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🚗 | Subaru conducts the first flight of the first mass-produced JGSDF helicopter UH-2


Photo Ground Self-Defense Force UH-2

Subaru carries out the first flight of the first mass production of the Ground Self-Defense Force helicopter UH-2

 
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In the future, we will continue to carry out various flight tests in Subaru for delivery to the Ground Self-Defense Force.
 

Subaru is manufacturing the Ground Self-Defense Force Shinta on May 5th at the Aerospace Company Utsunomiya Seisakusho (Utsunomiya City, Tochigi Prefecture) ... → Continue reading

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    Various flight tests

    Japan Ground Self-Defense Force

    Japan Ground Self-Defense Force(I want to do it,British: Japan Ground Self-Defense Force, Abbreviation: JGSDF) IsJapan OfAdministrative agencyOne of the.SDFCorresponds to the land division ofMinistry of Defense OfSpecial institutionIt is a general term for.Japanese abbreviation isGSDF(Rikuji).From other countriesJapanese Army(JapanarmyMay be expressed in words equivalent to).


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    Overview

    Land Staff DepartmentAndJoint Chief of StaffandChief of Ground StaffConsists of troops and institutions supervised by.Each unit and each institutionMinistry of Defense OfSpecial institution.Self Defense Force ActAccording to the provisions of, acting mainly on land,JapanIts main task is to defend against direct and indirect aggression in order to maintain its peace and independence, and to maintain public order as necessary.mainlyGround Self Defense ForceConsists of, the highest grade isStaffHe is the Chief of Staff, who oversees the Ground Staff Office, which is an institution.From other countriesarmyIt is considered (Army).

    Involved after 28Defense Program GuidelinesWell, always readySDFWith 150,875 peopleResponsive Reserve SDF8,075 people, total 158,950 people,tankAbout 400 cars,artillery[Annotation 1]About 400 gates and constants are set. As of the end of March 2020 (Reiwa 2), the number of possession of each equipment of the Ground Self-Defense Force is 3 tanks,Armored car990 cars,Anti-aircraft gun50 cars,Rocket60 aircraft such as launchers,Field artillery(VariousHowitzer) 380 gates,mortar1,100 gates,Recoilless gun2,600 gates[2].GarrisonThe number of is 158 (garrison 131, garrison 27).

    At the end of Reiwa 2, the number of SDF personnel was 15, the number of ready reserve SDF personnel was 0695, and the average annual number was approximately 7,981.[3]..The budget of the Ground Self-Defense Force in the second year of Reiwa is about 2 billion yen.[3].

    The symbol mark is "green hands holding to protect the Japanese archipelago", and the catch phrase is "someone wants to protect"[4].

    History

    Organizational history

    Japan in August 1945 (Showa 20)Potsdam DeclarationAccepted.Based on Article 9 of the Potsdam DeclarationImperial Japanese Armyas well as the Imperial Japanese NavyWas dismantled and instead Japan's defenseU.S. ForcesCentered onGhqThe expeditionary force was in charge.1950/(Showa 25) In MarchKorean WarBroke out,US Army in JapanMost ofKorean PeninsulaAs a result of being dispatched to Japan, a gap was created regarding the defense of Japan.Douglas MacArthurIn August of the same year, with the aim of maintaining domestic security, a letter from the MarshalPolice reserveWas founded.

    1952/(Showa 27) In MarchSecurity AgencyWas launched.The National Police ReserveMaritime Guardas well as the Japan Coast GuardTogether with the route enlightenment corps, he became a member of the National Safety Agency, and each "Security forces","GuardsWas reorganized into.

    After that, the defense capability was gradually improved, and on July 1954, 29 (Showa 7), the National Safety Agency said, "Defense Agency", The National Safety Forces and the Security Forces are" Ground Self-Defense Force ","JMSDFReorganized into "" and newly reorganized into ""Japan Air Self-Defense ForceWas founded.The Defense Agency, which has jurisdiction over the Ground Self-Defense Force, announced on January 2007, 19 that "Ministry of DefenseWas promoted to.

    History of personnel

    When the National Police Reserve was foundedPrime MinisterYoshida ShigeruHas a backlash against the former Army, and when establishing the National Police Reserve,国会"The purpose of establishing the National Police Reserve is to maintain domestic security. It is not in the military," he said.On the other hand, Shigeru Yoshida and acquaintanceEiichi TatsumiyuanArmy Lieutenant GeneralHowever, as a military adviser to Yoshida, he is involved in the selection of National Police Reserve executives in the shadow.General Manager of the National Police Reserve (later the 1st Chief of the National Safety Agency, Defense Agency)Chief of Ground StaffIn selecting people (corresponding to)Hattori TakushiroyuanArmy ColonelThere was a voice from GHQ, but there was also opposition from Yoshida and Tatsumi.Former internal affairsOfficialsMetKeizo HayashiWas devoted.Hayashi served as the top of the SDF uniforms for a total of 1 years, four years as Chief of Staff and Chief of Staff, and another 4 years as Chairman of the Joint Staff Office.Due to the background of the establishment of each Self-Defense Force, the former Chief of Staff, the former Ministry of the Interior, etc.Former Ministry of CommunicationsHowever, despite the fact that the Maritime Self-Defense Force and the Air Self-Defense Force ended only in the first generation, the Ground Self-Defense Force has 19 ground staff chiefs from the wartime sect, and 5 from the interior bureaucrats. It became the origin of what is called the "Internal Warlord".However, as shown below, the former Imperial Japanese Army one after anotherActive dutyOfficerWill be restored in large numbers and become the core of the National Police Reserve and the National Safety Forces, and the current Ground Self-Defense Force will be created.

    When the National Police Reserve was first established in August 1950Army Academy-Army Aviation AcademyFrom (Cadet) Former active officers are not allowed to enlist, executivesPolicemenOf the Ministry of Interior, etc.Civil servantAndArmy Reserve Officer SchoolFrom etc.Class A executive candidateEtc.)Reserve roleMade up of officers.After the inauguration, in rapid successionUS ArmyAlthough various weapons were provided by, it was impossible for former reserve army officers who had poor military knowledge and only short-term training for lower-ranking officers to educate them on command and weapons. ..Therefore, in order to strengthen the chain of command, the next1951/(Showa 26) In June, the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy58th graduate245 of the former active army officers ofExecutive candidateHowever, the 58th gen memberArmy EnsignThe commissionerThe end of the warSince it was just before, I had little practical experience and the effect was not as expected.For this reason, he received advanced and long-term military education in the Imperial Army and has abundant practical experience.Army Lieutenant ColonelbelowOfficerThe recruitment was expanded to include former active army officers, and on October 10, the same year.Masahiko TakeshitaFormer Army Lieutenant Colonel (42nd Army Academy)4th DivisionLong,Ground Self-Defense Force executive schoolLong),Kinugasa HayaoFormer Major of the Army (48th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy).1st Airborne BrigadeAfter serving as the first leader, the 8th Chief of Staff, Ground Staff, and the 6th Chairman of the Joint Staff Office)Toshiro MagariFormer Army Major (50th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the 10th Chief of Staff, Ground Staff) and other 405 former field officers, 12 former on December 5thLieutenantWas hired and joined the National Police Reserve.

    At that time, the Army Colonel was not allowed to join the army,1952/(Showa 27) On July 7, before the reorganization of the National Safety Agency into the National Safety Forces, with the Imperial Japanese Army Academy to further enhance military expertise.Army War College or Army Artillery School High SchoolGraduated fromMinistry of Army,Chief of StaffAt the centerSino-Japanese war(Chinese incident) AndPacific War(Great East Asian War), 10 former Army colonels and 1 former Navy colonel were admitted, mainly those who were in the leadership position.The breakdown of the 11 people isShigeru Sugiyama(36th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the 2nd Chief of Staff, Ground Staff) ・Ichiji Sugita(37th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the 3rd Chief of Staff, Ground Staff) ・ (34th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, laterExecutive school principal)・Makoto Matsutani(35th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.Northern Director)・Kumao Imoto(37th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the head of the executive school) ・ (38th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the head of the executive school) ・Shinobu Takayama(39th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.Deputy Chief of Ground Staff Office) ・ (The 39th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.Eastern Army General Manager) ・ (39th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, later the head of the executive school) ・Takeshi Matsuda(The 39th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy.Land Staff DepartmentAfter working as the 4th chief of staff, he was transferred to the Air Self-Defense Force in 1956, and later the 4th chief of staff of the aviation) ・ (Marine52nd term.Later, Deputy General Manager for the Northern Army and Commander of the Sapporo Station)[Annotation 2][5][Annotation 3]Will be.In the same month of the same yearYoshifusa AmanoFormer Army Lieutenant Colonel (43rd term of the Army, later the 5th Chief of Staff, the 3th Chairman of the Joint Staff Office)Seiichi YoshieFormer Army Lieutenant Colonel (43rd term of the Army, later the 6th Chief of Staff, Ground Staff)1955/(Showa 30) In MarchArmy Nakano SchoolRelated toInformation warfare,Psychological warfareWas in charge ofIwaichi FujiwaraFormer Army Lieutenant Colonel (43rd term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy).Survey school principalAfter going through1th Division Commander) Etc. are merging.

    yuansoldierWhen joining the National Police Reserve (National Safety Forces / Ground Self-Defense Force), the rank is given to be equivalent to the final rank of the old military era.For example, former colonels Sugiyama and Sugita became first-class police officers equivalent to colonels at the same time as joining the army, and in 1 (Showa 1953) the following year.Major GeneralHe was promoted to a considerable security assistant and was promoted to a land general when the Ground Self-Defense Force was established in July 1954, and both were appointed as chief of staff a few years later.

    The first in 1957 (Showa 32)National Defense Academy(OldJapan Coast Guard Academy) Since the members from the National Defense Academy joined the army, they have been from the National Defense Academy.Executive self defenseWas increasing. In March 1986 (Showa 61)Morio NakamuraWith the retirement of the Army General (61st term of the Imperial Japanese Army Air Academy), there are no former Army personnel in the Ground Self-Defense Force.The last person from the former army of the Land, Sea, and Air Self-Defense Force is the next1987/(62) The Air Self-Defense Force, who retired in DecemberShigehiro MoriJoint Staff Office(60th term of the officer).The former Army soldiers are not limited to the Ground Self-Defense Force (National Police Reserve / National Safety Forces).Former Army Air CorpsMany of them are enlisted in the Japan Air Self-Defense Force, mainly from graduates.Chief of Flight StaffWhen the inauguration is divided by the origin of the former army, 11 army members, 5 navy personnel and former army graduates account for the majority, exceeding the former navy graduates.

    In recent years, he has expanded the scope of activities such as disaster dispatch and overseas dispatch, and is attracting attention both at home and abroad.Also, although it is not the activity of the Self-Defense Forces themselves,CambodiaIn, the launch of a former Ground Self-Defense Force memberJMAS 地雷Unexploded ordnance processing has been performed and results have been achieved.

    US Army OfSergeant Major of the Army(Sergeant Major of the Army) System and Maritime Self-Defense ForceSenior corporalWith reference to the system, on April 2006, 18, the Ground Staff Office was assigned the "Sergeant Major of the Ground Self-Defense Force" to work on the utilization of the capabilities of the warrant officer and the ground sergeant class. Yes (Utilizing the abilities of a sergeant).

    Relationship with the former army

    Unlike the Maritime Self-Defense Force, which was founded under the leadership of former Navy personnel aiming for an early revival of the Navy and tends to respect the tradition of the former Navy, the Ground Self-Defense Force is on land because the former Army was seen to be more responsible for the war than the former Navy. The Self-Defense Forces were nervous about their relationship with the former Army, but in reality they had strong ties.[6].

    The National Police Reserve, the predecessor of the Ground Self-Defense Force, was initially consolidated by excluding former military personnel and being led by former interior bureaucrats.On the other hand, former military executives formed various groups and institutions,Allied Supreme Commander General Command(GHQ) G2 (Staff Part 2), And was working toward the reconstruction of the army, which resulted in the release of the expulsion of some former military personnel and the enlistment of the National Police Reserve. In 1951 (Showa 26), a large number of former field officers and junior officers joined the army, led by the lieutenant colonel group of the 40th term of the Imperial Japanese Army Academy, and in July 1952 (Showa 27), the command, operation, and management ability were evaluated. Eleven former colonels (7 excluding the former Navy and aviation relations), who were specially recommended as senior executives, were enlisted.This caused a significant change in the executive composition of the National Police Reserve, and a large number of former Army officers, led by the former Colonel Group, joined the former Army's "Infantry Maneuver''Operational Mandate''Commander reference] And other military ideas will flow in.The former Army officers who joined the National Police Reserve had close ties with the organizations of former high-ranking military personnel such as the Arisue and Hattori organizations, and the unity of the former Army officers was still tight.[7].

    The general class of the former Army is also related to the Ground Self-Defense Force,Ground Self-Defense Force executive school OfCommand staff courseFormer Army as a war history class in (CGS)Imperial schoolWas a symbol ofSadao ArakiA former Army general gave a lecture entitled "Memories of the Russo-Japanese War", and in the January 1962 issue of "Executive School Articles", an institutional newspaper of the Ground Self-Defense Force executive school, "Yang Water Tiger Year of Showa 1". "Welcome to"[8]. Also,Hitoshi ImamuraFormer Army General,Sadamu ShimomuraFormer Army General,Takeo YasudaFormer Army Vice Admiral,Haruji KanFormer Army Vice Admiral,Takazo NumataFormer Army Vice AdmiralDefense AgencyBecame an advisor[9].

    A fellowship of the former ArmyTokoshaIn addition to actively supporting the events of the Ground Self-Defense Force, the Ground Self-Defense Force side also invited the former Army general class to the garrison festival and requested a lecture as a war history study.2001/In (13), the qualification of a former executive self-defense officer of the Ground Self-Defense Force and the Air Self-Defense Force was recognized as a regular member of Kaikosha, and official membership is in progress.In addition, the former Navy equivalent to KaikoshaWater exchangeHowever, at the time of reconstruction after the warWater exchangeWhile the name has been changed to the present, Kaikosha has revived the name of the former Army era.

    Ground Self-Defense ForceIraq dispatchIn case ofChinese incident(Sino-Japanese war) Sometimes the former Army was doing it mainly in Mainland ChinaPreaching workIs referred to[10].

    In terms of culture, the Ground Self-Defense ForceRegiment flagIsSelf-Defense Force flagIs the flag of the former army regimentMilitary flagXNUMX Articles, the design ofRising Sun BannerChanged to the Hachijo Rising Sun Flag with the motif of (The design of the Hachijo Rising Sun Flag itself has existed since the same period as the XNUMXth Rising Sun Flag.Military flag # Self-Defense Forces flag design), As a de facto symbol of the Ground Self-Defense Force, as one of the marches, the march of the former Army "Parade marchIs adopted.It used to be a march "Fuso Uta", but in recent years it has been called "Army Branch March".[Annotation 4]..Also, of the Pacific War (Greater East Asia War)Operation Palembang AirborneFormer Army who played an active part in1st Teishin ShudanTo sing the success ofMilitary song"Sky God Soldier"1st Airborne BrigadeIn addition to inheriting with the original lyricsFuji General Thermal Power ExerciseAnd at concert events in various placesMusic bandThe old army's war songs and military bands are actively performed by.In addition, the 1st Airborne Brigade of the Ground Self-Defense Force andCentral Music CorpsIs a former army officer who joined the postwar reserve corps (Kinugasa HayaoyuanArmy Major-Yosaku SumayuanArmy military band captain) Was founded and developed by former Army soldiers.

    Also, eachJob categoryColor (Formation sign color) Is the old armyWaffenfarbeIn addition to the above, the garrison (Guard area) Is the same prefecture as the former Army unit ()Infantry regimentEtc.) and the Ground Self-Defense Force unit (Ordinary regimentEtc.)Regiment number(Squadron) is also matched as much as possible.As an example,Shizuoka Of34th Ordinary Science RegimentIs the old army34rd Infantry RegimentAnd the 34st Battalion of the 1th Infantry RegimentWar godShuta Tachibana"Tachibana RegimentIn addition to inheriting the name, the bust and statue of Lieutenant Colonel TachibanaItazuma GarrisonIt is being rebuilt inside.other,Osaka Of37th Ordinary Science RegimentIs the old army37rd Infantry RegimentUsed by the regiment as a de facto unit markMasanari Suzukiof"Kikusui"Crest" and "Kikusui Regiment(Kikusui Corps) ”[11],Hokkaido Of11th Tank CorpsIt is,Battle of Shimori IslandThe former Army (nicknamed ""Spirit unit, Unit mark "SamuraiIn the sense of honoring) and inheriting the tradition of glorious "spiritual spirit"1970/From (Showa 45) "Spirit tank corpsThe official unit mark[12]Equipped asType 90 tank"Spirit”Is drawn in two letters[13].

    Development of defense power

    The Ground Self-Defense Force consists of only applicants, and variousJob category(Military department)have.

    In addition to the high labor costs, the equipment is often produced in small quantities because it is not exported, and it is said that it costs one of the highest procurement costs in the world.

    Initially inaugurated

    One Ground Self-Defense Force at the time of its inaugurationSquadronAnd 4 divisions were formed.Weapons are mainly provided by the U.S. military,the 1960s Oftank,rifleUntil the adoption of domestic equipment such as, the state that this weapon provided by the US military continued to be the main body.The armySoviet UnionTo respond to the threat ofHokkaidoHave jurisdiction overNorthern DivisionOnly placed, the Northern Army General ManagerSapporoWas located in.

    The division is of the United States ArmyInfantry divisionIt is a unit organized with reference to, and consists of a district general manager and three battalions.Ordinary regimentIt consists of 3 battalions, 6 battalions consisting of 3 companies with 4 field artillery guns, and an anti-aircraft battalion.Special RegimentIt is a so-called three-unit division based on the above, and had 15,200 personnel at the time of its inauguration.The 1st to 4th divisions are organized, and the 1st division general supervision department (later)1th Divisionheadquarters) IsTokyo, 2nd Regional Coast Guard (later2th DivisionHeadquarters) is HokkaidoAsahikawa, 3nd Regional Coast Guard (later3th DivisionHeadquarters)HyogoItami City, 4nd Regional Coast Guard (later4th DivisionHeadquarters)FukuokaChikushiKasuga Town (currently:Kasuga City).

    Second Defense Build-up Plan: 1958 (Showa 33) ―― 1960 (Showa 35)

    As of the end of 35, 17 SDF personnel,Reserve SDFA system of 1 divisions and 5 mixed groups was established as a unit to be deployed in the area with 6 people in peacetime, and 3 armies were also established as an upper organization.After that, the number of SDF personnel was maintained at around 5 for a long time.

    In addition to that, as a mobile operation unit, one mechanizationMixed group(7th mixed group, later7th Division), 1 tank group, 1 special department group, 1 airborne group (1st airborne group), 1 instructor group was formed.

    Single-year plan: 1961 (Showa 36)

    In April 1961 (Showa 36)Type 61 tankIs officially adopted and becomes the beginning of domestic tanks.

    Second Defense Build-up Plan: 1962 (Showa 37) ―― 1966 (Showa 41)

    The divisions and mixed divisions were formed into divisions in 1962 (Showa 37), and 6 divisions and 4 mixed divisions were reorganized into 13 divisions.[14]..Each division has a capacity of 7000-9000, which is about the size of a brigade in another country.[15]..As of the end of 37, a system of 17 SDF personnel, 1500 SDF reserve personnel, 2 armies and 4 divisions as core units, and 5 ground-to-air guided ammunition units was established.Nike AjaxThe system was also introduced, but it was transferred to the Japan Air Self-Defense Force from 1964 (Showa 39).

    ThisSecond Defense Build-up PlanIn 1964 (Showa 39)Type 64 7.62mm rifleWas adopted.This rifle was released in 1989Type 89 5.56mm rifleIt was the main rifle of the Ground Self-Defense Force until it was adopted.

    Second Defense Build-up Plan: 1967 (Showa 42) ―― 1971 (Showa 46)

    As of the end of 46, 17 SDF personnel, 9 SDF reserve personnel, 3 armies and 6 divisions as core units,HawkA system of four units was established.

    Second Defense Build-up Plan: 1972 (Showa 47) ―― 1976 (Showa 51)

    April 1972, 47Okinawa returnAlong with this, one mixed group (as a unit to be deployed in the peacetime area)1st mixed group) Was newly established and started to be stationed in Okinawa Prefecture.It was a Type 61 tank (total production of 560 tanks) that had been the main battle tank for a long time, but production was discontinued in 4 (Showa 1975) during this Fourth Defense Build-up Plan.

    National Defense Program Outline: After 1977 (Showa 52)

    Since the establishment of the Self-Defense Forces, the defense capability has reached a certain level by implementing the fourth "defense capability development plan".Therefore, after 4 (Showa 1977), "Defense Program Guidelines, And the defense force will be disciplined based on it.

    Since 1985 (Showa 60), we have implemented a medium-term defense capability development plan every five years based on the outline.

    In 1980 (Showa 55),Tsushima GuardWas organized.In 1981 (Showa 56), the 13th Division was reorganized for Shikoku area security.2st mixed groupIs organized. On August 1990, 2, the Type 8 tank, which became the third generation tank after the war, was formalized. In 6 (Heisei 3)Law on Cooperation for United Nations Peacekeeping OperationsWas enacted, opening the way for overseas activities by the Ground Self-Defense Force.In response to this, it will be the first overseas mission of the Ground Self-Defense Force.SDF dispatch to CambodiaIs doneUnited Nations Transitional Authority in CambodiaParticipating in the unit.

    National Defense Program Outline: 1996 (Heisei 8) and later

    Overview

    Based on the outline of the defense plan for 1995 (Heisei 7) and later, which was approved by the Cabinet on November 11, 28 (Heisei 1996).With the end of the Cold WarSoviet Union ArmybyHokkaidoThe possibility of a large-scale invasion of the country is reduced, and the military will continue to be strengthened from the conventional focus on the north.Chinese PLA,Korean PeninsulaThe policy will be changed to focus on the west in case of an emergency.In addition, a part of the division and the mixed division will be reorganized into a brigade.In addition, enhancement of urban warfare training,Japanese police,Local governmentPromotion of disaster prevention drills in collaboration with the above was also carried out.

    The number of SDF personnel is 14, and the number of ready reserve SDF personnel is 5, for a total of 1.Of the core units, 5 divisions and 16 brigades are deployed in peacetime areas (only some of them were completed by the end of 8), and 6 unit is mobile.Armored division, 1 airborne corps and 1 helicopter corps, and surface-to-air guided missile corps were classified as 8 anti-aircraft special department groups.The main equipment was about 900 tanks, and the main special equipment was about 900 gates / car.

    Based on this, the first "Ground Self-Defense Force"brigadeThe organization (small division type) was established in 1999 (Heisei 11) (13th BrigadeHowever, since it was originally only a brigade scale, it has been further reduced, so the actual scale and strength are about the regiment or regimental combat team.[15].

    Medium-term defense capability development plan: 1996 (Heisei 8) -2000 (12)

    Medium-term defense capability development plan (1996)The reforms based on were relatively small.At this stage, 13 divisions and 2 mixed groups maintained about 1200 tanks and about 1000 artillery.

    Medium-term defense capability development plan: 2001 (Heisei 13) -2005 (17)

    Initially, in 2001 (Heisei 13)Medium-term defense capability development plan (2001)Was scheduled for the end of 2005 (Heisei 17), but was abolished at the end of 2005 (Heisei 17) due to the establishment of the new Defense Guidelines from 2004 (Heisei 16).

    Regarding the core unit, "For the Ground Self-Defense Force, we will reorganize four new divisions and two mixed divisions while paying attention to the modernization of equipment. At that time, one division and one The mixed group will be reorganized into a brigade, and for each of the reorganized divisions and brigades, some units will be organized mainly by the highly responsive reserve self-defense officers. " As of the end of 4, there were 2 divisions, 1 brigades (1th, 2004th, and 16th brigades), and 10 mixed brigades (3st and 5nd mixed brigades).

    As of March 2005, 17, the number of SDF personnel of the Ground Self-Defense Force is 3, the current number is 31, and the sufficiency rate is 157,828%. There is.This indicates that the unit is more responsive and mobile.However, the core units were still dispersed in each division, brigade, and mixed group.

    Under this medium-term defense capability development plan,GuerrillaAs a unit under the direct control of the Secretary of Defense from the emphasis on warSpecial Operations Group(Completed on March 2004, 16)Western DirectorThe formation was completed in 2002 (Heisei 14) as a unit under direct control.Western Normal RegimentWas newly reorganized.In April 2002, as a comprehensive public relations facility for the public,Asaka GarrisonToGround Self-Defense Force Public Relations CenterWas opened.

    National Defense Program Outline: 2005 (Heisei 17) and later

    Overview

    It is based on the outline of the defense plan for 2004 (16) and later, which was decided by the Security Council and Cabinet on December 12, 10, and is based on 2005 (17) 2005 The target is after the month.

    The number of SDF personnel is 14, and the number of ready reserve SDF personnel is 8, for a total of 7.Of the core units, 15 divisions and 5 brigades are deployed in peacetime areas, and 8 armored division and mobile operation units are used.Central readiness group, The ground-to-air guided ammunition unit is a group of eight anti-aircraft special departments.The main equipment was about 8 tanks, and the main special equipment was about 600 gates / car.

    Although the number of SDF personnel has increased by 3 due to the increase in the number of SDF activities such as international contributions and disaster dispatch, the number of ready reserve SDF personnel has been halved as part of the reduction in the number of civil servants.In addition, one airborne corps and one helicopter corps were no longer listed in the mobile operation unit, and the Central Readiness Force was recognized instead.

    As for the main equipment, the risk of large-scale ground troop invasion has been greatly reduced, and the risk of lightly equipped operatives or terrorists has increased. On the other hand, we are aiming to improve immediate stress and maneuverability.As part of this, the core unit (unit centered on the ready reserve self-defense officer) was transferred from the division / brigade to the army direct slave ().Tohoku area mixed groupEtc.), and all of the divisions and brigades, which are the front-line units, were enriched by the SDF personnel, and the responsiveness was improved.

    With this outlinetankSignificant reduction of equipment for landing invasion such as artillery and artillery, andReduction of membersEtc. are also done at the same time.For example, the number of tanks owned is 2005 as of March 17, but the National Defense Program Guidelines (after 3) stipulate that this should be reduced to about 980.

    Division / brigade system

    According to the National Defense Program for 2005 and beyond, divisions and brigades are broadly classified into two categories. * The outline itself is not specified, and the following definitions are based on the 17 Defense White Paper.

    Quick Response Modernization Division / Brigade
    A unit that organizes and deploys heavy equipment such as tanks and artillery with an emphasis on responsiveness and mobility so that it can respond quickly and effectively to new threats and various situations.
    Comprehensive modernization division / brigade
    A unit that is organized and arranged with an emphasis on comprehensive capabilities so that it can respond to all situations, from responding to new threats and various situations to dealing with future full-scale aggression situations.

    In addition, the immediate response modernization division is particularly political and economic center type (1th Division-3th Division) And remote island type (15th Brigade), But the armored type (7th Division) Is provided.

    Medium-term defense capability development plan: 2005 (Heisei 17) -2009 (21)

    Based on the outline of the defense plan after 2005 (Heisei 17)Medium-term defense capability development plan (2005)Was decided.Here, as a review of the organization of the Ground Self-Defense Force, "About the Ground Self-Defense Force,tankAnd to further improve responsiveness, mobility, etc. while reducing the number of major special equipment, 5 piecesDivision, Of 1brigadeAnd twoMixed groupWill be reorganized, of which one division and two mixed divisions will be reorganized into brigades.In addition, a central readiness force that centrally manages and operates mobile operation units and specialized units will be newly formed. "At the same time, "The number of trainees at the end of the planning period is about 1, and the number of SDF personnel is about 2.Reserve SDFThe number of members is about 8.Regarding the sufficiency of the SDF personnel of the Ground Self-Defense Force, the target is approximately 14 at the end of the planning period. "

    The main maintenance targets for equipment in this medium-term defense capability development plan are as follows.49 tanks, artillery (mortar(Excluding) is 38 cars,Armored car104 cars,Combat helicopter(AH-64D) 7 aircraft, transport helicopter (CH-47JA) Is 11 aircraft, medium-range surface-to-air missiles (Type 03 medium-range surface-to-air missile) Is 8 piecesCompany.

    Until now it was deployed as an anti-tank helicopterAH-1S CobraAs a combat helicopter while retiringAH-64D Apache LongbowWas to be newly commissioned, but the Ministry of Defense announced in 2007 (19) that the introduction of AH-64D would be discontinued, and the number of aircraft procured up to that point was 10.Currently, plans are underway to adopt a new successor attack helicopter (see details).AH-X

    Based on this plan, the following units and organizations were reorganized and reorganized.

    National Defense Program Outline: 2011 (Heisei 23) and later

    Medium-term defense capability development plan: 2011 (Heisei 23) -2015 (27)

    The initial formulation of this plan was scheduled for the end of 2009 (Heisei 21), but it was implemented on August 8 of the same year.45th House of Representatives general electionAs a result ofLDP-Komeitoby"Self-public coalitionFromYukio Hatoyama Cabinet(Democratic government) Is replaced by the government.Along with thisAso CabinetThe budget for 2010 (Heisei 22) submitted below will be reviewed, and the budget for the next year will be a single-year budget without the support of the National Defense Program and Medium-Term Defense.

    In addition, the organizational restructuring that was included in the initial budget request has been postponed.Shigeru IshibaThe Ministry of Defense Reform Council established under the Minister of Defense has also been abolished.The medium-term defense enacted under the Democratic Party of Japan is the Liberal Democratic Party, which was launched in December 2012.First Abe CabinetIt was abolished by the government, and on December 2013, 25, a new outline and medium-term defense were announced.In this medium-term defenseGround CorpsNew HQ, Centralization of Special Courses and Tank UnitsLand and Land Mobile CorpsA large-scale reorganization has been carried out since the founding of the corps, such as the new edition of.

    Medium-term defense capability development plan: 2019 (Heisei 31)

    task

    Its main task is to defend the land on land.at firstCold WarUnder the system, in preparation for a large-scale invasion mainly by the Soviet Union, at that time, "inland endurance" battles were fought in the land and responded for the time being.U.S. ForcesIt was supposed to wait for the support of and jointly counterattack and repel.But since the 1990sSoviet Union collapseDue to the rise of China, the possibility of a large-scale ground war in mainland Japan has decreased due to the decrease in the northern threat caused bySakishima IslandsIsland defense in North Korea, etc.terrorismCoping andGuerrillaAnd alsoGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeIt became especially active after thatDisaster dispatchThe GSDF's missions, such as dispatching overseas, are increasing further, and nationwide reforms are still being carried out by reviewing the deployment that had been focused on the north.

    Land defense

    Japan is an island country surrounded by the sea on all sides, and is a maritime transportation route (Sea lane) Will be blocked, and the existence of the nation will be jeopardized.In addition, Japan's basic defense policy is exclusive defense, so if you are invaded by a foreign country, first of allJMSDF,Japan Air Self-Defense ForceIs supposed to take the lead in fighting at sea.Therefore, the Ground Self-Defense Force is positioned as the "final defense force" after that.The slogan "Final Goalkeeper of Defense" stands for this.

    In generalDeveloped countryPersonnel costs (salaries, food, etc.) are the most expensive in national defense, and Japan is no exception, and the personnel costs of the SDF as a whole account for 45% of the defense budget.The GSDF (15.5) has an overwhelming majority of members, far ahead of the JMSDF (4.2) and the ASDF (4.6).After deducting equipment maintenance costs, the current situation is that there is no more budget for equipment procurement.The current existence of the Ground Self-Defense Force for Japan, which is an island nation, is "potential defense power", and its first mission is "deterrence of landing invasion" by "the existence of a solid ground force".

    Tanks as frontal equipment for defense missionsArmored carLand equipment such ashelicopterWe own aircraft such as Fuji Firepower Review, which is held every August and is open to the public, and other aircraft.GarrisonIt is open to the public at festivals.

    Aircraft can be operated flexiblyhelicopterHowever, a small number of fixed-wing aircraft are also deployed as contact reconnaissance aircraft.Since it does not have a large aircraft, it requires the support of the Japan Air Self-Defense Force for long-distance travel and transportation of large quantities of goods.The Ground Self-Defense Force is like the sea and skyAviation studentSelect the right person after joining the army without having a systemLand Sergeant Aviation Flight StudentIs being carried out.

    We have deployed rubber boats and underwater scooters with excellent concealment as water and underwater equipment, but since there are no transport ships or amphibious assault ships, the support of the Maritime Self-Defense Force is required for long-distance sea transportation and large-scale landing operations. ..

    Recently, the mission of "deterring landing invasions" against invasions of remote islands such as the Nansei Islands is becoming more important.Also, by operatives hiding in the countryGuerrilla-commandAttack, orterrorismIt is becoming more important as a deterrent to such things.If Japan is hit by a large-scale terrorist attack or an attack by special forces, the Ground Self-Defense Force will give top priority to protection by order of defense operation or security / protection operation.Important protection facilityIs designated at 135 locations nationwide, and the facilities in charge are assigned to each army.

    In addition, "Convention on Prohibition of Use, Storage, Production and Transfer of Antipersonnel Landmines and DisposalBy February 2003, 15, the disposal of all antipersonnel landmines, except for some for training purposes, was completed.Also, in December 2 (Heisei 8)Cluster munition ban treatyBy signing, you ownCluster bombWill be completely abolished, including the suspension of procurement of new bombs.

    Disaster dispatch / civil welfare cooperation

    The Ground Self-Defense Force is dispatched to relief activities mainly in the event of a large-scale disaster.Self Defense Force ActAlthough it is not considered to be the main mission purpose in Japan, he has experienced disaster dispatch for half a century in Japan, one of the world's leading disaster-prone countries, and has dealt with many emergencies.There are many missions that require human-wave tactics, such as searching for victims from the rubble, and in disaster relief, ordinary departments that can be mobilized in large numbers are the mainstay.

    We are dispatched to various disasters such as earthquakes, typhoons, floods, snow damage, and volcanic activity. 2004Niigata Chuetsu EarthquakeThen, many victims from isolated villageshelicopterIn addition to being rescued atNiigata StadiumbeforeOutdoor cookerAnd provided meals to many victims every meal.Opportunities to receive dispatch requests from disaster-stricken countries are increasing,Sumatra offshore earthquake,Pakistan earthquakeIt is also urgently dispatched at the time.

    Various secondary tasks other than disaster dispatchmarathonCompetitionsSapporo Snow FestivalWe are also focusing on "civil welfare cooperation" such as.Also, for exterminating verminHunting PartyMay cooperate with[16].

    Overseas dispatch

    United Nations peacekeeping operationsThey may be dispatched outside Japan for conflict recovery and disaster relief as described above.PKO Cooperation LawBy etc.SDFOverseas dispatch has become a general task, andUnited NationsIn addition to requests, dispatch by current affairs legislation is becoming constant.As a land unit, it is supposed to play a central role in overseas dispatch.

    Unit organization and organization

    The Ground Self-Defense Force is roughly divided into the Ground Staff Office and various units and institutions of various sizes.As a staff organization of the Minister of Defense, the Ground Staff Office coordinates the formulation of defense security plans and the management and operation of troops, etc., and assists the Minister.The commander of the Ground Component Command was ordered by the Minister of Defense, and in an emergencyJTF Ground Forces CommanderAs 2 or moreSquadronTheIntegrated operationTo do.

    Main unit

    A unit is an organization that is equipped with sufficient weapons and has the ability to engage in or support combat.Strategic unitAsSquadron, As an operational unitDivision-brigade,tacticsAs a unitgroup-regiment-Corps-battalionIt has a unit organization such as.Each of these units has a security area and is responsible for peacetime defense security.The strategic and operational units of the Ground Self-Defense Force are as follows.

    Unit unit

    The unit of the unit in the Ground Self-Defense Force is stipulated as follows by the Self-Defense Forces Law Enforcement Ordinance and the instruction regarding the organization and organization of the unit of the Ground Self-Defense Force.[17][18].

    • Squadron: Army Generalgeneral(Designated Job No. 5) It consists of the Army General Manager, 2-4 divisions or brigades, and other direct control units.
    • Division: The division leader is the land general (designated position No. 2 or No. 1) divisionheadquarters, 3 normal regiments, tank regiment (battalion), special regiment (special regiment), rear support regiment, etc.The actual scale is about the brigade[15]
    • brigade: The brigade leaderRear Admiral(3) The composition is based on the division, consisting of the brigade headquarters, XNUMX infantry regiments (light), special departments, logistical support teams, etc.[Annotation 5]..The actual scale is about a regiment or a regimental battle group[15].
    • Group: The leader is Maj. Gen. (XNUMX) or1st class Rikusa(XNUMX) Consists of the headquarters and several regiments, groups, battalions or corps.DirectionMixed group, Special corps,High Fire Special Course,Facility group,Correspondence team,Fuji Guidance Groupas well as the Development Experiment TeamThere is.
    • regiment: The regimental commander consists of the 1st Class Regimental Depot (XNUMX) Regimental Headquarters and several battalions or companies.
    • group: The group leader consists of the 1st class Rikusa (XNUMX or XNUMX) group headquarters and several battalions or companies.
    • battalion: The captain2st class Rikusa(Station commanderIt consists of a battalion headquarters and several companies.
    • Company: The company commander3st class Rikusa or 1st class lieutenant..It consists of a company headquarters and several platoons.
    • platoon: The platoon leader1st class lieutenantから3st class lieutenant..It consists of a platoon headquarters and several squads or teams.
    • : The team leader2rd class land sergeantOr 3rd class land sergeant.It consists of several sets. It consists of about 10 people.
    • squad: The squad leader is a second-class land sergeant or a third-class land sergeant.It consists of several groups or 2-3 members.
    • Group: The group leader is 3rd class land sergeant,Chief officerOr 1st class landman. 2 ―― It consists of about 4 members.
    • Corps: Various sizes, larger than a regiment but smaller to form a group (Western Special DivisionAnd the northern area facility corps) and the one that was established by reducing the regiment (1th Special UnitEtc.) to those equivalent to the company.Basically, the units (reconnaissance unit, special department unit, aviation unit, logistical support unit, chemical protection unit, etc.) located in the division / brigade.Music band..However, the HQ and logistical support regiments or logistical support corps do not have a title number) are named with the division or brigade number.On the other hand, in the case of independent units, those with a unit number of 1 or 2 digits are equivalent to a regiment, those in the 100s are equivalent to a battalion, and those in the 300s are equivalent to a company.There is also a name such as "Army in the direction of XX".The Self-Defense Forces Service Regulations and the Ground Self-Defense Forces Service Detailed Regulations define a group of two or more persons with a commander as a corps.
    • (Core unit): The core personnel are composed of SDF personnel, and the main force is convened for training, disaster dispatch, defense operation, etc.Responsive Reserve SDFConsists of.

    organ

    An institution is an organization responsible for maintaining and operating units such as schools and hospitals.In the Ground Self-Defense Force,Job categoryThere are different schools and supply offices by region.

    To be correct, the school and supply control headquartersMinister of DefenseDirect control, The supply officeInstitution under the direct control of the Army(It is a business control that the supply office follows the control of the supply control headquarters. It is specified in Article 26, Paragraph 5 of the Self-Defense Forces Act).

    Below isJoint organization of the Three Self-Defense Forces.

    In addition, as an organization of each of the Land, Sea, and Air Self-Defense ForcesPOW camp(Self-Defense Forces Law, Article 24, Paragraph 3)

    Job category

    image

    Ground Self Defense Force

    Equipment

    More informations

    footnote

    [How to use footnotes]

    注 釈

    1. ^ Classifies the Ryu bullet gun and the Multiple Launch Rocket system as "guns"[1].
    2. ^ Yoshio Sakura enlisted on the recommendation of the former Navy.
    3. ^ There are also a small number of former Navy officers who joined the National Safety Forces / Ground Self-Defense Forces instead of the Security Forces / JMSDF, (Marine 54th term), (Marine 55th term), (Marine 56th term), (Sea machine47th term) and so on.
    4. ^ October 2007, 10, 28 Self-Defense Forces at the Asaka stationParade of Japan Self-Defense ForceAnnouncement in the hall immediately after the total march.
    5. ^ It depends on the size and characteristics of the teacher (travel) group.

    Source

    1. ^ "5 Specific content of defense power". 23 Defense of Japan Part II Chapter 2 Section 3. Ministry of Defense. 2013/12/26Browse.
    2. ^ "Document 8 Number of tanks, major firearms, etc.". Reiwa 2nd Year Defense of Japan Documents. Ministry of Defense. 2020/8/18Browse.
    3. ^ a b "Japan's Defense and Budget (Summary of Reiwa XNUMXnd Budget) (PDF)". Ministry of Defense. 2020/5/8Browse.
    4. ^ Ground Self-Defense Force official homepage emblem symbol mark
    5. ^ Yunobu Sakamoto "Military History of Modern and Contemporary Japan <Volume 3> Restart" Kaya Shobo p.259
    6. ^ Shiro Akazawa (Hen) "Historical Verification of High Growth (Annual Report / Contemporary Japanese History)" p.39
    7. ^ Kaoru Yamasaki "Introduction to the criticism of the new" army "military theory" Lu Fort p.46-48
    8. ^ Shiro Akazawa (ed.) "Historical Verification of High Growth (Annual Report / Contemporary Japanese History)" p.37-38
    9. ^ Asahi Shimbun September 30, 1955
    10. ^ "What will the Self-Defense Forces do? -Report from the counter-terrorism support site-". NHK Special... 4 November 2001. NHK General.
    11. ^ 3rd Division Shinodayama Station. “Greetings from the station commander". Japan Ground Self-Defense Force. 2013/8/22Browse.
    12. ^ 11th Brigade. “symbol mark”. Ground Self-Defense Force. As of August 2009, 8original[Broken link]More archives.2009/9/7Browse.
    13. ^ 11th Brigade. “Origin of the 11th Tank Squadron "Spirit"”. Ground Self-Defense Force. As of August 2009, 4original[Broken link]More archives.2009/9/7Browse.
    14. ^ Naoya Tamura "Strategic mission division reorganization and brigade formation that is changing drastically" "Military research』May 2004 issue,Japan Military Review, Pages 144-122.
    15. ^ a b c d Yuya Narahara "Military research』May 2018 issue,Japan Military Review, February 2018, 8, p. 10.
    16. ^ “Deer capture strategy good start: 24 on the first day: from Hokkaido”. Yomiuri Shimbun(July 2012, 2) 
    17. ^ "Self-Defense Forces Law Enforcement Ordinance". e-Gov Law Search.Administrative Management Bureau, Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications. 2008/11/22Browse.
    18. ^ "Instructions on the organization and organization of Ground Self-Defense Force units (PDF)". Ministry of Defense Instructions, Circulars, Notifications, etc. Information Disclosure Service. Ministry of Defense. 2008/11/22Browse.

    References

    • Defense Industry Association (eds.) "Self-Defense Forces Yearbook 1956 Edition" Defense Industry Association, 1956.NDLJP:9577403. 
    • Defense Yearbook Publishing Association (ed.) "Defense Yearbook 1956 (Showa 31st Edition)" Defense Yearbook Publishing Association, 1956.NDLJP:9673926. 

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