that utilizes the fact that the magnetic field rotates in the opposite direction to the rotor when any two phases of three-phase alternating current are exchanged in a three-phase induction motor.A large braking force can be obtained near the stop speed, and 0rpmBut braking force can be obtained.However, plugging is equivalent to supplying a reverse voltage to the motor that has become a generator, so there is no choice but to limit the applied current, and in the normal rotation range, only braking torque lower than the starting torque can be obtained, so the capacity is small. Applicable only to motors.In addition, if it is left as it is, it will rotate in the reverse direction, so it is necessary to surrender control to a mechanical brake mechanism such as a friction brake and cut off the power supply of the motor just before stopping.In addition, the synchronous motor can generate torque only at the synchronous speed, and if the rotating magnetic field cannot be accompanied by the rotor, it will cause step-out and the rotation will become unstable, so plugging is ineffective.

In addition, mechanical brakes and other brakes may be incorporated coaxially with the electric motor (brake motor), and are used in various fields.

Non-contact brake

Eddy current brake
Attach a conductive disk or cylinder to the rotating shaft and sandwich it with an electromagnet.When the disk rotates with the electromagnet excited by direct current, the eddy current produces torque in the direction opposite to the direction of rotation.[2][4]It is a brake that utilizes this.The eddy current brake reduces the rotational speed and the braking torque, but by using an electromagnet, the braking force can be exerted even at low speeds.Eddy current brakes are disc or cylindricalJoule heatIt requires some kind of heat treatment mechanism to absorb energy.Eddy current disc brakes used in high-speed railways have a hollow disc structure that allows air to escape in the radial direction.Ventilated discOr, the drum structure has a structure that cools by forced ventilation.[5]..The disadvantage is that it is heavy and expensive due to the close proximity of strong electromagnets that create a magnetic field that produces eddy currents.Also for large vehicles and towing vehiclesElectromagnetic retarderThere is an example of mounting, but it is necessary to strengthen the alternator and battery that supply the powerful electromagnet.Powerful because a constant magnetic field is sufficientNeodymium magnetThere is an application example using[6]Although the capacity of the retarder is limited, it is being adopted more and more in Japan because it is small and lightweight and the cost is reasonable.Since the magnetic field generation source is a permanent magnet, it is devised to let the magnetic field lines of the permanent magnet escape when it is not operating.

History

Train

Passenger car,truck CarriageInitially, hand brakes were used, in which the mechanical brakes were operated directly by humans using the principle of leverage, due to the historical background of starting with the help of the technology of.Alsosteam locomotiveLet's use the steam obtained from our own carSteam brakeIs used for each vehicle during linked operationBrakemanThe brakes were operated by arranging operation personnel called.However, with the lengthening of the formation, problems such as operation delay in an emergency, command transmission, and lack of braking force have surfaced, and the development of penetrating brakes that can be collectively commanded from the driver's cab has been promoted.

At that time, the steam locomotive was a power vehicle, so it is the easiest to secure the power source for the brakes.Vacuum brakeIn the 1860sUnited KingdomIt will be put to practical use in.continue1868 ToAmerica OfGeorge WestinghouseByCompressed airUseDirect brakeWas invented.However, if air leaks due to a train separation accident due to damage to the coupler or a rupture of the brake hose / brake pipe, the braking force of the entire train is reduced or cannot be completely obtained, which poses a serious safety problem.

This problem1872 George WestinghouseAutomatic air brakeThe solution was found by inventing.This is an epoch-making system that supplies compressed air to one brake pipe drawn through the entire formation and commands each vehicle to brake by the decompression operation.If the brake hose ruptures, the brakes will automatically operate due to air leaks, dramatically improving safety during long train operations.A wire, reel, and weight are used for this type of penetration brake system.Heberlein brakeHowever, due to the difficulty of connecting and separating work, it remains a minority.

After that, with the exception of the United Kingdom, which has long adhered to vacuum brakes, automatic air brakes have established themselves as the de facto standard, and performance has been improved by improving valve devices and adding electromagnetic synchronous valves to make electromagnetic automatic air brakes. rice field.On the other hand, the direct brake continued to be improved due to its good responsiveness and simple structure.

Regarding direct braking, in the United States in the late 1920sDynamic brakeFacilitated synchronization withElectromagnetic direct brakeBut,1967 Integrated with power generation and regenerative braking in JapanElectric command type brakeHave been developed respectively.Both have exploded in popularity in Japan, but the share of automatic air brakes (including electromagnetic automatic air brakes) is overwhelming worldwide due to compatibility issues with conventional vehicles.Electromagnetic direct brake, electric command type brake, orPure electric brakeEven if the vehicle is equipped withFail-safeIt is common to have a mechanism equivalent to an automatic air brake for the purpose of.

Automobile

Early automobile brakes were often diverted from carriages and had many primitive mechanisms such as rubbing rods against wheels, but as driving performance improves, reliable braking methods are required.Therefore, a mechanism was adopted to transmit the movement of the brake pedal to the drum brakes of the four wheels with a rod, and laterwireHowever, the power transmission to the four wheels was uneven, and when the brake pedal was suddenly depressed, it tended to be "one-sided", and there were difficulties in braking force and vehicle stability.Next, instead of the mechanical type, a hydraulic type that moves the piston via a liquid such as oil has been adopted, and a practical braking force has come to be obtained.

For hydraulically operated vehicle braking devices,1895 For carriagesPatentHowever, it was the technology that was incorporated into automobiles.American Of(English edition).Duesenberg 1921 Adopting a hydraulic brake on the front wheels,ChryslerとAudi 1924 We adopted four-wheel flood control brakes.After that, hydraulic brakes have become common for both automobiles and motorcycles.Initially, most used drum brakes,1950 eraSince then, the adoption of disc brakes has become widespread.Along with that, in order to make up for the drawbacks of disc brakes that do not have self-boosting action,Brake booster (en: Vacuum servo) Can be installed at the same time1960 eraIn the second half, it became common.

Also, with tire performance and bodysuspension OfrigidityWith the improvement, more stable braking became possible, but on the other hand, the vehiclePhysical energySince (weight and speed) have also increased dramatically, each manufacturer has to exert stable braking force even when braking from high speeds, not only the brake components, but also the weight distribution of the vehicle, tire size and characteristics. ,shock absorber,Spring constantOptimization,Center of gravityOf movement and behavioranalysis,Antilock braking system(ABS) andAnti-skid mechanism(ESC) and other attitude control systemsdevelopment ofWe are developing brakes including such as.

Technology

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Propeller aircraft equipped with variable pitch propellers are propellerspitchThe thrust generated by the propeller is reversed by changing the angle to the opposite angle.
  2. ^ An anti-skid system (ABS in automobiles) is built into the brake system of large machines and high-performance machines, and wheel speed sensors are attached to each axle, and when the wheels rotate, an electric signal is generated, which is It is sent to the anti-skid control device through the harness, and the control device sends a signal to the skid control valve based on it, and the skid control valve moves to control the hydraulic pressure of the brake.
  3. ^ This system is also used for control devices such as flaps, ailerons, and spoilers, and for steering gears for landing gears that change the direction of the aircraft while traveling on the ground (taxiing).

Source

References

  • "Airplane Structure" Japan Aviation Technology Association 1989 
  • Takayoshi Nakata et al. "Electrical Equipment II" Asakura Shoten <Electrical and Electronic Information Basic Series 7>, September 1984, 9.

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