Formula E Season 8 begins.In the first round, champion De Vries won, followed by Bandoon Mercedes 1-1
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In the first corner, contact was seen in the position battle of each machine, and Antonio Felix da Costa (DS Techeetah) suffered damage to the left front of the machine and pitted in and retired as it was.
January 1, 29/2021 ABB FIA Formula E World Championship "Season 2022" opening round ... → Continue reading
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pit (pit) IscircuitThis is a facility for maintenance of competition vehicles. Besides serving as a frontline base for racing teams, it also has a management function for race operators. The reason why there is a "pit" (a dent) is that there was originally a pit for servicing the lower part of the vehicle in the vehicle maintenance area. Even if there is no dent in the equipment, it is called a pit because it is maintained by jacking up the vehicle.
Refers to working in the pit during the racePit stopIs also described in this section.
Usually the control lineInside the main straight where theIn some cases, but sometimes on the outside, in rare casesSweden OfAndel StopeLike, because of topographical constraints, it may exist in other positions.Silverstone Circuit,Spa FrancorchampsWhen using old and new pits properly depending on the category likeSuzuka CircuitSome circuits have a second pit for racing in a short layout like this.
This course and the pit area are separated by the pit wall, and you can enter and exit through the pit road. To enter the pit area from this coursePit inTo join the course from the pit areaPit outSay.
Facility and name
- Pit road
- A connecting route to enter the pit area from the main course or join the main course from the pit area. The width is narrow to promote deceleration,Chicane,crankMay be installed. Generally, the entrance is at the final corner and the exit is at the front of the first corner, but depending on the circuit, the position may be shifted from the safety aspect.
- Pit lane
- Passage in the pit area. The pit wall side is divided into a high speed lane (fast lane) and the pit garage side is divided into an inner lane (inner lane). Fast laneasphaltPavement, but the inner laneconcreteIn many cases (if fuel spills during work, the surface of asphalt will be damaged).
- Pit wall
- A wall that separates this course from the pit area. It was often not installed until the 1960s, but it is now obligatory to install it because it is dangerous if a competition vehicle jumps into the pit due to an accident.
- Start stand
- A place where the Race Director gives instructions to competitors. At the start, check that the train is ready and operate the start signal lighting (in the case of rolling start,Green flagShake). Depending on the situation during the raceSafety carIntroduction of (pace car)Red flag(Travel interruption),Black flag(Pit in command) etc. are presented.
- Signboard area
- A place to present an information transmission board (signboard) to a vehicle running on the main straight. It is allocated before the pit garage of each team.
- Pit wall stand
- The "command base" during the race, which is set up separately from the pit garage. Various information monitors and communication devices are installed, and team managers and race directors often take command of this location.
- Pit garage
- A place that mainly repairs competition vehicles and performs various work. In the case of road courses, it is a permanent facility with a roof, but in urban courses it may be temporarily installed. No garageCartIn the course,tentIs rented out. The garages are vertically aligned along the pit lane, with equal space allocated to each team. There are various arrangements such as application order, lottery, team ranking order.
- Equipment in the garage varies by category team. In addition to tools and spare parts, a computer for various data analysis may be provided. In the popular category, the advertisement of the sponsor is often drawn on the wall by calculating the exposure to the media.
- There used to be a wall between the garage and the pit lane.NASCAR,IndyCarThere are still many types of this type of circuit in North America where is held.
- The space behind the pit garage.Transporter,Motor homePark the vehicle and bring the transported vehicles and materials into the pit garage. During the race, it will also be a social gathering where the people involved in each team meet. In higher categories such as F1, hospitality facilities will be provided to entertain sponsors and VIP guests.
- Control tower
- At the airportcontrol towerIt is a high-rise building with a good view. The circuit manager (organizer), competition committee (official), and deliberation committee (steward) are stationed to manage the race and make decisions. Medical rooms and meeting rooms are also set up.
- Vehicle inspection station
- Whether the competition vehicle complies with technical regulations such as weight and dimensionsVehicle inspectionWhere to do. Each team brings in a competition vehicle and gets a check. Normally, the first garage at the entrance to the pit lane is used.
- Parc ferme
- A place where vehicles are isolated from the team and temporarily stored to prevent fraud. If you do not allow specification changes between sessions, keep it here and monitor it.
- Penalty spot
- In the racepenaltyThis is a special spot for vehicles that have been ordered to take a pit stop penalty to make a temporary stop. Usually, it is installed near the end of the pit lane and is equipped with a digital clock that counts down the pause time.
- An award ceremony for the top three cars in the race will be held. To make it easy to move from Parc Ferme,テ ラ スOften found inFrenchIt is also called the podium from Le podium de vainqueurs.
- Leaders board
- A bulletin board that displays the number of laps and the running order (vehicle number). Long time agoblackboardToChalkI used to write by hand and replace the plates, but nowElectronic bulletin boardIs the mainstream.LEDBefore the spread ofNightIn the raceELHas also been used.
The pit lane is dangerous because the competition vehicle and team staff are close to each other. When a vehicle passes through the pit lane, a horn is sounded to prompt safety confirmation. Since there is a risk of fire, fire facilities are prepared and the fuel is stored strictly.
In the pit, each team competes for one second, so the pit crew is bounced or run over, tires and tools are blown away, the machine starts with the refueling hose and tank attached, etc. , There is also an accident that injures the pit crew. 1993Road Race World ChampionshipSpanish GPThen I participated in the 250cc classNobuyuki WakaiAn accident occurred where he fell and died in an attempt to avoid the spectators who jumped out into the pit lane.
During the raceSafety carWhen is introduced, each car will pit in all at once for tire replacement and refueling work, and the pit lane will be congested and the risk will increase.The timing of the start after work is instructed by the lollipop man standing in front of the machine, but if you risk contact by trying to force them to join, you will be penalized with an "unsafe release".
In the past, there was no speed limit in the pit lane, and it was natural to accelerate rapidly at the time of pit out and pass at a tremendous speed. 1994F1San Marino GPThen, after changing the tires, the tires fell off from the machine running in the pit lane, and an accident occurred in which the mechanic was hit directly and injured.Next roundMonaco GPWith the setting of speed limits on the passing speed of pit lanes, speed limits have been introduced in many categories.There is a "PIT button" on the steering of the racing car, and the engine is automatically adjusted to be below the speed limit while driving in the pit lane (while pressing it)FIA World Endurance Championship (WEC) hybrid engine vehicles run on motors).Even so, it rarely happens that the speed is over, and fines and drive-through penalties are imposed.
When decelerating to make a pit stop on this course or accelerating after a pit stop, a sudden change of course puts the following vehicle at serious risk.The entry lane from this course is drawn in front of the pit road entrance, and the merging lane to this course is drawn by a white line at the end of the pit road exit. Be done.
Admission to the pit
Spectators other than those involved in the race cannot enter the pit area. However, the invited guests of the teamPaddock passOnce you receive it, you can enter the roof of the paddock or pit garage. The paddock pass is issued by the team after applying in advance to the management side and is popular because it is used for entertaining sponsors.
In addition, as a service to general customers, open the pit lane before and after the racePit walkThat time is set up. In front of the pit garage, there will be events such as competition vehicle exhibitions, racer autograph sessions, and contests to compete for the speed of pit stop work.
Rules in the pit
- Except for Marshall, you cannot cross the pit wall to enter the main course while driving.
- Pit laneone-wayIt is not possible to run in reverse (or reverse using reverse gear). When putting the vehicle backwards in the pit garage, turn off the engine and the crew will work manually.
- Vehicles cannot be parked in the fast lane of the pit lane. For pit stop work, stop at a designated place (pit box) in front of the pit garage on the inner lane.
- You cannot overtake while driving in the pit lane (you can overtake a stopped vehicle).
- A white line is drawn at the boundary between the pit road and the pit lane, and the pit lane section must drive at a speed below the speed limit. The speed limit depends on the length and width of the pit lane. In the pit laneAutomatic speed control deviceIs installed, and if you exceed the speed limit, you will be penalized.
Opening and closing the pit
- There are traffic lights at the entrance to the pit road and at the end of the pit lane, and if the traffic light is red, you cannot pit in or out (pit lane closed).
- In free practice and qualifying, the pit lane exit is opened at the start time of the schedule. If the weather is expected to deteriorate in qualifying, you can park in parallel at the pit lane exit and wait for the start time.
- The pit lane exit will be closed at a certain time before the start of the race. Vehicles that cannot pit out by that time will not be able to get on the regular starting grid. This vehicle stops at the pit lane exit and waits for the start, and after all the vehicles on this course have passed, the merging to the race is allowed (pit start).
- If the vehicle is instructed to run in full deceleration (full course caution) during the race, the pit will be temporarily closed and you will not be able to enter the pit until the green light is displayed.
- Depending on the category,Safety carMay not allow any pit-in during the course (after 2016SUPER GTSuch).
Fouls during the race are often imposed by passing through the pit lane. Since the pit lane has a speed limit, the purpose is to cause time loss.
- Drive-through penalty
- You will be punished for light fouls such as stepping on the white line when you pit in and out. You have to go through the pit lane. In that case, do not do pit work. However, there are rare cases where pit work is allowed at the same time as NASCAR.
- Penalty stop
- You will be penalized for a heavier offense than is subject to the drive-through penalty. Through the pit lane, you must stop for a specified number of seconds at the place where you normally stop or when you make a pit stop.
When a competitive vehicle enters the pit during a race, the following tasks are mainly performed, although the content varies depending on the category.
- Driver/rider change
- Repair/replacement of parts damaged due to breakdown or accident
- Adjusting settings
- Tire exchange
Pit work terms
- Pit crew
- Team staff in charge of pit stop work. The mechanics who maintain the machine are in charge, and the division of roles is decided. The number of people who can work at the same time is regulated, and one person may perform many roles. Due to the risk of fire during refueling, pit crews are required to wear helmets and fire protection suits.
- Full service
- Do all the work you can do in the pit (except for troubleshooting).
- Splash and Go
- Refuel only the minimum amount of fuel necessary and finish the pit work in a short time. Depending on the category, the time required for tire replacement can be omitted, and the work time can be greatly reduced.
- The number of laps that you can run without replenishing or replacing consumables such as fuel and tires. In the case of a fuel window, it indicates the number of laps that can be completed.
Tactical pit work
Since there are several seconds of comma level competition on the course, a few seconds of time loss at the pit stop may affect the race results. Apart from the performance of the machine and the skill of the players, the team's organizational strength is required in the pit work. Part of the race is to prepare equipment for the pit stop and repeat training. The timing of the pit stop is generally determined by the tire wear and remaining fuel, but the length of the pit lane (= the time required in the pit) and the positional relationship with other vehicles when returning to the course are also factors to consider. Become.
Long-distance/long-time drivingEndurance raceSo, pit work is done many times. Even in sprint races where the competition distance is short, regulations that require a pit stop may be laid. A wide variety of strategies are taken in consideration of pit work, such as increasing the number of pit stops instead of increasing the pace on the course, or reducing the pace on the course but reducing time loss for pit work.
Formula 1In the case of, about 1 people work simultaneously in one pit work during the final race.
1994/から2009/Until then, refueling was allowed during the race. Since the amount of refueling injection was limited to 1 liters or less per second, the pit-in time was 12 seconds at the earliest, and about 5 seconds even if there was no mistake when the pit was long.2010/After that, only tire replacement is required, and the required time is about 3 seconds. The top team is completed in 2 seconds.
- Lollipop man (1 person): Holds a long stick called lollipop with a sign at the end of about 2 m, indicates the stop position to the driver, and instructs the driver to put it in the 1st gear and wait as the work progresses.After confirming the completion of the work, if there is no following vehicle entering the pit road, raise the lollipop and instruct the vehicle to start.What is lollipop?Lollipop candyAnd it is called because it looks similar.
- In charge of jacking (1 person before and after, 2 people in total): jackUse to lift the vehicle. Since the F1 machine is light in weight (about 700 kg including gasoline), it can be lifted by a manual jack. The use of in-vehicle jacks and power-assisted jacks for tire replacement during the final race is prohibited.
- Tire change (1 people per tire, 3 people in total): 12 personImpact wrenchUsingCenter lock wheelAnd the tires are stoppednutAnd remove the new tire with a nut. One person removes the tire with the nut removed. One puts on a new tire. However,RenaultThere are cases where there are two people on one tire, such as one removing the impact wrench and the old tire and the other installing a new tire.
- Starter Man (1 person): engine stallIf you do, use the starter to start the engine.
There are also teams who hold down the machine body to prevent vibration of the machine when changing tires.
When refueling was allowed, I was also in charge of the following:
- Fuelman (3 people): In charge of fuel refueling. One person holds the rig at the tip of the refueling hose and pulls it out when refueling is complete.The other supports the crew and hose with the tip of the refueling hose, and the other supports the entire refueling hose.
- Fire extinguisher man (several people): The fuel filler port is hotExhaustSince it is near, it will ignite when leaking fuel and touching the exhaust, so hold a fire extinguisher and wait so that you can extinguish immediately if it ignites.
From around 2008, a traffic light was installed instead of the lollipop man,Remote controlSome teams give instructions to drivers. A switch is assigned to the jack staff, the impact wrench for tire replacement, the subsequent confirmation staff, and the refueling staff to report the completion of work and safety confirmation when there is refueling, and when all are pressed, a green light is automatically assigned. It is a mechanism to become. In that case, it is the person in charge of tire replacement that indicates the stop position.
Super formulaThere is no limit to the number of pit crews, but the number of people who can go out to the pit lane during practice sessions, warm-ups, and final races is limited to six. In addition, the number of people that can enter the signaling platform (signboard area, pit wall stand) is limited to 6 per machine.
PredecessorFormula NipponThen.Japan race promotionUp to 1 people per vehicle according to the internal rules set byJapan Automobile FederationAccording to the Formula Nippon Unified Regulations, the maximum number of people was 12).
- Loli Hopman (1 person)
- Tire change (3 people) Since 3 people have to change 2 jacks up and down and 4 tires, the crew will work in combination with tire change and jack operation, or multiple tire changes. The rotation of work differs from team to team, and when the same crew is in charge of the front two wheels, you can see the movement of jumping over the nose part of the car body with your hands.
- Fuelman (2 people): One has a fuel refueling hose and one has an air vent hose in the fuel tank.
- Fire extinguisher man (2 people)
SUPER GTThe number of people who can work is limited, and not everyone is allowed to work at the same time. Also, in SUPER GT, two drivers drive one machine, so the drivers are changed at the same time.
- Jackman: Vehicles participating in SUPER GT have a built-in air jack, and when you insert a hose that puts air pressure into the air jack, the car body lifts up.When the tire change is complete, pull out the hose and indicate the driver to start.
- Tire replacement (2 people, 1 tire per person)
- Fuel Man (1 person)
- Fire extinguisher man (several people)
Crews who are not working will assist in changing drivers and peeling off the windshield film. There is no lollipop man because the signboard is used to indicate the stop position. Tire changes and refueling must not be done at the same time. Normally, full service is performed in the order of two tire replacement → refueling → remaining tire replacement.
NASCARAlthough there is a limit to the number of workers, it is allowed for all to work at the same time. However, the feature is that it is possible to assist from the outside of the wall. Working time is 4-12 seconds for 16 tire changes, 2-5 seconds for 7 tire changes, and 2-3 seconds for splash and go.
The following 6 people may work in the pit box.
- Jackman (1 person): NASCAR prohibits the use of air jacks, etc., and lifts the car body one side at a time with hydraulic jacks such as those used in garages.Although it is one side, it is a heavy work to lift the car body with a weight of 1500 kg to a height where the tires can be removed in two and a half strokes.
- Tire changer, tire carrier (1 each for front and rear, 4 people in total): The tire changer uses an impact wrench to attach and detach lug nuts (wheel nuts) and take out old tires, and the tire carrier keeps new tires and outside. It is the role of rolling the old tires out of the wall.Since the car body can only be raised one side at a time due to regulation, work is done in order from the course side to the pit side. In NASCARCenter lock wheelAnd multiple attachments and detachments at the same timeImpact wrenchThe use of the tire changer is prohibited, and the tire changer must attach and detach 5 lug nuts per wheel.To reduce this time, lug nuts are pre-bonded to the replacement wheel.
- Gasman (1 person): Since mechanical refueling is prohibited in NASCAR, gravity refueling using a fuel can is used. It is a strict position to carry a fuel can of 1 gallons (about 11 liters) and refuel.
Until the 2011 season, there was a crew called "Catch Can Man". A catch can is a can that collects the fuel that overflows when the tank is full, and was in charge of holding it. From the next season onward, the structure was improved to collect surplus fuel in fuel cans, so Catch Canman no longer came into play.
The auxiliary pit crews other than the above 6 people are as follows.
- Utility Man (1 person): Additional personnel for tasks such as removing the windshield discard visor (tear-off) or handing a new drink to the driver.Work is done in the pit box, but work related to machine setup is prohibited.
- Support Crew (2-3 people): Assists in pit work, such as preparing tires for the right side from outside the wall and cleaning the front grille with a brush with a long handle.
The rear tire carrier adjusts the machine, and Gasman assists the tire carrier, giving some freedom to the role in the pit box.
General manager of pit work. It is the second most important role after the driver in NASCAR, which is responsible for not only pit work but also strategic planning for the entire race. A good crew chief is rewarded as much as a driver and is very popular with fans. It is forbidden to direct or work beyond the pit wall (over the wall).
A large tool box with wheels with seats on the second floor, which is equivalent to a pit wall stand in other categories. Larger ones have seats for about 10 people. Crew chiefs, engineers, car owners, etc. sit in the front row and give instructions to drivers and pit crews at any time while watching the race situation and TV broadcast images. It is often seen that the driver's spouse is sitting.
IndyCar SeriesSo it is decided that up to 6 people can go out to the pit road and work, and some crew members are given multiple roles. Also, like NASCAR, it is possible to assist from inside the pit garage (inside the wall that separates the pit road from the garage). Working time usually takes 6-9 seconds.
- Tire replacement (1 person per tire, 1 people in total)
- If the machine comes into contact with the impact wrench or its hose, it will be a penalty, so when entering the pit, the person in charge of the rear tire on the pit road side (the side far from the garage) will stand by with the impact wrench on the garage side. When starting, the impact wrench for front tires on the pit road side is removed by pulling the hose from inside the garage when the work is completed.
- The crew in charge of the front tires adjusts the angle of the front wing as needed.
- Furthermore, when the work is completed, the crew in charge of the front tires on the pit road side confirms the safety of the following vehicle and gives the driver instructions to start. For this reason, there is no lollipop man in the IndyCar pit.
- Air jack charge (1 person): When the machine stops, insert a "vent hose" that sends air from the rearmost part of the car body to the in-vehicle air jack. It may also help with the replacement of the rear tires.
- Refueling (1 person): After the vent hose is plugged in, ethanol fuel is supplied to the tank.
- Support crew: After refueling is complete, spray water to wash away the ethanol adhering to the machine.Work from the inside of the garage.
- If the driver requests a refill of drinks, he may attach a bottle of drink to the end of a long stick and serve it out of the garage.
- ^ The reference line for the lap division that measures the ranking and lap time.
- ^ For a counterclockwise circuit, it is on the right side of the direction of travel, and for a clockwise circuit, it is on the left side.
- ^ "XNUMX All Japan Championship Super Formula Unified Rules”. Japan Automobile Federation (November 2013, 11). 2014/7/18Browse.
- Comparing Pitstops Across Motorsports (Compare differences in pit work by category) - YouTube(Released on June 2015, 6 / Retrieved on July 18, 2015)