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✈ | Japan Airlines Chubu Airport-Hawaii / Honolulu scheduled flights resumed for the first time in 2 years and 5 months Approximately 8 flights a week from August


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Japan Airlines Chubu Airport-Hawaii / Honolulu scheduled flights resumed for the first time in 2 years and 5 months Approximately 8 flights a week from August

 
If you write the contents roughly
According to Japan Airlines, due to the influence of the new Corona, regular flights have been suspended since March, but due to the easing of immigration by the country and the reduction of the infectious disease risk information level, about 3 flights a week, It means resuming regular flights.
 

Japan Airlines will depart and arrive at Chubu Airport from August in Hawaii's "Honolulu ..." due to immigration easing and lowering the level of infectious disease risk information. → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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diagram

Public transportIndiagram(English: service planning diagram)列車[1],bus[2],aircraft[3]It is a diagram expressing the operation / operation plan of such flights.Operation chartAlso called.You can see at a glance the required time, stop time, and crossing of trains.

In Japan, I wrote down when each flight departs and arrivesTimetableIncludingDiamondOften abbreviated as, to change the scheduled timeTimetable revisionCall[4].

New creations and revisions of diamonds will be made in consideration of ensuring safety, passenger convenience, and operation / operation efficiency.Because it is a huge amount of work that requires specialized knowledgeArtificial intelligence(AI) and pseudoQuantum computerTechnology development is also being carried out[2][1].

Railroad diamond theory

TrainIn the above, train operation plans and schedules are called "train plans" or "train operation plans", and those represented in charts are called "train operation charts" (train diagrams).The term "diagram" was used to refer to this train operation chart, but the train operation plan itself has come to be called a timetable, and the train operation chart has come to be called a timetable to distinguish it.The theory that it is called a diamond because the shape of the line looks like a diamond is incorrect.

In Japan, it is common to operate the train diagram screen not only for train operation planning but also for real-time operation management.United KingdomThe screens of the operation management system used in the above are generally those that operate screens that model railroad tracks and trains, and the method of operating using train diagrams is not often used.[5].

Diamond diagram

Generally, railway diagrams areTimeOn the horizontal axis,距離On the vertical axisparking lotNames are placed on the vertical axisGraphIt is a shape (diamond diagram). Conversely, a diagram with distance on the horizontal axis and time on the vertical axis may also be used.[6], The basic idea is the same. Hereinafter, the description will be made on the assumption that the time is taken on the horizontal axis.

The starting station for the descent is located at the top, and the distance increases downward and the time increases to the right with this as the origin. And one train is one line (Streaks).Therefore, the train that departs from the first station, that is, the down train, draws a polygonal line that goes down to the right, while the up train draws a polygonal line that goes up to the right.Stations are usually arranged based on the time required rather than the distance between stations so that the streaks are as straight as possible.The slope of the line is that of the trainspeedThe faster the train, the steeper the slope of the line, and the horizon (slope 0) indicates a stop.

Single lineUp and down between stations in the sectionTrain exchangeBecause it is not possible, streaks do not intersect between stations.Double trackSince you can exchange trains up and down anywhere in the section, streaks may intersect between stations, but overtaking is still possible.Escape facilityLimited to stations with.Such a refuge relationship becomes clear at a glance when illustrated on the diagram.For this reason, the arrangement of the single-track section and the double-track section is also written on the side of the diamond.other than this,ElectrificationSections andAutomatic train security equipmentInformation that affects train operation is also listed.

The timetable that is released to the public is in units of one minute, but plans are made in smaller units on the timetable. For this purpose, a symbol is attached to the intersection with the station line of Suzy to express the departure and arrival time in seconds, and inside the railway company, this symbol is called "Hige" or "Potsu". The usage and time unit of this symbol differ depending on the railway company.

In addition to the train lines, the timetable shows the train number, arrival / departure number, entry / exit wards, work such as connection / release, characteristics of the stop, and symbols indicating the type of train.

In addition, the vehicleOperation,Crew"Hakodia" created to show the crew schedule (route) ofOn-site work planThere is something called a yard work schedule for doing this, but it is just a slang name that compares schedules and plans to railway operation charts, and for the sake of distinction, ordinary diagrams are sometimes called "mountain-shaped". Regarding Hakodia, "OperationSee.

form

Pattern diamond

cycleA diamond may be created. Diamonds made in this way are called "pattern diamonds" and their cycle isnWhen it's minutes, take time intervalsnMinute cycle or nMinute pattern(OrnMinute head).nIs often 5,6,10,12,15,20,3060 OfdivisorIs[7].. By setting it to a divisor of 60, the departure time will be the same every hour, and the timetable will be easy for users to remember. As a result, effects such as improvement of convenience and increase in the number of users can be expected. In addition, since trains are always exchanged and shunted at the same station on single-track sections and lines with shunting, efficient operation such as reduction of exchange and shunting stations and limitation of time to use the sub-main line is possible.Frequent serviceWhen referring to, it often refers to setting a highly periodic timetable (synonymous with "frequent driving" in Japanese. The English translation of "frequent" is "frequent").

Parallel diamond

In the case of railways, as a general rule, stations,Signal fieldOr between traffic lights (OcclusionSince only one train can enter per section), there is naturally a limit to the number of trains that can be operated (line capacity) per settable time.In that case, if trains with different speeds are mixed, the number of trains that can be set decreases.Therefore, keep the speed of all trains constant regardless of the train type and stop station, do not overtake, increase the number of trains in operation to the limit (maximize the line capacity), and secure the transportation capacity. Is done.At this time, since the lines representing the train are drawn in parallel on the diagram, "Parallel diamondIs called. In a line section with a high congestion rate, setting a single train type has the advantage that the congestion rate is leveled and train delays can be minimized (Case study on Tokyu Denentoshi Line).On the other hand, the arrival time may be longer than before the introduction of the parallel timetable.In JapanAt rush hour OfChuo Rapid Line,Keio Inokashira Line,Meitetsu Seto Line,JR West Japan OfKyoto Line-Kobe LineIs a typical example.

Incidentally,Skip-stopWhen operating an express train in which the stop stations are distributed to multiple stations to improve speed (example:Seibu Ikebukuro LineThere are cases where the number of trains operated is increased to the maximum (each station on the Chuo Rapid Line) by using both express and commuting express trains.

Net diamond

aboveParallel diamondAs a similar example, trains may be set to the maximum by exchanging trains at most stations and signal boxes where trains can be exchanged in a single track section.In this case, on the diagramnetworkSince the line representing the train is drawn like the eyes of, it is likened to a net.Net diamondIs called. As a line section currently forming a net diamond in JapanTobu Noda Line,Enoshima Electric Railway Line,Shonan Monorail Enoshima Line,Meitetsu Mikawa Line,Meitetsu Takehana Line-Hashima Line,Izuhakone Railway Daiyuzan Line,Kintetsu Tahara Main Line,Kintetsu Ikoma Line(Higashiyama Station - Oji Stationwhile),Kintetsu Nagano Line(Tondabayashi Station - Kawachinagano StationMa) is a typical example.

Day of the week timetable

Metropolitan areas, etc.Day of the weekIf the movement cycle differs depending on the type, a diagram may be created according to the cycle. In such casesWeekdayWhen,Saturday,Sunday-public holidaySuch asDays OffIn many cases, a diagram with a different composition is formed with (Saturday schedules are available on some bus routes, but on railroads.Meitetsu Chikko Line,Wada Misaki Line,Astram lineIs). Saturdays and holidays compared to weekdaysRush of morning and evening commuting hoursThe number of Saturday and holiday schedules is often smaller in the morning and evening than on weekday schedules because it is not so intense. Especially in the evening of Saturdays and holidays, it is often the same as during the day.[8].. OnceWeekly holiday 2 day systemBefore generalization, there were many routes that operated on weekday schedules on Saturdays, but after being divided into Saturday schedules due to the development of the two-day weekly holiday system, they now operate on Saturdays and holidays schedules together with holidays. Most of the time[9].. In the daytime, there are many cases where the same timetable is used on weekdays and Saturdays and holidays, but in some cases the number is increased or decreased according to the actual conditions of the route.[10].Last trainIn many cases, Saturdays and holidays are earlier than weekdays.Also mainly used for travelLimited express-Express trainSuch asHonor trainIs often set on Saturdays and holidays, and has a high role as sightseeing and leisure activities.steam locomotive(SL) andTrolley train,Joyful TrainaboutObonIt is rarely operated on weekdays except during long vacations such as.On the other hand, as the name suggests, trains of the type with "commuting XX" in the type name are set to increase transportation capacity during rush hours, so they are set only on weekday schedules.

Seasonal diamond

On routes that have a busy season, another timetable may be set up during that time. Seasonal schedules are often taken into consideration in advance when the schedule is revised. As a large-scale one that lasts about a month or moreSotobo Line-Uchibo Line,Odakyu Enoshima Line,Keikyu CorporationAnd onceSea bathing"Sea bathing timetable" and "Summer timetable" held during the season,Keio Electric Railway(Keio Line) "Season diamond",Nagoya Railwayof"ShotoThere were "Diamonds", "Holiday special timetables", "Spring special timetables", and "Autumn special timetables" of Keihan Electric Railway, but all of them have disappeared now.

Keihan Electric Railway's seasonal schedule is still in use today.New YearDiamond,Cherry-blossom viewingIn the seasonTarumi Railway OfCherry BlossomsDiamond,Chichibu Night FestivalTo suitSeibu Railway,Chichibu RailwayThere are night festival diamonds and so on. AlsoAichi ExpresswayEastern Hill Line (commonly known as Linimo)では沿線大学の開講期間と休業期間で利用状況が大きく異なることから、2013年3月16日より大学開講期間(4 - 7・10 - 1月)を第1ダイヤ、それ以外の期間を第2ダイヤとして平日に限って季節ダイヤを導入している。京阪本線の初詣ダイヤでは、定期ダイヤでは朝以外設定されていない「急行」が日中に10分ヘッドで運転されるなど、通常のダイヤとは全くパターンが異なる。初詣ダイヤは、West Japan Railway(Tenjin Omuta Line-Dazaifu Line),Hankyu Corporation(Takarazuka Main Line),Nagoya Municipal Subway(Higashiyama Line-Meijo Line-Meiko Line)・Keisei Electric Railway(Main line-Kanamachi Line)・Keikyu Corporation(Daishi Line),Tobu Railway(Daishi Line),Kinki Nippon RailwayLimited express / express,JR West JapanNara Line-Sakurai LineIt is also done at (Manyo Mahoroba Line).Also every yearNew Year's EveからNew YearThe overnight operation carried out by each company can be said to be an example of a seasonal schedule.

Special diamond

If, for some reason, passenger demand is expected to increase or decrease in addition to the seasonal schedule, a special schedule may be used in which the number of trains in service is increased from the normal busy season or decreased from the off-season.

2020/ToNew coronavirus infectionIn response to the widespread use of railways, many railway operators have seen "special timetables" that have significantly reduced the number of trains in service.[11].

Index to measure the scale of diamonds

The simplest way to measure the size of a diamond is to count the number of trains that have been set, but this method does not distinguish between long-distance trains and short-distance trains.Therefore, the total mileage of the trains is totaled.Train kmThe scale of the diamond is represented by.On the other hand, of one trainOrganizationSince the number of cars required is affected by the length of the train, multiply the train kilometer by the number of cars to be used.Vehicle kmIs also calculated, which is the basis for considering the number of vehicles to be used.

While the distances are totaled for train kilometers and vehicle kilometers, the total driving time is calculated.Train hour,Car hourIs called. Train hours are the basis for considering the number of crew members required, as the crew's restraint time can be calculated.

Railway schedule of each country

United Kingdom

The screen of the operation management system in the United Kingdom is generally operated on a screen that models railroad tracks and trains, and the method of operating using a train diagram is not often used.[5].

Japan

Railway operator Regional Transportation BureauAbout the train operation chart reported as a train operation plan toMinistry of Internal Affairs and Communications OfInformation Disclosure/Personal Information Protection Examination CommitteeByDisclosureIt has been decided that the request will not be disclosed. The reason is that it includes know-how for creating operation plans for each railway operator.[12].

However, the train operation chart is "Railroad timetable informationIn addition to being published in railway magazines such as ”, the actual products for business use are also available at events of each railway company, railway hobby goods stores, etc.Internet auctionIt is relatively easy to obtain (however, it is often difficult to obtain the current diamond).

Incidentally,West Japan RailwayThen, the train operation chart of the current timetable (Tenjin Omuta Line-Dazaifu Line-Amagi Line) Was sold at the main station window.

Creating a diamond

The composition of the diamond is in charge of the Transportation Division (and equivalent department) of the Transportation Department. There is a profession commonly known as "Sujiya" here. The origin of the job title comes from drawing complicated lines (streaks) of diamonds. To create it, transport demand for each routeTrack capacity, VehicleSpeed ​​typeAnd operational efficiency, crew operation, etc. are taken into consideration. The required time is the speed for each point based on the vehicle performance and speed limit.Driving curveFrom (run curve)Standard operation timeAnd thereStop time,Spare timeIs added and decided.local trainCompared toHonor trainIn many cases, the driving time of (limited express, express, etc.) is prioritized.

In addition, it is necessary to allow some margin instead of using the full capacity of the track. EspeciallyTrack maintenanceIt is necessary to secure the time required to perform the work (this is called "maintenance interval"), and usually the maintenance interval is secured at night, but on major routesnight Train,freight trainThe biggest problem is the balance with the driving.In addition, there are also routes where large-scale train suspensions are carried out during the daytime for refreshment work.

The procedure is to first make a rough diagram every hour, then every 1 minutes every few minutes, and finally make a second minute diagram every 10 seconds. Depending on the route, the first minute timetable may be used[13].

To operate more trains on busy lines,OcclusionThere are methods such as reviewing the distance between sections and using a new type of operation security device. Planning at a turnaround station tends to be a bottleneck, and methods such as optimizing the wiring at the station and adopting a "step-down operation" in which the turnaround of the crew is not the same train but a later train are adopted. Also, at stations with a large number of passengers on lines with short train intervals, trains are stopped alternately on two lines.Mutual arrival and departureThere is also a place to adopt.

Timetable revision

Railroad, bus,ShipSuch asPublic transportIn, the diagram will be updated regularly in order to respond to changes in the actual transportation conditions, route network, and strengthening of facilities at that time. This is the "diagram revision", and the diagram is updated every year in various parts of Japan.

Up and down

In railways, as a general rule,Railway handbookThe direction toward the official starting point published in "Going up", And the opposite direction is"Going down". However, the top and bottom may differ depending on the starting point of operation (described later).Keihin Main LineSuch). Many railway lines in JapancapitalIsTokyo WardIt is the central station ofTokyo StationSince the starting point is the station in the direction closer to, "up" isDirection approaching Tokyo Station, "Down"Direction away from Tokyo StationIn many cases.

Therefore, the line connecting the opposite banks isHonshuThen,The Pacific OceanKishi andSeto Inland SeaThe direction toward the shore is "up",Sea of ​​JapanThere are many routes where the direction toward the shore is "down".ShikokuIn many routes, the direction toward the Setouchi coast is "up" and the direction toward the Pacific coast is "down".

However, there are some exceptions, such asTaketoyo LineIs a dead end due to the circumstances at the time of construction (farther from Tokyo Station)Taketoyo StationThe train heading for is "up".Keihin Main Line,Hankyu Kyoto Main LineThen.OsakaSince the starting point and the ending point are set based on the above, and the starting point is farther from the ending point to Tokyo Station, the direction toward the starting point is "down" and the direction toward the opposite is "up".

For the Chuo Main LineNaganoShiojiriIt is inShiojiri StationThe train heading for is "down", and the Chuo East Line (bordered by Shiojiri Station)East Japan RailwaySection) is as a general ruleTokyo StationThe train heading for the direction is up, but the Chuo West Line (Tokai passenger railwaySection) is the oppositeNagoya Station(The distance from Tokyo Station is farther than Shiojiri Station) is the up train. Since the timetable revision in October 1978, down trains have beenodd number, The up trainevenHowever, regarding the Chuo West Line, the number for Nagoya is even, and the number for Shiojiri / Matsumoto is odd.

In addition, there are routes in which the ups and downs are reversed even though the directions of travel are the same and the routes are similar.for example,Hokuriku Main LineThird sectorTransfer section (IR Ishikawa Railway Line(Kanazawa Station-Kurikara Station)・Ainokaze Toyama Railway Line(Kurikara Station-Toyama Station-Ichisha Station)・Echigo Tokimeki Railway Nihonkai Hisui Line(Ichiburi Station-Itoigawa Station-Naoetsu Station) All three lines start from Kanazawa Station and near Kanazawa Station, so combine the three lines (Kanazawa Station-Kurikara Station-Toyama Station-Ichishin Station-Itougawa Station-Naoetsu Station) toward Itougawa = down, Kanazawa = up ButHokuriku Shinkansen TheTakasaki StationIs the starting point (most of the starting points are from Tokyo Station in actual operation), so the direction of Itoigawa = up and the direction of Kanazawa = down.

Urban networkIn, we do not distinguish between the top and bottom, but provide guidance with an awareness of the direction.

Kyushu passenger railwayIn the case of, it was the closest to Tokyo at the time of openingMojiko StationWas the starting pointKagoshima Main LineSince the concept of "up" and "down" was decided based on the above, the concept may be out of order, so we have announced that our company's guidance will be "toward XX station".

In addition, Circular drivingOr when the direction of Tokyo Station is located in the middle, or when operating over multiple linesDriving systemThen, there are cases where the terms "up" and "down" are not used.An example is given below.

Train number / flight number

In the case of railways, it is given to each train as a control number required to operate the train efficiently.Train numberThere is. The equivalent isTransit Bus(Mainly highway bus)[15]It also exists in aircraft that do not have a diagram itself.

Operation

Vehicle operational efficiency is also an important factor in creating a diagram. When limiting the vehicles used by train, the timetable is created by giving priority to the operation of that vehicle, but if the vehicles used are limited, deadhead trains and formations that do not operate for a long time are likely to occur, which is an operational aspect. It will be useless. Therefore, in order to improve the operational efficiency of the vehicle on off-road routes and when commuting.Limited express vehicle,Express vehicleVehicles that are originally limited in use may be used for different types of commercial trains. This is generallyOperationCalled.

For this, the vehicle used for the honor trainlocal train-Rapid trainIn many cases, it is applied to, but in a broad sense, it is a route that is different from the usual route.Train typeRefers to operating a vehicle in.DepotUsing the deadhead line toHakata Minami LineAnd manyHome linerIs also a form of this interim operation, and some limited express trains and express trains may be operated in the same manner.again,ForwardingTimetables called inbound transportation with trains as commercial trains are also classified in this form.

Complementary train

Complementary trains, also called auxiliary trains, refer to trains that are operated to assist the transportation of operational backbone trains.However, such a phrase does not necessarily apply to all trains, and is a relative phrase to the extent that it may have a role of assistance / complement.It can be roughly classified into the following.

When the train does not pass at the station or time zone when demand is recognized as strong.
Example:Tokaido ShinkansenAgainstTokaido Main LineHonor trainsJoetsu ShinkansenAnd the former "New limited express. "
Relief for passengers who are unable to board the main train. Generally of seasonal drivingExtra trainThere are many of these forms.
While moonlightSpecial trains No. 91 and No. 92 for.
* Currently, Moonlight is a temporary train (discontinued in 2021), so it is not operated on this timetable.

In addition, when the same train is continuously operated near the starting station such as the continuous operation of the limited express, the vehicle and formation contents may be significantly different. In such cases, it can be seen as a separate train with a different personality, rather than simply a main train / complementary train.

Regular trains and regular flights

Refers to those that operate regularly in a certain section. If the diagram is set separately for weekdays and holidays, it includes those that operate only on weekdays or only on holidays. On the other hand, those that are operated temporarily[16]TheExtra train・ Called a special flight.

On international air routes and long-distance ship routes, the operation process of equipment and vessels is long due to the required time, and one process is often one week or longer. This is the reason why the number of flights is announced as "n flights a week".

When operating a special train, the departure time and departure / arrival number may be changed in order to evacuate or replace the regular train. In that case, in order to prevent the problem that regular train users arrive at the station as usual but miss the train, they arrive early at the escape station or postpone the train after the escape station, in most cases. Do not leave early.

Day and night

Generally, depending on the time of operationDay train or Daytime flightWhen,night Train or Night flightDivided into. Of these, daytime refers to trains that operate from the first station to the last station in one day.

However, "in a day" is judged not by whether or not it crosses midnight, but by whether or not it straddles the midnight zone between the last and first flights. Therefore,Late nightEven trains arriving at the terminal station after 24:XNUMX are considered to be daytime.[17].. On the contrary, even if the train is operated during the day on the date, the train operated from midnight to the next morning is considered to be a night train. For exampleKyushu Shinkansen"It was in operation before the openingDream swallowWill be the first stationHakata StationSince the departure time of the train is past midnight, it operates in one day on the date, but it was treated as a night train because it arrived at the terminal station the next morning.

Transit BusIn the case of normalLast carWill be operated laterMidnight busAlsoOvernight in the carIt is often an extension of the daytime flight because it does not require a required time (distance).

Aviation timetable

In the management of arrivals and departures at airports, a diagram is created and the processing capacity is estimated in consideration of various conditions such as securing a safe distance at the intersection, securing radar intervals, and other weather conditions.[18].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b "Railway timetable Hitachi uses quantum technology to automate work in a few days""Nihon Keizai ShimbunMorning edition October 2021, 10 Business 13nd page (viewed October 2, 2021)
  2. ^ a b "AI proposes optimal bus schedule ... Singapore company announces demonstration in Kitakyushu"Yomiuri ShimbunOnline (May 2021, 10) Viewed August 27, 2021
  3. ^ "Domestic / international flights ... How to make an aviation schedule? Global conferences"Vehicle News (January 2017, 1) Retrieved October 8, 2021
  4. ^ About March 2021 schedule revision East Japan Railway(April 2020, 12) Viewed June 18, 2021
  5. ^ a b "Innovative Express"." Hitachi Review "January 2013 issue. 2019/12/17Browse.
  6. ^ (German versionSince the 2012 timetable (December 2011, 12-December 11, 2012), the official timetable site operated by the company has taken the distance on the horizontal axis and the time on the vertical axis.Swiss Federal RailwaysThe diamond diagram of is posted."Grafische Fahrpläne". 2013/7/6Browse.Prior to that, a diagram was posted with time on the horizontal axis and distance on the vertical axis.
  7. ^ In addition, there is also a timetable with intervals of 7 minutes and 30 seconds (1 trains per hour, 8 minutes and 7 minutes are displayed alternately on the station timetable). In addition, one type has a 8-minute cycle, but if you include destinations and stations, it will be a 20-minute cycle, and there may be multiple pattern diamonds.
  8. ^ However,Seibu Shinjuku Line,Seibu Ikebukuro Line,Tobu Isesaki LineEven on Saturdays and holidays, the number of trains has increased since the evening compared to the daytime.
  9. ^ However,Astram lineFrom March 2014, the timetable was revised to divide the Saturday and holiday timetable and revive the Saturday timetable.
  10. ^ For example, Nagoya Municipal SubwayInHigashiyama LineOn Saturdays and holidays, the number of daytime schedules is larger than that on weekday schedules.Tsurumai Line-Sakuradori LineThen there are few. Osaka Municipal Subway Midosuji Line and other lines, Yamanote Line, Keihin Tohoku Line, Chuo Sobu Line, Nambu Line, Keiyo Line, etc. in JR East, etc.2010/3/13The same applies to the subsequent Kosei Line.
  11. ^ About new coronavirus infection prevention measures special timetable Ihara Railway
  12. ^ "Matters concerning non-disclosure decision of train operation chart attached to operation plan change notification form due to specific timetable revision (pdf) ”. Information Disclosure / Personal Information Protection Examination Committee (September 2016, 9). 2018/3/7Browse. - 諮問日:2015年12月21日(平成27年(行情)諮問第753号)、答申日:2016年9月14日(平成28年度(行情)答申第314号)
  13. ^ Hirohiko Yokomi"Railway Master"Take ShoboPaperback 2008 ISBN-978 4812433959
  14. ^ Train numberIn front of the number, "A" is written when traveling on the A line, and "B" is written when traveling on the B line.
  15. ^ Example:[1]
  16. ^ Temporary here includes the case of driving on a fixed day of the week due to the organization. For exampleSapporo StationEvery Monday, Wednesday, Saturday,Ueno StationDepart on Tuesday, Friday and SundayCassiopeiaAnd Sapporo Station on Tuesdays, Thursdays, Saturdays, Sundays,Osaka StationDeparts on Monday, Wednesday, Friday and SaturdayTwilight expressThere is.
  17. ^ Some of the last trains in urban areas run around 23:0, and the arrival time at their terminal stations is often around 1-XNUMX o'clock. These trains are also treated as daytime.
  18. ^ "Construction technology that supports a marine nation”. Japan Federation of Construction Contractors. P. 7. 2019/12/17Browse.

References

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