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✈ | China and Russia bombers fly jointly in the Sea of ​​Japan, East China Sea, and Pacific Ocean


Photo Chinese H-6 bomber

Joint flight of Chinese and Russian bombers, Sea of ​​Japan, East China Sea, and Pacific Ocean

 
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In November 2021 and December 11, Chinese and Russian bombers are flying in formation in the Sea of ​​Japan and the East China Sea.
 

The Joint Staff Office of the Ministry of Defense said that Chinese and Russian bombers would be around Japan from the morning to the afternoon of May 2022, 5 (Tuesday). → Continue reading

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March 2020

Bomber

Bomber(Bomber) is morebombIt is equipped with a kind and has a powerful destructive power.aircraftAnd the smaller onesAttack aircraftと 呼 ば れ る[1].

The typical mission of a bomber is(I.e.Backward strategic goals (headquarters,Production facility,Power plantEtc.) is destroyed.A major feature of bombers is that they have great destructive power by dropping a large number of bombs at once.justnuclear weaponslikeWeapons of mass destructionThis kind of loading is not always necessary when using the, and it costs money to maintain the bomber unit, so it is as of 2021 that we have a certain size of bomber unit.The United States of America,Russian Federation,People's Republic of ChinaIs only[2].

Types

See each article for details.

Strategic bomber
The name of a bomber used to destroy strategic targets (headquarters, production facilities, power plants, etc.) behind the front line, which is a typical mission of bombers.Gradually it became only a strategic bomber,Tactical bombingAlso used for.
With a tactical fighter-bomber to bomb strategic targetsnuclear weaponsCan now be thrown inStrategic bombingIt became difficult to distinguish between tactical bombing and tactical bombing, and after the Cold War, there was no clear distinction between tactical aircraft and strategic aircraft.[2].
Fighter bomber
FighterAnd an aircraft that combines the capabilities of a bomber.It is the same as a fighter-bomber in terms of the increased load of attack aircraft.[3].
Dive bomber
Dive bombingA bomber developed to do.Used for pinpoint bombing, etc.Second World WarAfter the endmissile,Guided bombIt became obsolete due to the development of.again,Japanese NavyThen,Dive bombingBomber, an aircraft that can doHorizontal bombingandLightningThe aircraft that can only do it was classified as an attack aircraft.[4].

Performance

Weapon loading capacity
Ability to carry bombs and missiles to their destination.胴体UndersideWingWhen hanging on the underside or inside the fuselage (B-2Then in the main wing)Bomb bayMay fit in.Bomb bays are usually elongated in the anterior-posterior direction of the fuselage, but current U.S. large bombersrevolver,Grenade launcherMultiple rotary launchers, such as the rotating magazine of the above, are housed in the fuselage.
Ability to hit a bomb accurately
Until the end of World War II, free-fall bombs were the mainstream, exclusivelyBombsightWas used.During World War II, the error is small in order to increase the accuracy of the bomb, and it plunges with the bomb close to the target.Dive bomberWas also used a lot.Germany was wireless during the warGuided bombHas been put into practical use, and it has become possible to hit accurately without approaching the enemy's anti-aircraft fire. As of 2021, bombs and missiles dropped from aircraftlaser,GPSMany of them are guided by and hit the target accurately.
Independent navigation ability
Wide range due to flying over enemy groundradarIrradiation and communication cannot be used because they cause the enemy to know where you are.Therefore, bombers are required to have independent navigation capabilities that do not rely on the outside.For some time since the birth of the bomber, it exclusively measures the angles of the sun and stars to estimate its position.Astronomical navigationI was flying in.
During World War IINazi GermanyInertial guidance deviceIs put into practical use and missilesV2This technology was used in various countries after the war.Currently, GPS is used.
Hard to be caught by the enemy
A bomber with a heavy bomb cannot match an enemy fighter in aerial combat.Therefore, performance and operation are required so that they cannot be found as much as possible, and even if they are found, they cannot catch up.In the past, the ability to fly at high speeds at high speeds and the ability to navigate at night were emphasized, but now it is important.StealthAnd low altitude invasion ability is emphasized.
Defensive ability
Protect defensive machine guns and key parts until World War IIBulletproof boardWas the most important equipment.However, since the Cold War, fighters are fast and capable of missile attacks from a long distance, and such defense measures are not effective.
B-2Is highStealthIt is operated on the premise that it will not be discovered by the enemy because it has, and it is not equipped with defensive firearms.
Speed ​​/ cruising power
Generally, it is better to fly at high speed and far.However, compared to the fighters of the same era, there are many cases where the speed is not as high as that.On the other hand, in order to increase the hit rate of bombing, it is convenient to be able to fly at low speed, and it is convenient for the United StatesA-10Some aircraft, such as, have prioritized stability at low speeds at the expense of top speed in order to bomb moving ground targets.

History

World War I

World War IThe previous aviation usage was partly prepared for bombing, but the main body was the search purpose of ground operation cooperation, communication of command, aviation strategy such as artillery cooperation,Air tacticsWas not worth[5]..Bombing when World War I beginsSequentialTried[6].

Due to its performance, the plane at the beginning of World War I was used only for reconnaissance, not for combat.But as the war progresses, especiallyWestern FrontStick withTrench warfareThe army, desperately looking for a way to defeat the defender, tried to find a way to overturn the defender's dominance.Grenade, A handmade bomb modified from a small caliber shell,ThrowAirframes that can drop and attack, and then drop larger bombs, have come to be built.

The aircraft of this eraCompound leafThe wooden frame is mainly covered with canvas, and the horsepower is about 200 to 300 horsepower.Water-cooled engineWas using.A small single-engine bomber loaded about 200 kg of bombs and flew high at high speeds (more than 200 km / h) on the battlefield to escape the capture of enemy fighters.Twin-engine (two-engine) bombers bombed enemy cities, but at speeds just over 2 km / h, they mainly bombed at night to escape the eyes of enemy fighters.Russia's first four large heavy bombers in the worldIlya MurometsWas produced in Germany in the latter half of the war.Gotha bomberWas produced.Bombers are for defense as soon as they are bornMachine gunWas equipped.In the UKtorpedoAttack the ship byLightning strikerHas been put into practical use.

Night bombing with long-range bombers creates a new form of war that attacks cities far behind the front and involves non-combatant civilians in combat.During World War I, it was a type of aircraft along with airplanes.airshipCarpet bombing was also carried out.

the 1920sUntil then, even military aircraft were mainly biplane canvas upholstery.Britain as the best machine at this timeHawker Aircraft"Company"HeartThere is.Biplane but smart aircraft with 500 horsepowerWater cooling engineEquipped with one, it loaded a 1 kg bomb and flew at 200 km / h.

Second World War

1921 Preached a decisive destructive attack from the air with the essence of air power as an offensiveJulio Doue(Italy)'s "Air Control" was published and produced a worldwide response around 1927.[7].Doue,MitchellRepresented byDominate the airIt is preferable to retain a strategic bombing unit in order to emphasize acquisition and political strategic point attacks, and it became technically possible in the 1930s, and the great powers began to emphasize bombers in a subdivision ratio.[8].

In World War II, bombers played a major role in determining the course of the war.At that time, the B2G with about 8 tons and the B17A with about 9 tons were the largest loading capacity.[1].

the 1930sIn addition, the aircraftAluminum alloyMade of all metal with wingsSingle leaf, The engine is water-cooled orAir coolingStarOver 1,000 horsepower,footWas modernized in a retractable manner.Also, in this era, the bomb hit rate was dramatically increased.Dive bomberWas developed.

At that time, each country produced light single-engine or twin-engine high-speed aircraft (around 400 km / h), but in the United StatesBoeingOnly the company has developed a four-engine heavy bomber "B-4" as a future bomber.The navy of each country developed an aircraft that is good at lightning strikes, but JapanLand attack aircraftHad a range of over 4 km, comparable to a four-engine aircraft, to attack enemy ships in distant waters.European bombers had a cruising range of about 4,000 km due to the proximity of the expected battlefield.

大規模 なAircraft carrierIn Japan, the United States, and the United Kingdom, which have a fleet including, he was active in the early stages of World War II.Ship bomberAttack aircraftHas been put into practical use.

World War II was mainly based on aircraftTotal warIt became.At the beginning of the war, I was well prepared for the warGerman Air Force(Luftbuffe) swept over Europe, and a similarly prepared Japanese Army and Navy air force destroyed key goals and facilities such as US-British battleships, ground bases, ports and factories in the Pacific Ocean.After that, the United States, which has overwhelming productivity, produced a large number of bombers, and American aircraft began to cover the sky over Europe and the Pacific Ocean.Britain and the Soviet Union also made a number of distinctive aircraft and tightened Germany from the east and west.

One-shot in land warfareLight bomberBecame an integral part of ground support, but was too powerless in front of enemy fighters and bombed them.Fighter bomberWas replaced by.

Britain and the United States made one after another that could carry a large number of bombs, bombed cities and factories in Japan and Germany, and robbed the two countries of their ability to succeed.Also, airdrops in the waters near JapanminebySea blockadeDamage to domestic shipping vessels caused insubmarinebyTrade destructionAt the same time, he robbed Japan of his physical strength.On the other hand, the Axis side faced a defeat without being able to produce a full-scale four-engine heavy bomber.

In the sea, it became clear that bombers and attack aircraft launched from aircraft carriers were the most effective maritime forces, and as a result of being able to respond flexibly to ground attacks, as a result.Air superiority=Sea controlIt became a situation.It has been the main force in the past and has taken over the command of the sea.BattleshipDecreased in value and was no longer built.It also has the ability to detect and attack submarines.Anti-submarine patrol aircraftWas born.

In the latter half of the war, each aircraft was equipped with a 2,000 horsepower class engine.The aircraft isAluminum alloy(duralumin) Was the main, but a wooden machine like a mosquito and a steel structure were adopted in consideration of defense power.Il2There was also a heresy like.Germany was the world's first jet bomber, though not enough to affect the war situation.Ar234Has been put into actual battle.

Cold War

After the end of World War II, nuclear weapons were put into practical use in the United States, the Soviet Union, Britain, France, and China, and at the same time, they were divided into East and West camps and entered the Cold War era.For bombersVirtual enemyIn the main part ofNuclear bombThe ability to drop is now required, and the aircraft that can carry out this long-range invasion operationStrategic bomberAs a matter of course, a nuclear bomb was mounted on a large airframe.A separate tactical bomber was created to respond to local conflicts and attack the potential enemy, but many of them did not have the ability to operate nuclear bombs.The engine is other than the aircraft made immediately after the end of the warjetWas converted intoSupersonicMany machines were also produced.Vietnam WarThen the aboveNuclear attackThe bomber developed on the premise of is a tactical / strategic bombing with a normal bomb (so-called) due to its loading capacity.North bomb) Was used, and it was also developingSurface-to-air missileAnd denseAnti-aircraft gunThe position was heavily damaged.

Also, fighter-bomberTornado IDSIs over 9 tons,F / A-18CCan now carry bombs of 7 tons or more, and has the same loading capacity as the bombers of World War II, but the bombers are 2 tons for the B-52H and 27 for the B-1B. The loading capacity of B-34A is increasing to 2 tons.[2].

After the Cold War

When using weapons of mass destruction such as nuclear weapons, the loading capacity like bombers is not always necessary, and the cost of maintaining a bomber unit is also high, so a bomber of a certain sizeTroopsThe number of nations that have has decreased sharply.With a tactical fighter-bomber to bomb strategic targetsnuclear weaponsIt became possible to introduce, and there was no clear distinction between tactical aircraft and strategic aircraft.However, the value of bombers for strategic target attacks has not decreased, and intercontinental ballistic missiles and submarines have been launched.Ballistic missileAt the same time, it is still one of the three pillars of strategic nuclear weapons.The bomber isNuclear warheadIt has the ability to launch cruise missiles, has the flexibility to recall the aircraft after launch, and can be used to deploy forward and show strength (demonstration).[2]..In addition, it takes a long time to the ground troops by taking advantage of the long cruising range and the large loading capacity.Close air supportDifficult to mount on fighter-bombersBunker busterThe advantage of being able to operateGulf WarLaterInternational conflictWorked extremely effectively in.

Famous bomber

United States flag The United States of America
Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress(Empty fortress)
The main American bomber in the early days of World War II, with more than 1 produced. With four large aircraft, it has a bomb loading capacity of up to 4 tons, a cruising range of up to 5 km, and a full range of defensive firearms, which is the best in the world at this time.Exhaust turbineBy adopting it, the flight performance at high altitude is good, and it will meet you.Axis powersAnnoyed.At the beginning of the war, Germany, which boasted one of the best air powers in the world, suffered a painful counterattack due to the daytime bombing of the industrial area as a strategic goal, but the ruggedness and survivability of the four-engine aircraft also made it an ally. Highly appreciated
Boeing B-29 Super Fortress(Super Sky Fortress)
1944 U.S. ArmyOccupation of SaipanLater, he flew from Saipan's airfield to mainland Japan andIncendiarybyCarpet bombingBurning out the cities of JapanTake away the ability to continue the battle, and even1945/In 8 monthHiroshima cityNagasakiToAtomic bombThe aircraft that dropped.Equipped with a fully pressurized chamber like a modern aircraft, the occupants operated casually and without an oxygen mask even at an altitude of 10,000 m.Defensive machine gunIs operated by remote control.Bombs can be loaded up to 9 tons, with fewer bombs, a cruising range of 9,000 km and a maximum speed of 576 km, which isZero FighterFaster than.Later, the engine was replaced with a high-performance version.B-50The mold was developed,Korean WarActive in the early days.
Boeing B-52 Stratofortress
It is the definitive version of the American strategic bomber made one after another after the war, and it is still used even now while updating the main parts and electronic equipment from the start of operation in 1955. It is scheduled to operate until the 2050s, and when it is operated until 2055, it will be an unprecedented military aircraft deployed for 100 years.From a distance, it looks like a four-engine engine, but in reality it is an eight-engine engine, with two engines bundled together and hung under the main wing.Vietnam WarNorth bombGulf WarEtc., used for carpet bombing with normal bombs.B-1Bdeployment(1985/) Since then, the nuclear mission of this aircraft has been a nuclear cruise missile launcher.
Rockwell B-1 Lancer
It was designed as a four-engine supersonic bomber with variable swept wings that fly at Mach 2.Jimmy CarterDevelopment was once stopped at the time of the president,Ronald ReaganThe president revived it as B-1B.The maximum speed was kept at Mach 1.25 in line with the times, and the low-altitude invasion speed was kept below the speed of sound, but instead, stealth and versatility were improved.The number of production machines is 100.
Lockheed F-117 Nighthawk
The world's first full-scale stealth practical machine.We adopted a shape and structure that reduces radar reflection as much as possible, which was determined from computer simulations at that time.InfraredThorough measures such as making the two engine exhaust ports slit type to reduce the emission of the engine, not equipping the radar that emits radio waves from itself because it conflicts with stealth, and putting all the weapons to be mounted in the aircraft, etc. It is given.2 production machines.Represents a fighterF signHowever, since it has low air combat capability and no supersonic performance, it is practically a dedicated attack aircraft.
Northrop Grumman B-2 Spirit
All-wing aircraftA large bomber with a characteristic structure.Thorough like the previously completed F-117StealthIs pursuing.Aegis ship(Ticonderoga-class missile cruiser) Is more expensive and the difficulty of maintenance is a bottleneck, and the number of production machines is only 21.
British flag United Kingdom
Abro Lancaster
5t bombTallboyAnd 10t bombGrand slamNorway OfFjordGerman battleship lurking inTirpitzWas killed and protected by thick concreteU-boat dockDestroyed tunnels, tunnels, and sturdy railroad overpasses.1942/Since then, more than 7,000 of all types have been produced as the main British bombers and bombed German cities at night.
De Havilland Mosquito
All-wood high-speed bomber.Active as a universal machine like the Ju88 of the enemy country Germany,Night fighterVersion andReconnaissance aircraftA version was also made.
Abro Balkan
So-called"3V bomberA jet strategic bomber with a huge and thick triangular wing containing four engines.Without being used for the original purpose of nuclear war due to the progress of missile technology etc.scrapIt was supposed to be, but just before thatFalkland conflictIntroduced in actual battles, mutual to the main battlefield thousands of kilometers awayAerial refuelingLong-range bombing operation to invade and bomb usingOperation Black BuckIt became famous for working hard to win the war.
Flag of the Imperial Japanese Navy Dainichi this empire
Type XNUMX attack aircraft
The main attack aircraft of the Japanese NavyAttack on Pearl HarborAlso participated. 800 kgArmor-piercing ammunitionBattleship "ArizonaWas sunk, and many battleships were landed by lightning strikes.
Aichi Type XNUMX bomber
Adopted fixed legs like German Stuka.In the beginning of the war, a large number of 250 kg bombs were accurately thrown.AlliesAlthough the ship was sunk,Subsequent aircraftIt continued to be used due to the delay in deployment due to the low reliability of the aircraft, and in the latter half of the war it became too old and inferior, so the crew members said "Type XNUMX".coffinIt was even ridiculed as "a poverty-type ship bomb."
Mitsubishi Complete land attack aircraft
In cooperation with Mitsubishi AXNUMXMBattle of MurrayBritish new battleshipPrince of WalesSinked and shocked Western countries.Immediately after the start of the warTaiwanIt is also the aircraft that started from the base and destroyed the US military aircraft in the Philippines.The disadvantage is that the bulletproof equipment is poor, and it easily catches fire when hit, causing great damage in battles after the mid-term.
Nazi Germany flag Germany
Heinkel He111
Germany in the early days of the warHeavy bomber..Air combat aimed at invading BritainBattle of BritainThe leading role on the German side.It was fast at the time of development, but at the time of the Battle of Britain there were already signs of obsolescence, and many were shot down by British fighters.After all, the German troops were repulsed by Britain and the invasion of the British mainland was abandoned.
Junkers Ju87 Stuka
Germany in the early days of the warBlitzkriegThe famous dive bomber that supported the.Old-fashioned fixed legs are used to ensure directional stability during a sudden descent.To reduce the speed of the aircraft during a sudden descentAir brakeWas using.In addition, a siren was equipped in the fixed leg to give a feeling of fear to the enemy.HoweverBattle against BritainSuffering a great deal of damageWestern FrontIt disappeared early from the beginning, butEastern Front,North africa,地中海Then it continued to be used until the end of the war.
Junkers Ju 88
A high-speed bomber called a universal machine.Performance became a little obsolete in the latter half of the war, but equipped with anti-bomberNight fighterA version was created.
Soviet Union flag Soviet Union
Ilyushin Il-2
StormovikCalled (attack aircraft)Fighter attack aircraftSo, with a 23mm cannon and a bomb, I flew low over the battlefield in Germany.tank,Armored carThe aircraft that buried one after another.The structure of the main part is a press-shaped 13mm steel plate, which is believed to repel most ammunition and was called a "flying tank", but it actually caused considerable damage.There are many derived types.
Tupolev Tu-16
It is the first Soviet jet bomber, and the receding angle of the main wing is 41 degrees in the inner wing and 37 degrees in the outer wing.With 1500 production, it was the most produced Tupolev bomber after the war.Chinese PLAIt has been active for nearly half a century.H-6Is a licensed production type of this machine.
Tupolev Tu-95
Four huge four wing on the main wing with a receding angle of 35 degreesTurboprop engineContra-rotating propellerA propeller aircraft that flies at a speed of 800 km / h or more, which is comparable to modern subsonic jet aircraft.Former Soviet UnionCollapseEven nowRussian Air ForceIs active inCruise missileIt plays the role of a launching mother machine.note that,Anti-submarine patrol aircraftTu-142 andthe 1960sToJapan AirlinesAeroflotBy code-share withMoscow-HanedaA turboprop airliner that was flying in betweenTu-114Is a derivative of this machine.
Tupolev Tu-160
A variable-sweep wing supersonic bomber with a similar shape, produced against the American B-1, with a maximum speed of Mach 2.The aircraft is one size larger than the B-1, and is currently the largest practical bomber in the world.38 production machines.

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