Portal field news

Portal field news

in ,

✈ | Winter storm in the eastern United States, more than 3000 flights canceled, power outages in various places


Winter storm in the eastern United States, more than 3000 flights canceled, power outages in various places

If you write the contents roughly
Weather warnings have been issued over a large area of ​​more than 1600 kilometers from Alabama to Maine, and the governors of Georgia, Virginia, North Carolina, and South Carolina have declared a state of emergency.

[Washington, XNUMXth Reuters] – In the eastern United States, on the XNUMXth, a severe winter storm hit and sailed due to snow and strong winds ... → Continue reading


Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.


State of Alabama
Flag of AlabamaAlabama Mark
(State flag(State emblem)
State nickname: Heart of Dixie (Southern Heart)
The Heart of Dixie
Alabama Location
State capitalMontgomery
Largest cityHuntsville
GovernorKay Ivey
Official terminologyEnglish
 - Grand total
 -Water area
30th in the US
135,765 km²
131,426 km²
4,338 km² (3.2%)
 - Grand total
 - Population density
24th in the US
38.2 people/km²
Join US
 -Date of subscription

1819/May 12
Time zoneUTC -6
STD -5
latitudeNorth latitude 30° 11'-35°
longitudeWest longitude 84°53'-88°28'
East-west width305 km
North-south length531 km
 -Highest altitude
 -Average elevation
 -Lowest altitude

735 m
150 m
0 m
Abbreviation (ISO 3166-2: US)US-AL
WebsiteAlabama Government
SenatorRichard Shelby
Tommy Taberville

Alabama(Alabama)English: State of Alabama) IsSouthern United Statesに 位置 す るState.populationIs 5,024,279 (2020 census)[1].State capital TheMontgomery..It is also the largest city population in the state,US Aerospace AgencyRelated facilities are concentratedHuntsville, The largest metropolitan area in the stateBirmingham, The only port city in the stateMobilThere are major cities such as.NorthTennessee, EastGeorgia, SouthFloridaGulf of Mexico, WestMississippiIs in contact with.It ranks 50th in land area and 30rd in population among the 24 states of the United States.With a total length of 1,300 miles (2,100 km) of waterways that can navigate inland, it is one of the longest in the country.

Civil WarからSecond World WarUntil then, Alabama experienced an economically difficult time, partly because it remained dependent on agriculture like other southern states.Despite the growth of industry and urban areas, until the 1960s, white rural interests dominated the state legislature, with urban areas.African AmericanRights were not prioritized[2]..After World War II, Alabama has grown from an agriculturally dependent economy to a diversified economy.manyU.S. ForcesThe establishment or expansion of the base also contributed to economic development and served as a bridge between agriculture and the industrial economy in the mid-20th century. The 21st century state economy relies on business administration, finance, manufacturing, aerospace, mining, medical care, education, retail and technology.[3].

Home Spoken Language (Alabama) 2000
Racial composition (Alabama) 2010
イ ン デ ィ ア ン

Origin of the state name

OnceMuskogeanSpeakAlabama Alabama RiverLives upstream, downstream of the confluence of the Coosa and Tallapoosa rivers[4], This is the origin of the names of rivers and states.Alabama languageAnd the tribal members Albaamo(Depending on the dialect Albaama or Al bà amo, Plural Albaamaha) Called[5].. The word "Alabama"ChoctawOf the tribewordIs considered the etymology[6]Adopted by the Alabama as a tribe name[7]..The spelling varies depending on the historical materials[7]..It first appeared in the literature in 1540Hernando de SotoExpedition, Garcilaso de la Vega Alibamo It was written as.Another Elbaz knight Alibamu, Rodrigo Lanhel Limamu Was written[7].. In 1702 the AlabamaFrenchBy Alibamon CalledFranceThe Alabama River is on the map Rivière des Alibamons Was written as[4].. Other,Alibamu,Alabamo,Albama,Alebamon,Alibama,Alibamou,Alabamu,Allibamou Etc. was seen[7][8][9][10].

The etymology of "Alabama" is known, but its meaning has not been determined due to various theories. An 1842 article in the Jacksonville Republican published a theory that the meaning was "rest here."[7]..This theory spread through the writings of Alexander Beaufort Meek in the 1850s.[7]..Muskogean experts could not find evidence to affirm this theory[4][7]..Scholars say this word is Choctaw dawn(Meaning plants or weeds)amo(Meaning to cut, trim or collect)[6][7][11]..The meaning is "a person who cuts bushes"[6]Or "a person who collects herbs"[11][12]Possibly clearing land for farming[8], Or thought to refer to collecting herbs[12].. "Alabama" is one of the many Indian language-derived place names in the United States.[13][14].


Pre-Columbian period

For thousands of years before the arrival of Europeans in the area that became Alabama, Indians of various cultures lived in the area.The current trade with the northeastern United States isOhio riverIt began through the tomb period (1000 BC to 700 BC) and continued until the time of contact with Europeans.[15].

From 1060 to 1600 AD, in the agricultural societyMississippi cultureCovered most of the state today, one of which was at the Moundville Archaeological Site in Moundville[16][17]..By analyzing the artifacts excavated in the archaeological excavation conducted at Mound Building, the basis of the theory related to the character of the southeastern ceremonial complex has been laid.[18]..In contrast to what is commonly thought, the southeastern ceremonial complex isMesoamericaIt is believed that it had developed independently without any direct connection to culture.The ceremonial complex was a major element of the Mississippian people's religion.It has become one of the main means of understanding the religion[19].

Speaks Iroquoian as an Indian tribe who lived in what is now Alabama when Europeans came inCherokee, Muskogean-speaking Alabama,ChickasawTribe,ChoctawTribe,Creek,CoushattaThere was a tribe[20].

Colonization by European countries

1702/, France built the first European settlement in what is now called Old Mobile[21]..The town of mobile1711/Moved to the current location.This area1702/から1763/ FranceSince 17631783/ United Kingdom OfWest FloridaUnder the control of 17831821/With the United StatesSpainDivided between.Pledge allegiance to the British royal familyLoyalistThomas Bassett was an early white pioneer in the region, except for the Mobile region.1770 eraEarly currentWashington CountyEntered the Tonbigby settlement[22].. 1783, nowBaldwin CountyMobile CountyBecame part of Spanish West Florida and became an independent country in 1810Republic of West FloridaPart of, in 1812Mississippi TerritoryIt was attached to.Today, northern and central Alabama and Mississippi were at that time.Yazoo LandCalled after 1767Georgia ColonyWas claiming sovereignty.American Revolutionary WarLater, it was incorporated into Georgia, but there was a great deal of controversy over its territory.[23].

Except for the areas adjacent to Mobil and Yazoo Land, the current central part of Alabama is1798/Became part of the Mississippi Territory, which was founded in.After the Yazoo lands scam, Yazoo lands too1804/Was added to the territory.1812/Since then, Spain has placed administrative functions in mobile.1814/,Andrew JacksonArmy occupied the mobile and showed the United States' "de facto" authority over the area.This created an unobstructed passage from the territory's hinterland to the Gulf of Mexico, ending Spain's effective control of the mobile, but the claim of sovereignty remained.[24]..Before December 1817, 12, when Mississippi was promoted to the state, the eastern half of the less populated territory separated andAlabama TerritoryWas named.The Alabama Territory was founded by the United States Congress on March 1817, 3.St. Stephens was considered a quasi-state capital from 3 to 1817, but is now an abandoned village.[25].

Early Alabama Established

After Alabama was recognized as the 22nd state in the United StatesUnited States CongressAt the location of the first Alabama Constitutional ConventionHuntsvilleWas selected.1819/From July 7th to August 5nd, deputies met to prepare the New State Constitution.Huntsville since 81820/Became the interim capital of Alabama, thenDallas CountyThe state capital was moved to Kahaba[26]..Kahaba is currently abandoned, but since 18201825/Was the first permanent capital city[27]..By the time Alabama became a state, Alabama Fever had already begun to spread, flooded with pioneers and land speculators to obtain fertile plateaus suitable for cotton cultivation.[28][29][30].1820 eraから1830 eraIn the Israeli outpost, the State Constitution was conducting universal suffrage for white men.Cotton OfPlantationAs the market spreads, southeastern planters and tradersUpper southからslaveMoved with.Named after the dark, fertile soilBlack beltThe central economy was built on large cotton plantations, and plantation owners made great fortunes from slave labor.[31]..A lot of poor and non-voting people came into the area,Self-sufficiencyI became a farmer. The population was estimated to be 1810 in 1, but increased to more than 1830 in 30.[28]..Most of the Indians who lived in the area were in the United States Congress in 1830.Indian immigration lawWas completely expelled from the state a few years after it was established.[32].

1826/から1846/OverTuscaloosaBecame the state capital. January 1846, 1, Alabama Legislature from TuscaloosaMontgomeryAnnounced that it has decided to move the state capital to.The first parliament in the new state capital was opened in December 1847[33]..The New CapitolPhiladelphiaIt was built under the guidance of Stephen Decatur Button.The first building1849/It was burnt down by the fire, but was rebuilt in the same place in 1851.MaineThe second-generation building designed by Exeter's Barachias Holt still remains.[34][35].. In 1860, the population was 964,201, of which 435,080African American2,690 slaves were colored free men[36].

Civil War to Reconstruction Era

1861/January 1th, Alabama declares withdrawal from the United States,United States of AmericaJoined the.Civil WarNow, with the capital of the Confederate States of America in Montgomery, as the first president of the United StatesJefferson DavisAnd fought as the central role of the coalition.The capital of the Confederate States of America was in May of the same yearVirginiaRichmondWas moved to.1864/Facing the Gulf of Mexico in the summer, which is rare in the Civil WarNaval battleWas unfolded, but ended in the defeat of the South.Although there were few battles in the state, about 12 soldiers were dispatched during the Civil War.A company of cavalry from HuntsvilleKentuckyNathan Bedford ForrestJoined the general's army.The Huntsville Company was called the "Yellow Hammer" because it wore a stunning new uniform with yellow cloth on the sleeves, collar, and hem of the jacket, and later the Alabama unit of the South Army was called the "Yellow Hammers." Came to be called[37].. 1865,13th Amendment to the United States ConstitutionReleased slaves in the state[38].

After the war, Alabama was placed under the control of the military government and occupied.1868/It continued until he returned to the United States.When African Americans were given the right to vote, many African Americans emerged as political leaders from 1867 to 1874.During this periodUnited States CongressElected three African-Americans.That is, Jeremiah Haralson, Benjamin S. Turner, and James T. Rapier.[39].

Even after the Civil War, Alabama remained heavily dependent on agriculture, and its economy was tightly bound to cotton.ReconstructionAt that time, the state legislature adopted a new constitution in 1868, creating the first public education system and expanding women's rights.Budgeted many public road and rail construction plans, but they were hampered by allegations of fraud and embezzlement[39]..During this period, organized resistance groups became freedmen andRepublican PartyWorked to suppress the members.Ku Klux ClansIs well known, but there were other groups such as the Pale Faces, the Knights of the White Camelia, the Red Shirts, and the White League.[39].

Reconstruction in Alabama ended in 1874, when the Democratic Party won parliament and took the post of governor. A new constitution was enacted in 1875[39]..That same year, Congress passed a Brain Amendment, banning public money from being used for religious schools.[40]..In the same year, a law was passed that required schools to be segregated.[41].1891/Railroad passenger cars were segregated in[41]..Besides, in the early 20th centuryJim Crow LawsWas established.

1900 - 1949

1901/In the new constitution ofHead taxIncluded an election law that effectively deprives low-income African Americans and whites of their right to vote through restrictions on their right to vote, such as literacy.[42]..While the farmer class persuaded the white low-income group to support these laws, the cumulative poll taxation had a major impact on the white low-income group's right to vote. In 1900, there were more than 181,000 African-Americans in the state. In 1903, at least 74,000 African Americans were literate, but only 2,980 were registered voters.[43].. In 1941, there were 60 whites without the right to vote and 52 blacks, with more whites.[43]..Almost all African Americans did not have the right to vote.

The 1901 Constitution once again affirmed segregation at school. Racial marriage has been illegal since 1867, but the new constitution has stipulated it again. Racism law was added until the 1950s.1911/In prison,1915/At the hospital1928/Was segregated in toilets, hotels and restaurants in 1945, and in a bus stop waiting room in XNUMX.[41].

Rural Alabama parliaments have always reduced their budget allocations for education and services to deprived African-Americans, but continued to collect taxes from them.[31]..It also means answering the criticism that African Americans have a low education budget in the South.Rosenwald FoundationBegan to fund the construction of the school building, which became known as Rosenwald School.In Alabama, part of the design and construction of these schools was funded by the Rosenwald Foundation.The fund contributed one-third of the school building construction funds, with the rest divided by town and state[44].. In 1913, the first Rosenwald School was built. By 1937, a total of 387 schools, seven teacher dormitories and several vocational training buildings had been completed.The Rosenwald School that still remains in the stateUnited States National History RegisterIs specified in[44].

Tens of thousands of African-Americans have moved to industrial cities in the north in search of jobs due to continued racial discrimination, the agricultural recession, and the decline in cotton yields due to the epidemic.Great migrationIn the first half of the 20th century, he left Alabama in search of work and a better life in the manufacturing industry. Alabama's population growth rate from 1910 to 1920 was nearly halved.

Around the same time, rural whites and blacks migrated to work in the new industrial city of Birmingham.The city of Birmingham has grown so rapidly that it has been nicknamed the "magic city." In the 1920s, Birmingham was the 19th largest city in the country, home to more than 30% of the state's population.Heavy industry and mining were the foundations of the economy[45].Second World WarThe development of industry related to the demand of the nation brought prosperity that was not seen before the Civil War.[31]..Rural workers have flowed into the state's big cities in search of better jobs and higher living standards.A prominent example is the city of Mobile, where more than 1940 people entered the city and worked in the munitions industry during the three years from 1943 to 3.[46]..As the manufacturing and service industries flourished, cash crops such as cotton lost their importance.

1950 - 2000

Despite major changes in population composition from 1901 to 1961, rural-led parliaments did not try to change the population-based allocation of seats in the House of Representatives or the Senate.In order to maintain political and economic power in the agricultural area, he stuck to the old parliamentary division.In addition, the few constituencies in Birmingham have been conveniently modified to ensure elections by people living outside Birmingham.

A good example of the results includes the industrial and economic infrastructure of Birmingham.Jefferson CountyAnd while it accounted for more than one-third of state tax revenue, it did not receive proportionate service.Urban areas have always had few representatives in the state legislature. A 3 study stated that "a minority of the total population, about 1% of the legislators, dominated the majority of the state legislature."[2].

African Americans have a historical backgroundRepublican PartyHe played a part, but was deprived of his right to vote.Whites became hostile to the Republicans after the Civil War and Reconstruction.If white voters try to like it because of this, regardless of their political beliefsDemocratic PartyIt has become a long tradition to run in.

African Americans have long been trying to stop deprivation and racism,1950 era1960 eraBecome more activeCivil rights movementStarted an activity called.1955/State capitalHappened in MontgomeryRosa ParksThe arrest case kicked off the civil rights movement.This move led to the enactment of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 and the Election Rights Act of 1965 by the United States Congress. 1960sGeorge WallaceUnder the Governor's administration, a move in the state to resist the federal government's approval of the elimination of racial discrimination has failed.

During the civil rights movement, African Americans acquired civil rights, including the protection of votes through the enactment of the National Civil Rights Act and the Voting Rights Act.[47]..Jim Crow Law has been revoked or abolished and legal racism is over[48].

1965 Election Rights ActUnder, federal court forced Alabama to redistribute the seats of the State House and Senate according to population. In 1972, Alabama amended the State Constitution to redistribute seats according to population, the first amendment since 1901.This has benefited urban areas, which have been economically developed for more than 60 years but have few representatives.[2].


Related item:en: Geography of Alabama,Alabama County List

Alabama has a total area of ​​135,765 km2(52,419 mi2) Yes, it is the 30th largest state in the United States.3.2% of it is water, making it the 23rd largest in the country.It is the second largest inland waterway in Japan in terms of total length.[49].

Three-fifths of the state is a gentle plain,Mississippi River,Gulf of MexicoThe altitude goes down toward.The north is mountainous andTennessee RiverCreates large watersheds, forming streams, streams, rivers, mountains and lakes[50]..Gentle in the northeastern part of the stateAppalachian PlateauSpread,coal-Iron oreIt is a treasure trove of mineral resources.Most of the rest is occupied by the Gulf of Mexico coastal plain.The Mobile and Alabama rivers that flow into the Gulf of Mexico form the main river system.

The western part of the stateMississippi, The northTennessee, EasternGeorgiaAnd most of the southern partFloridaBut some face the Gulf of Mexico[50]..Altitude is from the sea level of Mobile Bay[51], NortheastAppalachian MountainsIt has changed to an area of ​​over 1800 feet (550 m).The highest point is Mt. Chiha at an altitude of 2,413 feet (735 m).[50]Is[52]..2,200 million acres of forest (89,000 km)2) Yes, which is 67% of the state[53]..In the suburbs of the Gulf of MexicoBaldwin CountyIs the largest county in the state in terms of both land and water area[54].

Areas managed by the United States National Park Service include Horseshoe Bend Military Park near Alexander City, Little River Gorge National Reserve near Fort Payne, and Russell Cave National Reserve in Bridgeport.TuskegeeTuskegee Airmen National Historic Site, Tuskegee National Historic Site Institute near Tuskegee[55]..There are also four national forests: Connecter, Taradega, Tuskegee and William B. Bankhead.[56]..In addition, Natchez Trace Parkway, Selma to Montgomery National Historical Road,Road of tearsThere is also a national historical road.Just south of Haleyville,Rocky mountainsLongest in the eastNatural bridgeThere is.

North of MontgomeryElmore CountyIs 5 miles (8 km) widemeteoriteThere is a crater.Called the Witumpka Crater, it is the site of "Alabama's largest natural disaster."A 1,000-foot (300 m) wide meteorite fell into the area about 8,000 years ago.[57]..The hills east of downtown Witumpka are eroded by the remnants of meteorite craters, and are named Witumpka craters or meteorite marks because of the concentric rings of debris and crushed rocks below the surface.[58].. In 2002, Christian Cuvar of the Institute of Geochemistry, University of Vienna, provided evidence that the site was the 157th recognized meteorite crater on Earth.[59].

The northernmost point of Alabama is in the northwest corner of the stateLauderdale CountyIt is about 6 miles (10 km) northwest of the town of Waterloo.The southernmost point isMobile CountyIt is Sand Island near Dauphin Island.The eastern point is the state border with Georgia,Russell County8 miles (13 km) southeast of Fort Mitchell.The westernmost point is one-third from the south of the Mississippi border,Choctaw CountyIt is near the town of Melvin.


AlabamaWarm and humid climateInKöppen climate classificationThen. cFA Is[60]..Average annual temperature is 64° F (18 ° C).It gets warmer as it approaches the Gulf of Mexico in the south, and the Appalachian Mountains in the north, especially in the northeast, are somewhat cooler.[61]..Summers are generally very hot, winters are warm, and there is heavy rainfall throughout the year.The average annual rainfall is 56 inches (1,400 mm), and there are 300 days for plant growth in the south.[61].

Summer is the hottest state in the country, with an average maximum temperature of 90 depending on the location.° F Exceeds (32 ° C).Tropical cyclone,HurricaneIt is also easily affected by.Areas far from the Gulf of Mexico are less affected by storms, but can cause heavy rainfall during landing and weakening.

There are many thunderstorms in the south.Thunderstorms occur 70 to 80 days a year in the Gulf of Mexico around Mobile Bay.Thunderstorms of about 60 days a year can be recorded in the northernmost part, although it is somewhat less in the northern part.Sometimes lightning strikes and big(I.e.May be dropped.Central and northern states are prone to this type of storm.It ranks 7th in Japan in terms of the number of deaths due to lightning strikes and 9th in the number of deaths from lightning strikes per capita.[62].

Statistics from the National Meteorological Data Center from January 1950, 1 to October 1, 2006 show:Improved Fujita ScaleEF5竜 巻By the number of occurrencesKansasIs the largest in Japan[63]..The number of deaths suffered by F5 class tornadoes that have traveled long distances is the largest in Japan, and the area that enters the tornado road is large.TexasIs also exceeded. It suffered enormous damage during the tornado outbreaks of April 1974 and April 4-2011, 4. In April 25, a total of 28 tornadoes occurred, the highest number of tornadoes in the state.[64].

The tornado-rich seasons are different in the north and south.Spring is the most vulnerable season, and November and December are the second tornado seasons, making it one of the few regions in the world.The northern part of the Tennessee Valley Authority is one of the most severely tornado-damaged areas in the country.This region of Alabama and Mississippi, sometimes referred to as Dixie Ally, is distinct from the tornado roads of the Southern Plains.

Winters are as warm as in other southeastern states, with an average January minimum temperature of 1 in Mobile.° F Around (4 ℃), 32 in Birmingham city° F It is about (0 ° C).Snowfall is rare in most parts of the state, but there is a breeze every winter north of Montgomery, with moderate snowfall every few years.So far there have been heavy snowfalls on New Year's Eve 1963 and 1993.The average annual snowfall in Birmingham is 2 inches (5 cm).It is rare in the southern Gulf of Mexico and may not have snowfall for several years.

Record highs in the state recorded on September 1925, 9 at the center building of an unincorporated municipality 5° F (44 ° C), record low temperature recorded at Newmarket on January 1966, 1-30° F (-33 °C)[65].

Flora and fauna

Various in the stateFlora動物 相Can be seen.This is the Tennessee Valley Authority in the north,Appalachian PlateauAnd Ridge and Valley Appalachian District, CentralPiedmont PlateauDiverse terrain, such as Kane Break and Black Belt, and the Gulf of Mexico Plains and coasts to the south, contributes significantly.Japan's top class in terms of biodiversity[66][67].

There used to be vast pine forests in the state.It still forms a considerable amount of forest in the state[66]..It is ranked 5th in Japan in terms of flora diversity.With pterophytaSeed plantThere are nearly 4,000 species[68].

mammalianThere are 62 native species inhabiting[69].reptiles93 species[70],Amphibian73 species[71],Freshwater fish307 species[66]Spend at least part of the year in the statebirdsThere are 420 species[72]..In invertebratescrustacean83 species of[73],MolluskThere are 383 species.113 of the mollusks are endemic to the state, not found outside the state[74].

Urban area

RankingMetropolitan area[75]Population (2020)[1]
6・ Fairhope Folly231,767
7Auburn・ Opera174,241
10Florence・ Muscle Shoals150,791
RankingcityPopulation (2020)[1]county
1Huntsville215,006Madison County
Limestone County
2Birmingham200,733Jefferson County
3Montgomery200,603Montgomery County
4Mobil187,041Mobile County
5Tuscaloosa99,600Tuscaloosa County
6Hoover92,606Jefferson County
Shelby County
7Auburn76,143Lie group
8Dothan71,072Houston County
9Decatur57,938Morgan County
Limestone County
10Madison56,933Madison County
Limestone County
11Florence40,184Lauderdale County
1239,102Jefferson County
1338,816Russell County
1437,781Autauga County
15Gadsden33,945Etowah County


Population transition
Yearspopulation% ±
Sources: 1910–2010[76]

At the time of the 2020 census, Alabama had a population of 5,024,279, an increase of 2010, or 244,543% from the 4.87 census.[1].

Alabama's center of populationChilton CountyIt is a suburb of the town of Jemison[77].

Race and ancestry

Racial composition of the state and comparison with previous census[78] :

RaceCensus year
African American26.2%26.0%25.3%
イ ン デ ィ ア ン0.6%0.5%0.4%
White, non-Hispanic67.0%70.3%73.3%
Hispanic ‡3.9%1.7%0.6%


* Not valid; mixed races were first reported in the 2000 census.
Hispanic figures are duplicated for other races.

As of 2011, 1% of the state's under 46.6 year old population belongs to ethnic minorities.[79].

The composition of ancestors declared in 2000 in Alabama was as follows: African (26.2%),English descent(23.6%),Irish descent (7.7%),German descent(5.7%), and Scottish Irish (2.0%)[80][81][82]..Demographers believe that 20 to 23% of the state's population are of English ancestry, and this figure is actually higher. A 1980 census declared that 41% of the total population was of English descent, making it the largest ethnic group at the time.[83][84][85][86][87]..In addition, the proportion of Scottish Irish is said to be higher than self-reported[88]..Many people say they are Irish because the term Scottish Irish was used by people with Scottish roots.[89].

In 1984, under the Davis Strong Act, the Legislature established the Alabama Indian Administration Committee to officially recognize the seven tribes.Now this has been expanded to 7 tribes[90].


Alabama's Major Religions:

Alabama has a lot of ChristiansBible beltIt is in the center of.Approximately 58% of the state attends church regularly, making it one of the most religious states in the country.[91]..Most of the people of the stateProtestantIs. As of 2000, the parliamentary group with many believersEvangelicalismProtestant,Mainline Protestant, Catholic church[92].

The number of believers is small,Judaism,Islam,Hinduism,Buddhism,SikhismandBaha'iMany religions are worshiped.Judaism has been worshiped in Alabama since 1763 during the Mobil colonial era[93]..The oldest parliamentary group is the Mobil Shaarai Shomeimu parliamentary group. Certified by the State Legislature on January 1844, 1[93]..Islam has 2011 in the state by 31MosqueIs being built and increasing[94]..Hinduism also has many temples such as Shri Swaminarayan Mandir in Birmingham[95][96]..There are 6 Dharma Centers throughout the state for Buddhists[97]..Buddhist monastic templeMobile CountyIt is concentrated near the Bayura Battle in the south.In this areaIndochina warResults in the 1970sCambodia,Laos,Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euA lot of refugees flowed in from[98].


Center for Disease Control and PreventionIn a 2008 study by AlabamaobesityHas been questioned, with most counties having an adult obesity rate of 29% or higher and 10 counties between 26% and 29%.[99]..Like the other five states that were pointed out to be obese, the proportion of people exercising in their leisure time was low.[100].Diabetes mellitusThe incidence of sickness exceeds 10% of adults, which is one of the largest in the country along with the southeastern states.[101][102].

2017/Is rare in developed countriesAncylostomiasisDue to the epidemic, Newsweek in the statepovertyHas been reported in connection with[103].

Indian tribe

Alabama,ApalacheeTribe ...CherokeeTribe,ChickasawTribe,ChoctawTribe,Muscogee Creek Union(,,,,,,,,,,) ,,CoushattaTribe ...Natchez,,,,,,Shawnee,,,,, etc., many in Alabamaイ ン デ ィ ア ンThe tribe was indigenous.Most of them are agricultural people.

Officially recognized by the U.S. federal government and still based on the Treaty of UnionReservation placeThere is only one tribe that owns (Reservation), the "Creek Poarch Band".

Of the Spanish who landed from Florida in the 16th centuryHernando de SotoHe led his army to slaughter Indian tribes in various parts of the southeast, calling himself the "Immortal Sun King."Soto also appeared here, and in 1540 attacked "Fort Mabira" in the village of a closely related tribe of the Creek tribe, "Fort Mabira".Mavira massacreThe massacre called "was carried out. Many of the tribes of the "Creek Coalition" are based on Soto's records.

The Creek (Muscogee Union) advocated racial segregation theoryAndrew JacksonPresidentialEthnic cleansingThe policy of 1830, "Indian immigration lawIs one of the most influenced tribes.Alabama and the surrounding area have fertile lands and have long been deprived of white settlers.

In 1831, a creek chief filed a complaint with the federal government that "more than 1500 white settlers are building their own farms on our creek lands."The federal government's answer to this is "Western Land (now).Oklahoma) Will have a reservation, so you can move there. "Tribal complaints were thus taken in the wrong direction, and in 1832, the Creek tribe's land was brutally transferred to the Commonwealth under a treaty, and the Creek Muscogee coalition tribe in AlabamaIndian TerritoryIt was decided to be forced to relocate to (currently Oklahoma).A transcontinental migration on foot under US military surveillance was disastrous, with thousands of premature deaths.

At this time, the treaty provisions allowed the Creeks, who refused to relocate to the Indian Territory, to remain on the reservation in Alabama.However, white settlers quickly deceived and stole their land.Even if it was recorded, "Indianwhiskey"Get drunk and sign a sales contract", "Create a land title in the name of another Indian using a bribe and make a sales contract with that Indian's signature", "Openly forge a sales contract" , "Pressure interferes with the trial in land sales" was used.This is a common practice used by white settlers for Indian tribes across the United States, and is neither unusual nor unique to the state.Forgery of sales contracts was easy because most Indians couldn't read or write English.

No whites were punished for looting these lands, but rather they treated them as children and addressed Congress that "Indians are inferior peoples to be extinguished."President JacksonIt was in line with the attitude of. Indians were not treated as humans in the first place until the US Supreme Court officially admitted that "Indians are humans" in 1879.

The Creek's "mottled snake (mottled snake)" during this displacementSpeckled Snake) ”The chief's speech to each of the coalition tribes is very famous.The following is an excerpt.

Brothers, I am a great fatherPresident of the United States) I listened to the story many times.The great father says he likes red children (Indians).But what the whites say is always this. "Go a little further, you're too close to the whites."

Thus, in 1853, there were few creek landowners in Alabama, and the creek was extinct.Among the Indians who remained in the state, the "Creak Poarch Band" was appointed by tribal leader Calvin Maggie from the 1950s to the 70s.ThanksgivingOn the dayPow WowWas held to raise funds and boosted the revival demand movement.Finally, the band was re-authorized by the US Department of Interior in 1984 and made a "revival."

Many tribes in the state were made "extinct tribes" in the 19th century and lost their reservations and are currently in dispute seeking recertification.

≪Tribes officially recognized by the US federal government≫

  • "Creek(Muscogie) Poarch Band "

≪Tribes and organizations not officially recognized by the US federal government but officially recognized by the Alabama state government≫

  • "Cello Creek Mutual Tribal Indians"
    • "Northeast Alabama Cherokee"
  • "Ekota Cherokee"
  • "Ma-Chiss South Creek"
  • "Choctaw・ Mowa Band "
  • "PikuaShawnee'
  • "Muscogee, Creek, Yufala, Star Clan"
  • "Ani Yun Weiya Cherokee Union"

≪Tribes and organizations not officially recognized by the US federal government or the Alabama state government≫

  • "Cherokee'
    • "Alabama Cherokee"
    • "Southeast Alabama Cherokee"
    • "Chickamauga Cherokee"
    • "Chickerokee, Cherokee, Langley Band"
    • "Free Cherokee, Eagle and Bear Clan"
    • "Phoenician, Cherokee, Sequoia, Eagle Tribe"
    • "South Cumberland Plateau Chikkamaka Band"
    • "Wolf Creek"
  • "Cherokee River Indian Community"
  • "Creek(Muscogie Union) "
    • "Major Creek Indian States East of Mississippi"
  • "Muscogee"

Indian Casino

Currently, only the Creeks have opened "Indian Casinos".Although different counties have different casino and gambling regulations, Alabama itself opposes Indian casinos, and state-sanctioned tribes cannot open casinos.

Poarch Creek becomes a tribal-owned casinoSlot machineAnd plans to increase table games.In April 2008, Troy King's Attorney General filed a lawsuit in federal court in Mobile seeking a ban on the expansion of Poarch Creek's casino business.Attorney General King complains, "Isn't the Interior Ministry ignoring the respect for the rights of Alabama's (non-Indian) people these days?"

≪Alabama Indian Casino and Management Tribe≫

  • Creek (Muscogee) Poarch Band
    • "Wind Creek Casino & Hotel"
    • "Creek Casino"
    • "Talaposa Casino"
    • "Riverside Casino"

Politics and law

Alabama Government

The underlying document of Alabama is the Constitution of Alabama, ratified in 1901.With about 800 amendments and 31 words, this constitution is the longest in the world.United States ConstitutionIs about 40 times longer than[104][105]..The movement to rewrite and modernize this constitution has continued.[106]..The rationale is the fact that the Constitution of Alabama concentrates central power on the city of Montgomery and has no political power in the provinces.Proposals for state-related policy changes must be approved by the Alabama Legislature and further state-wide referendums.One of the criticisms of the current Constitution is that it is designed to be racist due to the complexity and length of the Constitution.

The Alabama government, like the federal government and other states,Separation of three powersIt takes the form of.Legislative officeIs the Alabama Legislature, the House of Representatives with 105 members and the Senate with 35 members.Bicameral systemIs.Congress is responsible for drafting, discussing, enacting or abolishing state law.the current,Republican PartyHolds the majority of both houses.Parliament has the power to overturn the veto in absolute majority, unlike in other states, which require two-thirds of the approval.

Executive branchIs responsible for law enforcement and oversight.The head of government is the Governor of Alabama.The governor's cabinet consists of the prosecutor-general, the secretary of state, the finance minister, and the auditors.The incumbent governor has been Republican Kay Ivey since April 2017, 4.Originally a deputy governor under Governor Robert J. Bentley, Bentley announced his resignation in the middle of his term due to a scandal, and Ivey, who was the deputy governor, was promoted.[107].

JudiciaryIs responsible for interpreting the Constitution of Alabama and applying it to criminal and civil cases in the state.The Supreme Court is the Alabama Supreme Court.Its secretary is Republican Chuck Malone.Currently, all Supreme Court judges are Republicans.

Elections are held every four years in November, and state legislators take office immediately after election.State-wide officials, such as the governor, vice-governor, and prosecutor-general, will take office in January of the following year.[108].

immigration law

AlabamaImmigrationThe law is known to be strict, and public school studentsIllegal immigrationIt is mandatory to undergo an examination to see if it is not. According to the revision of the law in September 2011, the driver of the car is a state driver's license, and if it is a foreigner, the car issued by the country of origin.Driver's licenseIs obliged to carry, and violators can also be detained by the police[109].

State Law

income taxHas a tax rate of 2%, 4%, and 5%Progressive taxationThe method is adopted.Taxpayers are allowed to deduct federal income tax from state taxes, even if they have a basic deduction.Taxpayers who file individual deductions are federal社会 保障Expenses andMedicareTaxes can also be deducted.

consumption taxThe rate is 4%[110]..Cities and counties also collect sales tax, which is actually even higher.For example, in Mobile City, the total is 10%, and in restaurants, 1% is added.Sales tax and usage tax collect 51% of state and local government tax revenues, which is higher than the national average of 36%.It is one of the few states to tax food and medicine.Income tax on low-income earners is also high in Japan[111]..For example, even if a family of four earns US $ 4, they are subject to income tax and are nationwide.Poverty lineIt is a quarter level compared to[111]..Alabama's income tax limits are lower than the other 41 states and the District of Columbia[111].

The corporate income tax rate is 6.5%.Combined federal, state, and local government taxes, it is the second least tax-bearing state in the country.[112]..Property tax is also the lowest in Japan.A state constitution requires the approval of a referendum to raise property taxes.

Alabama's tax system is highly dependent on consumption, which leads to a highly variable budget.For example, the 2003 state accountant fell short of US $ 6 million in revenue.

Local and county governments

There are 67 counties in the state.Each county has a legislature, usually called the County Commission, whose members are elected.There are also usually administrative authorities.Due to the strong regulations of the Alabama Constitution, most of the counties are not self-governing except for the seven counties.Instead, most counties need to lobby the local council committees of the state legislature to obtain simple local policies, such as land classification for waste disposal.

August 2011, 11,Jefferson CountyDeclared bankruptcy[113][114]..AlabamaAlcoholic beverageIs the state that controls.The state government monopolizes the sale of alcoholic beverages.But the county is dry on its own (Dry county) Can be declared.The state does not sell alcoholic beverages in such areas.

Population rankingCounty namePopulation (2020)[1]County seatLargest city
1Jefferson County674,721BirminghamBirmingham
2Mobile County414,809MobilMobil
3Madison County388,153HuntsvilleHuntsville
4Baldwin County231,767
5Montgomery County228,954MontgomeryMontgomery
6Tuscaloosa County227,036TuscaloosaTuscaloosa
7Shelby County223,024Hoover(section)
8Lie group174,241Auburn
9Morgan County123,421DecaturDecatur
10Calhoun County116,441AnistonAniston


Alabama during the Reconstruction era following the Civil WarJohn popeOccupied by the Union Army in Wehrkreis III under the command of the Shogun. 3,RedeemerThe political alliance, called the Republican Party, regained control of the state government, partly because it curtailed African-American voting rights.

After 1890, the alliance of whites enacted a law to discriminate against blacks and deprive them of their right to vote, which was completed in the 1901 Constitution.The provisions that deprive African Americans of their right to vote have also deprived low-income whites of their right to vote. By 1941, more whites (52) than blacks (60) had been deprived of their right to vote.However, the impact was greater for blacks, with almost all state citizens being deprived of their right to vote.

From 1901 to the 1960s, the constituency line did not change, even as the state's population increased and population moved within the state.As a result, rural representatives with a small population dominated state politics, which continued until 1972, when a series of proceedings changed the constituency.

Alabama's politics was national and international during the civil rights movement of the 1950s and 1960s, when the then-majority whites bureaucratically and violently resisted protests for election and social reform. It attracted the attention of society.DemocraticGeorge WallaceWas the governor of the state for four terms, but was a controversial figure.Civil Rights Act of 4 by the Federal Government[47]Only after the 1965 Voting Rights Act was passed did African Americans gain civil rights, especially voting rights.

In 2007, the Alabama Legislature passed a resolution expressing "heartfelt regret" about slavery and its dragging effects, signed by Republican Governor Bob Riley.In this iconic ritual, the bill was signed by the Alabama State Capitol, which was also the Confederate Parliament.[115].

In the 2010 election, the Republican Party won the majority of both Houses of State, the first time in 136 years.[116].


State-wide elections

Past deprivations of African Americans have made Alabama a member of the "Solid South," making the Democratic Party virtually the only party. For nearly 100 years, local and state elections have been virtually DemocraticPrimary electionThe Republican Party only ran for general elections in form.

Currently, the Republicans make up all nine Alabama Supreme Court judges.[117]The same is true for 10 judges of the Court of Appeals. Until 1994, these judges had no Republicans.This change began with the recognition that the Democratic Party was trying to deprive voters of their right to vote again in 1994.In the general election, then-incumbent Chief Justice Ernest C. Hornsby refused to resign after being defeated by Republican Perry O. Hooper Sr. by about 3,000 votes.Hornsby sued Alabama and stayed in office for nearly a year, but gave up after losing the trial.This broke support for the Democratic Party in the subsequent three or four elections.It was in August 1 that he lost the last of the 3 positions of the Supreme Court and Court of Appeals Judges.

The Republican Party also monopolizes seven elected state government officials.The state board of education makes up six of the eight members. In 7, the Republican Party dominated both Houses of the State Legislature for the first time in 8 years.Democrats have only one of three members on the Alabama Public Works Commission[118][119][120].

Since the Reconstruction era, only two Republicans have been elected vice-governor, one of whom is incumbent Kay Ivey.

Local elections

Local-level officials in the state include county commissions, boards of education, tax evaluators, and collectors, but are still dominated by the Democratic Party.Democratic dominance in rural counties and Republican dominance in metropolitan counties, with some exceptions[121][122].

67 counties in the stateSheriffIs also elected in partisan elections, but the Democratic Party is the majority.Current figures are Democratic 42 counties, Republican 24 counties, and 1 other county.[123]..However, most Democratic sheriffs are in rural areas with low populations, and Republican sheriffs are responsible for large urban areas.[124]..Has a population of over 10Montgomery CountyCalhoun CountyTwo counties are Democratic sheriffs, and five counties with a population of less than 2 are Republican sheriffs.[125].. As of 2012Morgan CountyHas the only female sheriff in, and nine counties are African-American sheriffs[126].

National election

Alabama's elected US Senator is (Republican Party) And Doug Jones (Democratic Party).In a region of strong Republican support, the Democratic Party has not been able to win a Senate seat since 1997, but in December 2017Jeff SessionsIn the by-election following the inauguration of the Attorney General, the Democratic Party of Japan Doug Jones was elected and the Democratic Party of Japan regained its seat for the first time in 20 years due to suspicion of sexual harassment of the opponent candidate (Republican Party).But in the November 2020 final, Republican Tommy Tuberville defeated Jones by a wide margin, and Republican again occupies two seats in the Senate.

The United States House of Representatives has sent out seven members, six of whom are Republicans and one of whom is a Democrat.


United States Department of Commerce Department of Economic AnalysisAccording to the report, Soshu output in 2008 was US $ 1,700 billion, an increase of 0.7% from the previous year.Per capita income was $ 29,411[127] In 2010, per capita income for the state was $ 22,984.[128].

Alabama has invested in various heavy industries such as aerospace, education, medical, finance and automobiles, mining, steel and its products. Agricultural and livestock production in 2006 was US $ 15 billion.Previously agriculture was the main industry, but this figure is only about 1% of the state's gross domestic product. Since the 1960s, the number of private farms has continued to decline, and land has been sold to developers, sawmills, and agricultural companies.

農業以外の職種が広がってきた。2008年時点での雇用状況は、経営管理部門121,800人、事業・金融運営71,750人、コンピュータ関連と数学的職種36,790人、建築土木設計44,200人、生命科学・医学・社会学12,410人、地域社会サービス32,260人、法律関連12,770人、教育・訓練・図書館サービス116,250人、芸術・デザイン・メディア関連27,840人、健康管理121,110人、消防・警察・安全保障 44,750人、外食関連154,040人、建物と土地の清掃・保守76,650人、介護等53,230人、販売244,510人、事務管理職338,760人、農業・漁業・林業 20,510人、建設・鉱業・ガスと石油の採掘120,155人、設備設置・保守・修繕106,280人、製造業224,110人、輸送業167,160人となっていた[3].

In addition, Mobile city TheGulf of MexicoIt is a lively port city and is the gateway to the Midwest via the Tennessee Tonbigby Canal.

As of July 2012, the unemployment rate in Alabama was 7%.[129].

Large employer

According to the magazine Birmingham Business Journal, as of April 2011, the following organizations are the five largest employers in Alabama:[130].

employerNumber of employees (persons)
Redstone Arsenal25,373
University of AlabamaBirmingham School (including University of Alabama Birmingham Hospital)18,750
Maxwell Air Force Base12,280
Alabama Government9,500
Mobile County School District8,100

The next 20 organizations were listed in 2011 in the Birmingham Business Journal.[131].

Aniston Army SupplyAnniston City
Auburn UniversityAuburn city
Baptist Medical Center SouthMontgomery
Birmingham City School DistrictBirmingham City
Birmingham CityBirmingham City
DCH health systemTuscaloosa city
Huntsville City School DistrictHuntsville City
Huntsville City Hospital SystemHuntsville City
Hyundai Motor Manufacturing AlabamaMontgomery
Infermary Health SystemMobile city
Jefferson County Board of EducationBirmingham City
Marshall Space Flight CenterHuntsville City
Mercedes Benz US InternationalVance city
Montgomery Public Education School DistrictMontgomery
Regions Financial CorporationMultiple
University of AlabamaTuscaloosa city
South University of AlabamaMobile city


As an agricultural and fishery product in AlabamachickenChicken eggs,, Fish, seedlings,Peanut,cotton,corn,SorghumEtc.穀物,Vegetables,milk,Soybean, AndpeachThere is. Known as the "Cotton State," Alabama has several reports.[132][133]According to the United States, it ranks 8th to 10th in cotton production in the United States.The top threeTexas,GeorgiaandMississippi.

Manufacturing industry

IndustrialThe product isSteelProducts (cast iron and steel pipe);paper, Timber and wood products;Mining(Mostly coal);Synthetic resinProducts; cars and trucks; andclothingIs included.Also, especially in AlabamaNASA George C. Marshall Space Flight CenterandRedstone ArsenalHeadquarters inUS ArmyThere is an army headquarters,HuntsvilleThe region produces products for the aerospace industry and electronic components[134].

Alabama owes most of its economic growth since the 1990s to the ever-expanding automotive manufacturing industry.Honda Giken,Modern car,Mercedes-Benz,ToyotaThere is an assembly plant, and there is also a manufacturer of its parts. Since 1993, it has created more than 67,800 jobs in the automotive industry.Currently, it is the fourth largest state in the country in terms of automobile production.[135].

In the iron industryNew Core, SSAB,ThyssenKrupp,US SteelIt has a steel mill and employs more than 1 people.GermanyThyssenKrupp Steel says it will spend US $ 37 billion on the steelworks and employ 2,700 people.[136].

The Hunt Refinery is a subsidiary of Hunt Consolidated and operates a refinery in Tascalola.We also have branches in Mobile, Melvin and Moundville[137].JVC AmericaIn Tuscaloosaoptical diskHave a duplicate packaging factory[138].


An estimated 2,000 million tourists visit Alabama annually.10 of themCanada,United Kingdom,Germany,JapanEtc. from a foreign country. In 2006, 2,230 million tourists consumed US $ 83 billion and covered 16 jobs.[139][140][141].


The University of Alabama Birmingham Hospital is the only Level I in the stateTrauma centerIs[142][143]..It has the largest number of employment in hospitals in the state, with 1 employees.[144].

Financial industry

The state is home to Regions Financial Corporation, BBVA Compass, Superior Bancope, and former Colonial Bank Group headquarters.Bilbao V.-based Compass Bankshares was acquired by BBVA in Spain in September 2007, but BBVA Compass' headquarters remains in Birmingham. In November 9, Regions Financial completed the merger with Am South Van Corporation, also headquartered in Birmingham.South Trust Corporation, a large bank also headquartered in Birmingham, announced in 2006WachoviaWas acquired from US $ 143 billion.WachoviaContinues to operate in Birmingham and is a post-operation bankWells fargoOperates regional headquarters, operations centers, and a $ 4 million data center.In addition, nearly a dozen small banks such as Superior Bancorp, Service First and New South Federal Saving Bank are headquartered in Birmingham.There are also several large investment management companies, such as Herbert Management Corporation, headquartered.

Electronics industry

Communication providerAT&T(Formerly BellSouth) has several large offices in Birmingham.It has more than 6,000 employees and more than 1,200 contract employees.

The city of Huntsville is home to many technology companies, including ADTRAN for networks, integraphs for computer graphics, Avocent for designing and manufacturing IT infrastructure, and Deltacom, a telecommunications provider.Shinram has a factory in Huntsville20th Century FoxManufactures and ships DVDs and Blu-ray discs.

Construction industry

Last International has grown with Brassfield & Gory, BE & K, Hoare Construction and BL Herbert International, all of which have always been on the top list of engineering news record design, international construction and civil engineering companies. It is listed.Last International was acquired by Washington Group International in 2000, and in 2007 by San Francisco-based URS Corporation.


On November 2009, 11, Victoryland Casino will feature 3 luxury rooms and suites with a 32-inch LCD TV, cocktail bar, coffee shop, fine dining restaurant Whitfields Steakhouse, and the world's largest. Opened "New Oasis Hotel" with 300 bingo fields.

"Our goal is to be certified as a four-star (diamond)," said Rosti Price, General Manager.AtlantaI would like to invite many people from and other states. "

Currently, the following two non-Indian casinos are open in the state.

  • "Country Crossing"
  • "Victory Land"

On October 2009, 10, Judge Robert Vance of the Alabama Circuit Court ruled that the state's casino's electronic bingo machine was illegal.This ordered the closure of all casinos operating the console in Walker County, which was a political controversy.Ron SparksLawmakers criticized the ruling as "going against the state industry," saying, "I'm the only party member who has pledged state-wide approval of the state's gambling industry and compliance with the rules. Casino tax is education. We are funding the low-income medical assistance system. Whether or not to allow gambling should be left to the voters of each county. "

In response, the Alabama Supreme Court has set six legal criteria for permission to install Bingo game consoles at casinos. Bob RileyThe governor formed a response team in March and submitted a document to the Supreme Court of the State, which stopped more than 3 game consoles in the state, stating that the regulation was too strong against slot machines.At a subsequent hearing, the court also set criteria for digital bingo consoles. On December 900, 2009, casinos in the states such as "Country Crossing" and "Victory Land", which had been suspended, resumed operations by making game consoles correspond to this evaluation standard.



Major airports in the stateBirmingham-Shuttlesworth International Airport (BHM),Huntsville International Airport (HSV), Dothan Regional Airport (DHN), Mobile Regional Airport (MOB), Montgomery Regional Airport (MGM), Muscle Shoals / Northwest Alabama Regional Airport.


AmtrakIs a passenger trainCrescentOperate,ニ ュ ー ヨ ー クNew OrleansIs connected.The stops in the state are Aniston, Birmingham and Tuscaloosa.


Five crossing the stateInterstate highwayIs running.Interstate 65 runs north-south almost in the center of the state.Lines 59 and 20 pass from the Midwestern border to Birmingham, from which Line 59 heads to the northeastern corner of the state and Line 20 heads east to Atlanta.Interstate 85 begins in Montgomery, heads east-northeast to the Georgia border, and becomes the main road to Atlanta.Interstate 10Is an east-west road that runs through the southern tip of the state and through the city of Mobile.Interstate 22Is currently under construction and will connect the city of Birmingham with Memphis, Tennessee when completed around 2014.There are 5 other auxiliary lines.Route 165 in Mobile City, Route 359 in Tuscaloosa City, Route 459 in Birmingham City, Route 565 in Huntsville City, and Route 759 in Gadsden City. The sixth Route 6 is under construction and will be rerouted along the new Southern Bypass of Montgomery when completed.A bypass through the north of Birmingham is planned and will be designated as Route 685.

American National RoadThere are many lines such as Line 11, Line 29, and Line 31, and their branch lines also pass through.

There are four toll roads in the state.The Montgomery Expressway in Montgomery, the Tascarola Bypass in Tascarola, the Emerald Mountain Expressway in Witumpka, and the Beach Express in Orange Beach.

In March 2011, it was ranked within the worst 3 on the US Open Garbage Disposal Scorecard.The state as a whole was evaluated for the cleanliness of public places such as roads and the efficiency of waste disposal.[145].


Mobile Port, the only seaport in Alabama, is via the Tennessee Tonbigby Channel.Midwestern United StatesIt has an inland waterway leading to the Gulf of Mexico and is a busy port.It is the 9th largest cargo volume in Japan.[146]..The other ports are along the river and lead to the Gulf of Mexico.There are the following ports.List from north to south.

Port namePlaceConnecting waterways
Florence harborFlorence/, Along Lake PicwickTennessee River
Decatur PortDecatur, Along Wheeler LakeTennessee River
Guntersville Harbor, Along Guntersville LakeTennessee River
Birmingham HarborBirmingham, Along the Black Warrior RiverTennessee Ton Big Bee Canal
Tuscaloosa harborTuscaloosa, Along the Black Warrior RiverTennessee Ton Big Bee Canal
Montgomery HarborMontgomery, R ・ E ・ "Bob" ・ Along Lake WoodruffAlabama River
Mobile harborMobil, Along Mobile BayGulf of Mexico


Primary and secondary education

Public primary and secondary schools in the state are under the supervision of the Alabama Board of Education and also manage the Boards of Education in 67 counties and 60 cities.1,541 students are studying in a total of 743,364 schools[147].

The public education budget is allocated by the Alabama Legislature through the Education Trust Fund. US $ 2006 was allocated for the 2007-3,775,163,578 fiscal year.An increase of US $ 444,736,387 compared to the previous fiscal year[147].. In 2007, under the Federal "No Child Left Behind Act," more than 82% of schools showed annual progress in appropriate educational efficiency, using the means set by the state of Alabama. In 2004 this was 23%[148].

Alabama's public education system has improved in recent years, but is inferior to other states.According to statistical data, the proportion of the population with a high school diploma or higher is 75%, which is the fourth lowest in the country.[149][150].

Colleges and universities

Alabama's higher education system includes 4 four-year public universities and a two-year system.Community collegeThere are 17 private universities and graduate schools.There are three medical colleges, two veterinary colleges, one dental college, one ophthalmology college, two pharmacy colleges, and five law colleges in the state.Public higher education is overseen by the Alabama Board of Education and the Alabama Department of Higher Education. From 3 years associate degree to 2 doctoral programs[151][152].

The largest single campus is in TuscaloosaUniversity of AlabamaThe number of students was 2012 in the fall of 33,602.[153]..Troy University has four campuses in the state, 4 classrooms in the country, and 60 classrooms abroad, with 11 students studying in 2010.The oldest university is the public University of North Alabama in Florence, and was founded in 29,689 with the Catholic Spring Hill College in Mobile.[154][155].

The curriculum is accredited by the College and School Southern Association, as well as the Bible Higher Education Association.[156], Vocational Board of Education[157], Independent colleges / school accreditation committees, etc.[158].

magazineUS News & World ReportIn 2011, three of the 100 best public schools in the United States were from Alabama.University of Alabama ranked 3stAuburn UniversityWas 36th, and the University of Alabama at Birmingham was 73rd.[159].

Art and culture


Muscle Shoals areaSoul music,Country music,Blues,BluegrassIt has played a major role in the development of roots music.The main musicians are black singersPercy SledgeAnd all white Dan Penn, Spooner Oldham, Chips Moman,Rick HallIt is.




Sports team

Relationship with Japan

In Alabama, Mobile County, Mobile County, formed a sister city tie-up with Ichihara City, Chiba Prefecture in 1993, and exchanges with each other every other year.At that time, a delegation of 10 people consisting of local junior high school students or high school students will be dispatched.

Odd years are from Japan to the United States.Even-numbered years are from the United States to Japan.However, as for 2020, the Tokyo Olympics will be held in Japan, so the exchanges that normally take place in late July will be postponed to September.


Celebrities from the same state

State symbols, etc.

  • State Birds- Northern flicker(Also known as Yellow Hammer)
  • State Hunting Birds-WildTurkey
  • State Tree- Longleaf pine
  • State Fruit Trees- Peach
  • State Flower- Camellia
  • State Wildflowers- Oakleaf Hydrangea
  • State nuts- Pecan
  • State Fruit- Blackberry(rubus occidentalis
  • State saltwater fish- Tarpon
  • State Mammals- American bear
  • State Horse-Racking Horse
  • State Reptiles- Alabama red-bellied turtle
  • State Amphibian-Red Hills Salamander (Phaeognathus hubrichti
  • State insects- Monarch butterfly
  • State butterflies and mascots-Eastern tiger swallowtailPapilio glaucus
  • State Shells-Scafela Junonia (Scaphella junonia
  • State Minerals- Hematite
  • State Rocks- 大理石
  • State fossils- Basilosaurus・ Ketoides
  • State Jewels-Star Bluequartz
  • State Soil-Bama (BamaBama
  • State motto- Audemus jura nostra defendere(We dare to defend our rights)
  • State Bible-Alabama Bible
  • State Song-"Alabama"
  • State Renaissance Festival-Florence Renaissance Festival
  • State Championship Horse Show-AOHA Alabama State Championship Horse Show
  • State Outdoor Drama-"Miracle person"
  • State BBQ Tournament-Alabama BBQ Championship
  • State Agricultural Museum-Dothan Landmark Park
  • State Horseshoe Throwing Tournament-Stockton Falls Horseshoe Throwing Tournament
  • State Historic Cinema-Alabama Theater
  • State Outdoor Musical-The Incident at Looney's Tavern
  • State Quilts-Pine Bar Quilts
  • State Spirited Liquor-Connectaridge Alabama Whiskey


  1. ^ a b c d e QuickFacts. US Census Bureau. 2020.
  2. ^ a b c "George Mason University, United States Election Project: Alabama Redistricting Summary. Retrieved March 10, 2008”. Web.archive.org. As of November 2007, 10originalMore archives.2010/10/24Browse.
  3. ^ a b "Alabama Occupational Projections 2008-2018". Alabama Department of Industrial Relations.State of Alabama. 2012/9/22Browse.
  4. ^ a b c Read, William A. (1984). Indian Place Names in Alabama. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0231-X. OCLC 10724679 
  5. ^ Sylestine, Cora; Hardy; Heather; and Montler, Timothy (1993). Dictionary of the Alabama Language. Austin: University of Texas Press. ISBN 0-292-73077-2. OCLC 26590560. http://www.ling.unt.edu/~montler/Alabama/ 
  6. ^ a b c Rogers, William W .; Robert D. Ward, Leah R. Atkins, Wayne Flynt (1994). Alabama: the History of a Deep South State. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0712-5. OCLC 28634588 
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h "Alabama: The State Name". All About Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. As of June 2007, 6originalMore archives.2007/8/2Browse.
  8. ^ a b Wills, Charles A. (1995). A Historical Album of Alabama. The Millbrook Press. ISBN 1-56294-591-2. OCLC 32242468 
  9. ^ Griffith, Lucille (1972). Alabama: A Documentary History to 1900. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0371-5. OCLC 17530914 
  10. ^ The use of state names derived from Native American languages ​​is common; an estimated 27 states have names of Native American origin. Weiss, Sonia (1999). The Complete Idiot's Guide to Baby Names. Mcmillan USA. ISBN 0-02-863367-9. OCLC 222611214 
  11. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1953). “The Indian Tribes of North America”. Bureau of American Ethnology Bulletin 145: 153–174. originalArchived as of 2007-08-04.. http://www.hiddenhistory.com/PAGE3/swsts/alabam-1.htm 2007/8/2Browse.. 
  12. ^ a b Swanton, John R. (1937). “Review of Read, Indian Place Names of Alabama”. American Speech 12 (12): 212–215. two:10.2307/452431. JSTOR 452431. 
  13. ^ William A. Read (1994). “Southeastern Indian Place Names in what is now Alabama". Indian Place Names in Alabama. Alabama Department of Archives and History. 2011/10/3Browse.
  14. ^ Bright, William (2004). Native American placenames of the United States. University of Oklahoma Press. Pp. 29–559. ISBN 0-8061-3576-X. https://books.google.co.jp/books?id=5XfxzCm1qa4C&pg=&redir_esc=y&hl=ja 
  15. ^ "Alabama". The New York Times Almanac 2004(November 2006, 8). originalArchived as of October 2006, 9.. https://web.archive.org/web/20060926105134/http://travel2.nytimes.com/2004/07/15/travel/NYT_ALMANAC_US_ALABAMA.html 2006/9/23Browse. 
  16. ^ Welch, Paul D. (1991). Moundville's Economy. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0512-2. OCLC 21330955 
  17. ^ Walthall, John A. (1990). Prehistoric Indians of the Southeast-Archaeology of Alabama and the Middle South. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 0-8173-0552-1. OCLC 26656858 
  18. ^ Townsend, Richard F. (2004). Hero, Hawk, and Open Hand. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-10601-7. OCLC 56633574 
  19. ^ edited by F. Kent Reilly III and James F. Garber; foreword by Vincas P. Steponaitis. (2004). F. Kent Reilly and James Garber. Ed. Ancient Objects and Sacred Realms. University of Texas Press. ISBN +978-0-292-71347-5. OCLC 70335213 
  20. ^ "Alabama Indian Tribes". Indian Tribal Records. AccessGenealogy.com (Updated 2006). As of October 2006, 10originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  21. ^ "Alabama State History”. TheUS50.com. As of August 2006, 8originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  22. ^ "Alabama Historical Association Marker Program: Washington County”. Archives.state.al.us. 2011/6/1Browse.
  23. ^ Cadle, Farris W. Georgia Land Surveying History and Law (1991). Athens, Ga .: University of Georgia Press.
  24. ^ "AL-Alabama". Landscapes and History by state.StateMaster.com. 2006/9/23Browse.
  25. ^ "Old St. Stephens". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. 2011/6/21Browse.
  26. ^ "Huntsville". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. Alabama Humanities Foundation. 2013/1/22Browse.
  27. ^ "Old Cahawba, Alabama's first state capital, 1820 to 1826". Old Cahawba: A Cahawba Advisory Committee Project. 2012/9/22Browse.
  28. ^ a b LeeAnna Keith (October 2011, 10). “Alabama Fever". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. 2012/9/22Browse.
  29. ^ "Alabama Fever". Alabama Department of Archives and History.State of Alabama. 2012/9/22Browse.
  30. ^ Thomas W. Oliver (August 2007, 8). “King Cotton in Alabama: A Brief History". Alabama Heritage. University of Alabama, et al .. 2012/9/22Browse.
  31. ^ a b c "The Black Belt". Southern Spaces Internet Journal. Emory University (April 2004, 4). 2006/9/23Browse.
  32. ^ Wayne Flynt (July 2008, 7). “Alabama". Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University. 2012/9/22Browse.
  33. ^ "Capitals of Alabama". Alabama Department of Archives and History.As of August 2011, 7originalMore archives.2011/7/8Browse.
  34. ^ Gamble, Robert (1987). The Alabama Catalog: A Guide to the Early Architecture of the State. University, AL: University of Alabama Press. Pp. 144, 323–324. ISBN 0-8173-0148-8 
  35. ^ Bowsher, Alice Meriwether (2001). Alabama Architecture. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. Pp. 90–91. ISBN 0-8173-1081-9 
  36. ^ "Alabama History Timeline". Alabama Department of Archives and History.State of Alabama. 2012/9/22Browse.
  37. ^ Official Symbols and Emblems of Alabama, State Bird of Alabama, Yellowhammer. Alabama State Archives
  38. ^ "13th Amendment to the US Constitution: Abolition of Slavery (1865)". Historical Documents. HistoricalDocuments.com (2005). 2006/9/23Browse.
  39. ^ a b c d "Reconstruction in Alabama: A Quick Summary". Alabama Moments in American History. Alabama Department of Archives and History. 2012/9/22Browse.
  40. ^ "A Blaine Amendment Update (July 00)”. Schoolreport.com. As of July 2011, 7originalMore archives.2011/6/1Browse.
  41. ^ a b c "Jim Crow Laws in Alabama". Emmett Till, It All Began with a Whistle. Classroom help. 2012/9/22Browse.
  42. ^ J. Morgan Kousser.The Shaping of Southern Politics: Suffrage Restriction and the Establishment of the One-Party South, New Haven: Yale University Press, 1974
  43. ^ a b Glenn Feldman. The Disfranchisement Myth: Poor Whites and Suffrage Restriction in Alabama. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 2004, p. 136.
  44. ^ a b "The Rosenwald School Building Fund and Associated Buildings MPS". "National Register Information System". 2012/10/3Browse.
  45. ^ "Birmingham”. Bhamwiki. 2010/10/24Browse.
  46. ^ Thomason, Michael. Mobile: the new history of Alabama's first city, pages 213–217. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2001. ISBN-0 8173-1065-7
  47. ^ a b "Civil Rights Act of 1964”. Finduslaw.com. As of October 2010, 10originalMore archives.2010/10/24Browse.
  48. ^ "Voting Rights". Civil Rights: Law and History. USDepartment of Justice (January 2002, 1). As of February 9, 2007originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  49. ^ "GCT-PH1-R. Population, Housing Units, Area, and Density (areas ranked by population): 2000". Geographic Comparison Table. USCensus Bureau (Census Year 2000). 2006/9/23Browse.
  50. ^ a b c "The Geography of Alabama". Geography of the States. NetState.com (August 2006, 8). As of September 11, 2006originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  51. ^ "Elevations and Distances in the United States”. US Geological Survey (April 2005, 4). As of November 29, 2006originalMore archives.2006/11/3Browse.
  52. ^ "NGS Data Sheet for Cheaha Mountain”. US National Geodetic Survey. 2011/6/8Browse.
  53. ^ Alabama Forest Owner's Guide to Information Resources, Introduction, Alabamaforests.org
  54. ^ "Alabama County (geographies ranked by total population)". Geographic Comparison Table. US Census Bureau (Census year 2000). 2007/5/14Browse.
  55. ^ "National Park Guide". Geographic SearchWashington, DC: National Park Service – US Department of the Interior. As of September 2006, 9originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  56. ^ "National Forests in Alabama". USDA Forest Service. United States Department of Agriculture. As of October 2008, 10originalMore archives.2008/10/5Browse.
  57. ^ Earth Impact DB, accessdate = August 20, 2009
  58. ^ "The Wetumpka Astrobleme" by John C. Hall, Alabama Heritage, Fall 1996, Number 42.
  59. ^ King, David T., Jr. (April 2010, 4). “Wetumpka Crater". Encyclopedia of Alabama. 2011/12/13Browse.
  60. ^ Christopher M. Godfrey (November 2008, 11). “Greenhouse effect and climate". Atmospheric Sciences. University of North Carolina, Asheville. 2013/2/9Browse.
  61. ^ a b "Alabama Climate". Encyclopædia Britannica. 2010/10/24Browse.
  62. ^ Lightning Fatalities, Injuries and Damages in the United States, 1990–2003.NLSI. Retrieved May 8, 2007.
  63. ^ Fujita scale. Tornadoproject.com. Retrieved September 3, 2007.
  64. ^ Oliver, Mike. “April 27's record tally: 62 tornadoes in Alabama”. Al.com. 2012/11/4Browse.
  65. ^ "Record high and low temperatures for all 50 states". Internet Accuracy Project. accuracyproject.org. 2012/11/3Browse.
  66. ^ a b c Mirarchi, Ralph E. (2004). Alabama Wildlife: Volume One. Tuscaloosa, Alabama: University of Alabama Press. Pp. 1–3, 60. ISBN 978-0-81735-1304 
  67. ^ "Alabama Wildlife and their Conservation Status". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  68. ^ "About the Atlas". Alabama Plant Atlas. Alabama Herbarium Consortium and University of West Alabama. 2012/10/16Browse.
  69. ^ "Mammals". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  70. ^ "reptiles". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  71. ^ "amphibians". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  72. ^ "Birds". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  73. ^ "Crayfish". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  74. ^ "Alabama Snails and Mussels". Outdoor Alabama. Alabama Department of Conservation and Natural Resources. 2012/10/16Browse.
  75. ^ OMB Bulletin No. 20-01, Revised Delineations of Metropolitan Statistical Areas, Micropolitan Statistical Areas, and Combined Statistical Areas, and Guidance on Uses of Delineations of These Areas. Office of Management and Budget. March 2020, 3.
  76. ^ Resident Population Data. “Resident Population Data - 2010 Census”. 2010.census.gov. As of May 2011, 5originalMore archives.2011/6/1Browse.
  77. ^ "Population and Population Centers by State – 2000”. United States Census Bureau. As of December 2008, 12originalMore archives.2008/12/3Browse.
  78. ^ "American FactFinder”. Factfinder2.census.gov (October 2010, 10). As of May 5, 2011originalMore archives.2011/6/1Browse.
  79. ^ Exner, Rich (June 2012, 6). “Americans under age 1 now mostly minorities, but not in Ohio: Statistical Snapshot”. The plain dealer. http://www.cleveland.com/datacentral/index.ssf/2012/06/americas_under_age_1_populatio.html 
  80. ^ "Data on selected ancestry groups”. Google. 2011/6/1Browse.
  81. ^ "1980 United States Census (PDF)”. As of May 2011, 6originalMore archives.2011/6/1Browse.
  82. ^ "Alabama – Selected Social Characteristics in the United States: 2006–2008”. Factfinder.census.gov. 2010/10/24Browse.
  83. ^ "Ancestry of the Population by State: 1980 – Table 3 (PDF)". 2012/2/10Browse.
  84. ^ Sharing the Dream: White Males in a Multicultural America By Dominic J. Pulera.
  85. ^ Reynolds Farley,'The New Census Question about Ancestry: What Did It Tell Us?', Demography, Vol. 28, No. 3 (August 1991), pp. 414, 421.
  86. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Lawrence Santi,'The Use of Nativity Data to Estimate Ethnic Characteristics and Patterns', Social Science Research, Vol. 14, No. 1 (1985), pp. 44–6.
  87. ^ Stanley Lieberson and Mary C. Waters,'Ethnic Groups in Flux: The Changing Ethnic Responses of American Whites', Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, Vol. 487, No. 79 (September 1986), pp. 82–86.
  88. ^ "American FactFinder”. Factfinder.census.gov. 2012/2/10Browse.
  89. ^ Census 2000 Map – Top US Ancestries by County
  90. ^ "AIAC Bylaws". Alabama Indian Affairs Commission.State of Alabama. 2012/9/22Browse.
  91. ^ US Church attendance
  92. ^ "State Membership Reports”. Thearda.com. 2010/6/15Browse.
  93. ^ a b Zietz, Robert (1994). The Gates of Heaven: Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim, the first 150 years, Mobile, Alabama, 1844-1994. Mobile, Alabama: Congregation Sha'arai Shomayim. Pp. 1–7 
  94. ^ Kay Campbell (February 2012, 2). “Survey: US Muslims grow by 30 percent since 2000”. The Huntsville Times. http://www.al.com/living/index.ssf/2012/02/survey_us_muslims_grow_by_30_p.html 2012/9/8Browse. 
  95. ^ "Hindu Temples in the South East: catering to the needs of NRI and Indians in US". GaramChai. 2012/9/22Browse.
  96. ^ "History of Hindu Mandir & Cultural Center". Hindu Mandir & Cultural Center. 2012/9/22Browse.
  97. ^ "Dharma Centers and Organizations in Alabama". Manjushri Buddhist Community. Acu Maestro. 2012/9/22Browse.
  98. ^ Frye Gaillard (December 2007). “After the Storms: Tradition and Change in Bayou La Batre". Journal of American History. Organization of American Historians. 2012/9/22Browse.
  99. ^ "County Level Estimates of Obesity – State Maps”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). 2013/2/9Browse.
  100. ^ "Highest Rates of Leisure-Time Physical Inactivity in Appalachia and South”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). 2013/2/9Browse.
  101. ^ "County Level Estimates of Diagnosed Diabetes – State Maps”. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (2008). 2013/2/9Browse.
  102. ^ "CDC national chart on diabetes”. Apps.nccd.cdc.gov. 2011/6/1Browse.
  103. ^ Alabama's poverty is the worst in developed countries ── United Nations NEWSWEEK (December 2017, 12) Retrieved December 14, 2017
  104. ^ Roig-Franzia, Manuel (November 2004, 11). “Alabama Vote Opens Old Racial Wounds”. The Washington Post. http://www.washingtonpost.com/ac2/wp-dyn/A16443-2004Nov27?language=printer 2006/9/22Browse. 
  105. ^ "Constitution of Alabama – 1901". The Alabama Legislative Information System.As of August 2006, 9originalMore archives.2006/9/22Browse.
  106. ^ "Alabama Citizens for Constitutional Reform”. Constitutionalreform.org. As of September 2010, 9originalMore archives.2010/10/24Browse.
  107. ^ "Governor of Alabama resigns and is pursued on suspicion of concealing adultery". CNN.co.jp (CNN). (November 2017, 4). http://www.cnn.co.jp/usa/35099567.html 2017/4/11Browse. 
  108. ^ Lee, McDowell (2009). “Alabama's Legislative Process”. State of Alabama. 2013/2/9Browse.
  109. ^ Even though I showed my international driver's license ... Honda Japanese employee "Unlicensed", Alabama, USA(AFP.BB.NEWS. December 2011, 12) Viewed on the same day
  110. ^ Comparison of State and Local Retail Sales Taxes, July 2004. Retrieved May 25, 2007.
  111. ^ a b c "Reducing Alabama's Income Tax on Working-Poor Families: Two Options – 4/14/99”. Cbpp.org. 2010/10/24Browse.
  112. ^ "Alabama State Local Tax Burden Compared to US Average (1970–2007) (PDF)". Tax foundation.As of August 2007, 6originalMore archives.2007/5/30Browse.
  113. ^ News --View Article
  114. ^ “Jefferson County, Ala., Falls Off the Bankruptcy Cliff”. The New York Times(July 2012, 2). http://www.nytimes.com/2012/02/19/business/jefferson-county-ala-falls-off-the-bankruptcy-cliff.html 
  115. ^ Rawls, Phillip (June 2007, 6). “Alabama offers an apology for slavery”. The Virginian Pilot (Landmark Communications) 
  116. ^ "The New South Rises, Again". Civil Rights: Law and History. Southerner.net (Spring 1999). 2006/9/23Browse.
  117. ^ "Sue Bell Cobb considering running for governor --Breaking News from The Birmingham News”. Blog.al.com (May 2009, 5). 2009/8/7Browse.
  118. ^ "Commissioners”. Psc.state.al.us. 2009/8/7Browse.
  119. ^ Special (November 2008, 11). “Lucy Baxley wins Alabama Public Service Commission presidency, but recount possible”. Birmingham News via al.com. As of August 2009, 8originalMore archives.2009/8/7Browse.
  120. ^ Jeff Amy, Press-Register. “Public Service Commission: Twinkle Cavanaugh, Terry Dunn join GOP sweep”. Al.com. As of May 2011, 5originalMore archives.2011/6/1Browse.
  121. ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Democratic Primary Election Results – Alabama”. Uselectionatlas.org. 2009/8/7Browse.
  122. ^ "2006 Gubernatorial Republican Primary Election Results – Alabama”. Uselectionatlas.org (February 2007, 2). 2009/8/7Browse.
  123. ^ Alabama Sheriff's Association
  124. ^ "Association”. Alabama Sheriffs. 2009/8/7Browse.
  125. ^ "2007–2011 Alabama Sheriffs”. Alabamasheriffs.com. 2009/8/7Browse.
  126. ^ Alabama Sheriffs Association
  127. ^ "GDP by State (2008)". Bureau of Economic Analysis, Regional Economic Accounts (September 2009, 6). 2009/10/9Browse. full release with tables
  128. ^ "United States Census Bureau". State and County Quick Facts. 2012/2/25Browse.
  129. ^ Bls.govLocal Area Unemployment Statistics
  130. ^ Aneesa McMillan. "Top of the List: Alabama's largest employers"(April 22, 2011). Birmingham Business Journal.
  131. ^ "Alabama's Largest Employers". Birmingham Business Journal. American Registry (April 2011). 2012/9/19Browse.
  132. ^ "Alabama and CBER: 75 Years of Change (PDF)". Alabama Business. Center for Business and Economic Research, Culverhouse College of Commerce, The University of Alabama (Q4 2005). As of September 2006, 9originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  133. ^ "State Highlights for 2004–2005 (PDF)". Alabama Cooperative Extension SystemUSDA, NASS, Alabama Statistical Office (2005). As of September 2006, 9originalMore archives.2006/9/23Browse.
  134. ^ "Food Production in Alabama". The Encyclopedia of Alabama. Auburn University (July 2009, 7). 2012/9/22Browse.
  135. ^ "Vehicle Technologies Program: Fact # 539: October 6, 2008 Light Vehicle Production by State”. .Eere.energy.gov (October 2008, 10). 2010/10/24Browse.
  136. ^ “ThyssenKrupp's Alabama incentive package tops $ 811 million”. Press-Register(November 2007, 5). originalArchived as of October 2011, 7.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110726144848/http://blog.al.com/live/2007/05/mobile_county_wins_thyssenkrup.html 2011/7/22Browse. 
  137. ^ "Hunt Refining Company. "Linkedin.
  138. ^ "Company Overview. "JVC America, Inc.
  139. ^ Encyclopedia of Alabama: Alabama Tourism Department (ATD)
  140. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions – Sweet Home Alabama”. 800alabama.com (July 2004, 7). 2012/2/10Browse.
  141. ^ Fahrenthold, David A. (May 2010, 5). “Obama to survey environmental damage in gulf”. Washington, DC: Washington Pose. P. A2 
  142. ^ "Verified Trauma Centers". American College of Surgeons, Verified Trauma Centers (September 2010, 12). 2011/1/9Browse.
  143. ^ "College Research Data". University of Texas. 2012/4/18Browse.
  144. ^ Welcome to UAB Recruitment Services
  145. ^ S. Spacek, 2011 American State Litter Scorecard: New Rankings for an Increasingly Environmentally Concerned Populace.
  146. ^ "WATERBORNE COMMERCE OF THE UNITED STATES". US Army Corps of Engineers: Waterborne Commerce Statistics. p. 90. 2010/3/8Browse.
  147. ^ a b "Alabama Education Quick Facts 2007 (PDF)”. As of May 2007, 7originalMore archives.2007/8/11Browse.
  148. ^ "Eighty-Two Percent of Alabama Schools Make AYP While Increasing Annual Measurable Objectives (PDF)". 2007/8/11Browse.
  149. ^ http://www.census.gov/prod/2003pubs/c2kbr-24.pdf
  150. ^ Education Statistics. CensusScope.org
  151. ^ "Degree titles and abbreviations". Alabama Commission on Higher Education. 2007/9/3Browse. [Broken link]
  152. ^ "Education Programs | CCHS”. Cchs.ua.edu. 2011/6/1Browse.
  153. ^ http://www.tuscaloosanews.com/article/20120912/NEWS/120919931/1291?Title=University-of-Alabama-sees-record-student-enrollment-for-2012
  154. ^ "History in the making”. University of North Alabama. As of August 2011, 8originalMore archives.2011/7/22Browse.
  155. ^ "The Mission Statement of Spring Hill College: History”. Spring Hill College. As of August 2011, 8originalMore archives.2011/7/22Browse.
  156. ^ "Members”. Association for Biblical Higher Education. As of August 2011, 8originalMore archives.2011/6/24Browse.
  157. ^ "Membership Directory (PDF)”. Council on Operational Education (November 2010). As of August 11, 2011originalMore archives.2011/8/5Browse.
  158. ^ "ACICS Website Directory (PDF)”. Accrediting Council for Independent Colleges and Schools (July 2009, 7). As of August 20, 2011originalMore archives.2011/8/5Browse.
  159. ^ "Top Public Schools”. US News and World Report. As of September 2011, 9originalMore archives.2011/9/17Browse.


  • Southern Hospitality Study Abroad in Southern America, Rie Takeuchi (Notes on Study Abroad in Alabama), 2002, Aichi Publishing-Seiunsha
  • Atkins, Leah Rawls, Wayne Flynt, William Warren Rogers, and David Ward. Alabama: The History of a Deep South State (1994)
  • Flynt, Wayne. Alabama in the Twentieth Century (2004)
  • Owen Thomas M. History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography 4 vols. 1921.
  • Jackson, Harvey H. Inside Alabama: A Personal History of My State (2004)
  • Mohl, Raymond A. "Latinization in the Heart of Dixie: Hispanics in Late-twentieth-century Alabama" Alabama Review 2002 55 (4): 243–274. ISSN 0002-4341
  • Peirce, Neal R. The Deep South States of America: People, Politics, and Power in the Seven Deep South States (1974). Information on politics and economics 1960–72.
  • Williams, Benjamin Buford. A Literary History of Alabama: The Nineteenth Century 1979.
  • WPA. Guide to Alabama (1939)

Related item

外部 リンク

Coordinate: 32°42'N 86 degrees 42 minutes west longitude /32.7 N, 86.7 W / 32.7; -86.7;


Back to Top