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🚗 | BMW's high-performance brand "M" sets new record for global sales


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BMW's high-performance brand "M" sets new record for global sales

 
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Both powertrains are equipped with a turbocharged gasoline engine.
 

The high-performance BMW "M" brand of the BMW Group will be released on January 1th, the world's new car in 13 ... → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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gasoline engine

gasoline engine(British: gasoline engine) IsGasoline engineGood,fuelIsgasolineAnd of the airAir-fuel mixtureThecompressionAfterignition,combustion(Premixed combustion) ・expansionTo letItineraryRepeat,Physical energyTo outputInternal combustion engine.

Overview

Burn gasolineExternal combustion engineBecause there is also (external combustion engine basically does not choose a heat source), when we want to express "an engine that ignites with sparks using gasoline" more strictly, we call it "gasoline spark ignition type internal combustion engine". Spark dischargeFrom igniting bySpark ignition internal combustion engineAnd spark ignition engine, but spark ignition isFuel gasSince the same is true for engines such as, it has a broader meaning. Part of a model gasoline engine andMagnetoIn the early stages of gasoline engine development before developmentGlow plug ignitionBy "GasolineGlow engineThere is also.

MostlypistonReciprocateConnecting rodとCrankshaftでAxis of rotationOutput toReciprocating engineAndItineraryIt is further classified by number. Intake・ Compression / expansion ・exhaustTake the four steps of4-stroke engineThe cycle mainly used forOtto cycleIs. Combustion minimizes the volume of the air-fuel mixtureTop dead centerBecause it is done at once in a short time in the vicinityvolumeBurns almost constantly. For this reason, it is called the isochoric combustion cycle, or the Otto cycle from the developer's name. Onceマ ツ ダ SuperchargerWithMiller cycleThe engine was put into practical use.Toyota OfHybrid carIsPriusEngine isAtkinson cycleAlthough it is called an institution, it is a Miller cycle institution. Takes two steps: intake and compression, expansion and exhaust2-stroke engineIs the Clark cycle. Only a few, but it goes through 6 steps6-stroke engineAlso exists.

Besides, it does not involve reciprocating motionRotary engineHas also been put to practical use.

Per cylinderStroke volumeIf it exceeds about 600 mL, the thermal efficiency will deteriorate, so high output (Work rate) The engine must be multi-cylinder[1]. diesel engineHigher speed rotation than (compression ignition engine) is possible,DisplacementThe output is large, vibration and noise are small, and it is quiet, so it is suitable for small output.Passenger carSmall size includingCommercial vehicle,MotorcycleWidely used for such purposes. Long time agoaircraftA multi-cylinder engine with 1,000 horsepower or more was used for this purpose,Second World WarLaterJet engineDisappeared due to the spread ofLight aircraftIt is only used for such purposes. It is also more suitable for cold regions than diesel engines, so it will be operated in that region.Military carWas used preferentially.

With the exception of some engines that intentionally cause compression ignition, if atomized / vaporized gasoline self-ignites and knocks during compression, it is inconvenient such as incomplete combustion and engine damage, so the same displacement and fuel To improve output from consumptionCompression ratioDifficult to self-ignite to raise =Octane numberIt is necessary to use high gasoline. Therefore, organic lead compounds such as tetraalkyl lead were once added, but from the viewpoint of environment and safety, they are banned in most countries except for aircraft, and alternative antiknock agents are now added. It was. Exhaust gas contains a lot of toxic components, but it can be easily and inexpensively reduced by control and post-treatment, and various methods were tried immediately after the start of exhaust gas toxic component regulation, but after thatThree-way catalystConverged on the method. Organolead compounds such as the above-mentioned tetraalkyl lead impair the function of this catalyst and are therefore prohibited.

Construction

The main part of the XNUMX-stroke engine is composed of the following parts.

Cylinder block
It is a block mainly made of cast iron or aluminum alloy, and has a cylinder inside, as well as a passage for cooling water and lubricating oil. There is also an air-cooled system in which fins are provided on the outside without using cooling water.
piston
It is a cylindrical part mainly made of aluminum alloy and reciprocates in the cylinder. In the compression process, the air-fuel mixture in the combustion chamber is compressed while rising, and in the combustion stroke, it falls while receiving the combustion pressure, and the force is transmitted to the connecting rod. In the exhaust process, the combustion exhaust is sent out of the cylinder while rising, and in the intake process, it has the function of sucking new air-fuel mixture into the cylinder while descending. It is desired that the material has excellent thermal conductivity, small thermal expansion, and is lightweight. Often there are multiple grooves on the side of the combustion chamberpiston ringIs fitted to improve airtightness and keep oil rising and oil falling within a practical range.
Connecting rod
The piston and crankshaft are connected, and the vertical movement of the piston is converted into the rotational movement of the crankshaft. Chrome molybdenum steel or carbon steel is used as the material.
Crankshaft
Converts the vertical movement of the piston into rotational movement. The rotational movement of the crankshaft not only produces the output of the engine, but also the driving force of the parts and accessories that make up the engine itself, such as the camshaft and oil pump.
A valve provided between the intake manifold and the cylinder opens when the engine shifts to the intake stroke to introduce the air-fuel mixture into the cylinder.
A valve provided between the exhaust manifold and the cylinder opens when the engine moves to the exhaust stroke to exhaust the combustion exhaust to the outside of the cylinder.
Camshaft
A shaft with a cam for opening and closing the intake valve and exhaust valve at an appropriate timing. The opening / closing timing of each valve is determined by a timing belt that transmits the rotation of the crankshaft.
Spark plug
The compressed air-fuel mixture is ignited by electrically generated sparks and red heat.
carburetor-Fuel injector
Gasoline is mixed with the air taken in by the engine and burned.Air-fuel mixtureTo. Gasoline may be sprayed into the combustion chamber with a fuel injection device.
radiator
In order to prevent seizure of the engine, heat is dissipated from the cooling water that cools the cylinder into the air, and the cooling water is maintained at an appropriate temperature. It may be omitted due to air cooling.

Heat account

When the fuel burnsheatWhen is 100%, there is a heat account as a word that indicates how the heat is used.

Below isCarnot cycleThis is an example of the heat account of a gasoline engine according to. Actually of the enginePerformanceDifferenceOperating environmentBy thisProportionIs different[2].

  • Total energy during combustion: 100%
  • Effective work: 20-30%
  • Mechanical loss: 5-10%
  • Radiation loss: 1-5%
  • Exhaust loss: 30-35%
  • Cooling loss: 30-45%

That is, only about 2% to 3% of the energy at the time of combustionworkCannot be taken out. This is an in-engine only account, so it's actually anothermechanismFurther loss during transmission occurs when transmitting, but from the exhaustTurbineIn some cases, energy may be further extracted by such means.

Footnote/Source

  1. ^ Toru Sakuragi (June 2011). “Flow of fewer cylinders-International Engine Off-the-Year 2011-". ColumnSumisho ABeam Automotive Research Institute. 2014/12/28Browse.
  2. ^ Supervised by Yoshihiko Hagiwara "Handy Book Machinery Revised 2nd Edition" Ohmsha March 2007, 3 p.20

Related item

Drive row

Drive row(Kudoretsu) orDrivetrain[1][2](English: drivetrain, drive train, drive-train) IspowerTheDrive wheelsIt is a group of components of a motor vehicle that transmits to[3]..Generate powerorgan(Engine) orelectric motor(motor) Is not included.In contrast,"Power train"(Powertrain, powertrain) is considered to include the engine and / or motor in addition to the drive train.The "drive system" (both drive line, drive-line, drive transmission system, and power transmission system) is the part of the power train excluding the engine or motor and transmission.[4][5].

Features

The function of the drive train is to connect the engine that generates power with the drive wheels that use this mechanical force to rotate the axles.This connection requires physically connecting these two components (which may be on the opposite side of the vehicle), which is long.Propeller shaft,Drive shaftIs required.Also, the operating speeds of the engine and wheels are different, so it is appropriate.Gear ratioMust match with.Even if the vehicle speed changes, the ideal engine speed must be almost constant for efficient driving, so this gearbox ratio is alsoManual,自動, Or automaticContinuously variableNeed to change with either.

Component

The specific components of the drive train differ depending on the type of vehicle.

Manual transmission car

Automatic transmission car

Front-wheel drive vehicle

Rear-wheel drive off-road vehicle

Final drive (Final drive)

The final drive is on the drive wheelstorqueThis is the last component of the series of components that supply.In road vehicles, the final gear (final reduction gear) that decelerates and transmits the power from the transmission and the differential gear that distributes the power to the left and right (Differential gear) Is composed of two parts[6].

Railcars may also have a built-in reversing device.for example,British RailwaysUsed in many of the first generation diesel multipurpose units of(English edition)Made by RF28[7]And RF03, which is used in class 04 and class 11 diesel shunt locomotives.

The power train of an automobile consists of a propulsion source such as an engine or an electric motor, and a drive system that converts the energy into the forward movement of the vehicle.

Motor vehicleIt is,Power trainConsists of a propulsion source such as an engine or an electric motor and a drivetrain system that converts that energy into the forward movement of the vehicle.

Power train (Power train)

Definition

The power train isPrime mover(Internal combustion engineAnd one or more electric motors for driving (and / or one) and all the components that convert the power of the prime mover into the movement of the vehicle (transmission, drive shaft, differential, axle, etc.)[8][9]..However, the drive train does not include a power source and consists of a transmission, a drive shaft, a differential and an axle.[10][11].

Propulsion deviceAlso called[12].

Power source

Most passenger and commercial vehicles are powered by internal combustion engines, electric motors, or a combination of the two.

The most common types of internal combustion engines are:

PureElectric carMany of them are for energy storageStorage batteryUses (battery) (although in some prototypes, insteadFuel cellIs using),Rechargeable battery-powered electric vehicleIt is called (BEV).

A vehicle equipped with both an internal combustion engine and an electric motorHybrid car".If the hybrid car has a charging socket, "Plug-in hybridThere is no charging socket (engine orRegenerative brakeIf the electric motor can be used as the main power source, "strong hybrid", if the electric motor functions to assist the engine, "Mild hybrid"It is called.

Source

  1. ^ "Automotive Technology Association Standard Keywords". Automotive Engineering Society (June 2010). 2021/9/18Browse.
  2. ^ "Glossary> Drivetrain”. Automotive Jobs. 2021/9/18Browse.
  3. ^ “Drivetrain”. Automotive Handbook (3rd ed.). Bosch. (1993). P. 536. ISBN 0-8376-0330-7 
  4. ^ "Transmission and Drivetrain”. MathWorks. 2021/9/18Browse.
  5. ^ "Drive system". Large car forest. Motor-Fan. 2021/9/18Browse.
  6. ^ "Final drive". Goo-net Car Glossary. 2021/9/19Browse.
  7. ^ Mann, RH, Diesel Rail-Cars, Draughtsmens and Allied Technicians Association, 1964, pp 45–50
  8. ^ "What Does a Powertrain Warranty Cover?". www.carchex.com. 2020/11/30Browse.
  9. ^ "What is a Powertrain or Drivetrain?" (English). www.whichcar.com.au. 2020/11/30Browse.
  10. ^ "What is a Car Powertrain?" (English). www.itstillruns.com. 2020/11/30Browse.
  11. ^ "What Does a Powertrain Warranty Cover? What is a Powertrain?" (English). www.autosimple.com. 2020/11/30Browse.
  12. ^ Kaname Naganuma (202-07-17). “Power source and power train: Basic knowledge of transmission 2”. IPROS. 2021/9/18Browse.

 

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