Photo Falcon 2000EX deployed at Kitakyushu Air Base
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In addition, the Cessna 172 is also in operation as a training aircraft.
The Japan Coast Guard announced the Falcon 2022 as the third medium-sized jet at Kitakyushu Air Base on Wednesday, June 6, 8. → Continue reading
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In-house trainingAirlinesUsed in private flight schools, military training units, etc.
When the aircraft first appeared, it was also used as a practical aircraft,1910From aroundNieuport 10,Caudron G.3A dedicated training aircraft like this has come to be developed.Furthermore, as the performance of aircraft has improved, the number of elements that require training has increased, so a variety of models have been developed.Along with that, the training period leading up to the actual battle deployment has also been extended.
In the past, flight training allowed step-by-step flight training,Elementary trainer(In the former Japanese armyElementary training aircraft),Basic trainerOrSecondary trainer(In the former Japanese armyIntermediate training machine),Advanced trainerThe aircraft was prepared according to the stage.Also,Transport aircraftLarge machines (also called multi-engine machines) such ashelicopterA dedicated aircraft was also prepared for the training.In modern times, pilots' flight suitability can be judged to some extent by interviews and medical diagnosis, and efficient operation of training aircraft is also required, and the same aircraft is used for the elementary to basic courses.Instrument flightAfter conducting instrument flight training with an aircraft compatible with the above, the actual aircraft (double-seat aircraft and riding training on the aircraft in operation) without using a dedicated advanced training aircraftFlight simulatorTraining is becoming more common.In addition, since there is no difference between the military and civilian in the primary training course and the training of large aircraft and helicopters, many countries outsource these to private pilot schools and the military specializes in the education of fighter pilots.
In addition to being required to have good maneuverability and flight characteristics that even inexperienced trainees can handle safely, recovery training from spins is also required for military trainers, so recovery is easy even if they are intentionally put into spins. Good spin characteristics are also required.The cockpit is a double-seat type because the trainee and the instructor sit, and has a double flight control system with a mechanical link so that the instructor can cover the trainee's mistakes.There are two types of seating arrangements: tandem seating, where the seats are lined up in the front and back, and side-by-side, where the seats are lined up side by side.
In the tandem arrangement, the instructor sits behind and the trainee sits in front.It is suitable for training fighter pilots because it is easy to make trainees self-reliant at an early stage because it is operated on the center line of the aircraft, but as a drawback, it is difficult for the instructor to see the trainee's operation and give instructions.In addition, since it is difficult to secure the front view on the instructor side, the adoption of "stadium seating", which raises the position of the rear seats slightly, is now the mainstream..
In the side-by-side arrangement, the instructor is on the right (CopilotOn the left (seat), the trainee is on the left (CaptainI often sit in a seat (the helicopter is the opposite).The trainee's operation can be seen by the instructor and set an example.Since it has the same layout as a large aircraft, it is used for training pilots of transport aircraft and passenger aircraft.As a drawback, the cockpit is off the center line of the aircraft, and the trainee operates the throttle lever with his right hand, so the feeling is different from the mainstream single-seat aircraft and tandem double-seat aircraft, especially for fighter-type aircraft.As a countermeasure, there is also a model designed to let the trainee sit on the right side so that the throttle and propeller pitch can be operated with the left hand (SF-260Such).
Example of tandem placement (T-7）
Example of tandem layout with stadium seating (HJT-36）
Example of side-by-side arrangement (T-5）
In recent years, as training for airline pilots, the "Multi Crew Pilot License (MPL)", a training method that emphasizes cooperation between the captain and the co-pilot from the primary training stage and is close to the actual operating conditions, has become widespread.so that,Diamond Aircraft DA-40Although it is small like this, it has plenty of capacity in the cockpit and is close to a practical aircraft.Glass cockpitThe trainer that adopted.
CirrusThe SR series of the company is equipped with an autopilot function and a keyboard controller similar to those of a practical passenger aircraft, although it is the same size as the conventional one, and it is possible to train assuming the operation of an airline aircraft from an early stage.so that,Aviation CollegeIncluding,Emirates Airlines,All Nippon AirwaysincludingStar allianceUndertake pilot training for member airlinesLufthansaIntroduced to various companies such as Lufthansa Aviation Training, and expanding its share as an primary training aircraft for airline pilot training..
Incidentally,AirspaceIn countries where training airspace is narrow and training airspace cannot be secured, or in countries where the weather is unstable and training flights are dangerous, training aircraft are not owned or kept small, and flight training is outsourced overseas (such as the United States).Is one of the formerSingapore TheAustralia,France, The United States and other countries are dispatched to trainer aircraft for training.Is one of the latterGermanyIt used to have its own training unit, but in recent years it has dispatched candidates to the US Air Force to outsource training (although the training aircraft used is the same as the US Air Force).German Air ForceBelongs).LufthansaAlsoArizonaPhoenixToHas been opened.Because there are many such countries in EuropeCanadian Air ForceThen.NATOJointly train pilots of member statesNFTC(NATO Flying Training in Canada) is being implemented.
Placed only minimal instrumentsBoeing Stearman Model 75Front cockpit.
T67 FireflyDriver's seat.Major instruments are concentrated on the left seat side
Training for those who have no experience in maneuveringPrivate pilotEquivalent to the acquisition of qualifications.
Elementary trainers are required to be designed for the operation of unfamiliar trainees.Since frequent guidance is required at this stage and the future aptitude of trainees is unknown, side-by-side placement is the mainstream, where it is easy for beginners to give advice and follow mistakes.There are only two trainees and instructors, or many small aircraft with an auxiliary seat added to the rear.
In the past, stability was important, and in practical machinesMonoplaneEven after the transition toBiplaneWas often used.Even in modern times, even single leaves are used to ensure stability and downward visibility.High wing type and parasol typeThere is also an aircraft that adopted.
Advanced at this stageAvionicsSince no operation is required, the traditional layout (basic T) instruments, which are arranged so that the basic analog instruments are easy to see, are the mainstream.The engine is easy to maintain and inexpensiveReciprocating engineIs the mainstream, but for military use, jet aircraft, turboprop aircraft and helicopters (Turbo shaft engineIs the mainstream), etc. to unify the fuel, so low outputTurboprop engineIt may be operated with a limiter.Also due to environmental regulationsLeadedTaxes on aviation gasoline are rising, so jet fuel can be used for aviationdiesel engineThere are also examples of adoption by the private sector and government agencies.This is due to factors such as high altitude (that is, low temperature and low pressure) performance and reliability, which are the weak points of diesel engines, and engine output (per weight or volume), as well as relatively simple aircraft for primary training. This is because it is not so important, and especially in the low output range, it is a reciprocating engine that has better fuel efficiency than a turbine engine, but it also has a great advantage of being able to share fuel with other major equipment.While it does not require high catalog specifications such as speed performance and aerodynamic characteristics, it is rough maneuvering due to immaturity and frequentTouch and goFor fixed-wing airplanes, emphasis is placed on reliability and durability to withstand the above, and reduction of acquisition and operation costs by simplifying and simplifying the aircraft.Fixed legBut,helicopterIn, many fixed skids are used.Many aircraft have small fuel tanks because long cruising range is not required for aircraft dedicated to training purposes.
In the military, it is painted in a prominent color to make it easier to see from the ground.In the past, there were many oranges and yellows, but nowadays, in order to reduce painting costs, highly visible lines are often added to white backgrounds.
As a representative model manufactured in the pastBoeing Stearman Model 75,De Havilland Tiger MossAnd so on, these areAerobatic flightIt also has the ability.Even in modern timesGrob G 120Elementary training aircraft developed for military use are capable of aerobatic flight, as well asSF-260,T67 FireflySports aircraft with aerobatic capabilities such as the above may be diverted.Not dedicated to practice,Cessna 172,Beechcraft Bonanza,Robinson R22Such asLight aircraftAnd small helicopters are widely used as training aircraft in the private sector, where there is basically no need to train aerobatic flights because they are inexpensive while satisfying the required performance.A derivative of BonanzaT-34Many models have been developed as military training aircraft based on sturdy civilian light aircraft.
From the elementary practice stage in the early days of practical jet aircraftTurbo jet engineEquipped withT-37,Fouga MagisterIn some countries, there is a process of screening out those who lack flight aptitude in primary training, so using a jet aircraft for that purpose is costly, has a risk of crashing, and increases the burden on trainees. , I came to perform a flight aptitude test by a light aircraft in advance.
Instrument flight and navigation training
In the past, navigation equipment compatible with instrument flight was not miniaturized, so simulation training was conducted on the ground, or multiple people boarded medium-sized and large-sized aircraft equipped with navigation equipment.NavigatorI was training at my seat.Also classicAstronomical navigationThe large aircraft was equipped with an astrodome on the upper surface of the aircraft, and at the same time, training in celestial navigation was also conducted.
Nowadays, due to the miniaturization of navigation equipment, it can be installed in small training aircraft, so we will use compatible training aircraft.Also with celestial navigation and analog instrumentsFlight computerFrom traditional speculative navigation training that usesRadio navigationEquipment andAuto pilotsystem,Glass cockpitThe operation ofAvionicsTime is being devoted to training.In the case of the side-by-side type, the trainee wears a visor or goggles that restrict the view, and in the case of the tandem type, the trainee operates from the rear seat where the view is blocked by the hood. ..
Since helicopters cannot perform instrument flight training, it was common to first undergo instrument flight training with fixed-wing aircraft and then switch to helicopters.CurrentlyEC 135With the advent of models that support instrument flight, it has become possible to train with a helicopter from the beginning.
Basic (secondary) practice
Basic (secondary) training is privateCommercial pilotEquivalent to the acquisition of qualifications.
As the basic (secondary) training aircraft, an aircraft with characteristics close to those of the actual aircraft was selected for more advanced training such as formation flight, and nowadays, low-performance jet aircraft or high-performance turboprop aircraft with similar maneuvering characteristics to jet aircraft are used.In the latter case, it often doubles as a primary training aircraft, but since the engine output is about 700 to 1,100 horsepower, which is as high as the early monoplane reciprocating fighter, it is not an aircraft that beginners can easily handle, so the flight aptitude test is still a light aircraft. It is designed to be done at.In the training of fighter pilots, models with a tandem arrangement that is closer to the actual fighter will be used.Many aircraft can be lightly armed.
Twin-engine aircraft are mainly used for training large aircraft pilots.Beechcraft BaronTwin-engine light aircraft like,Beechcraft King AirRelatively small business aircraft and light transport aircraft are used.US Air ForceUsed inT-1And thatJapan Air Self-Defense ForceThe T-400, which corresponds to the specifications, is also a business jet aircraft.Hawker 400It is a modified version of.
helicopterThen, the actual machine is often used from this stage.
If you want to proceed to a full-scale course aiming to become a fighter pilot, you will need to perform basic combat training in a high-level training aircraft or a double-seat fighter aircraft.From this stage, the aircraft painting is often more practical.
Second World WarInsideT-6 TexanBut since the advent of jetsT-33Has become widespread as a trainer aircraft.In the early days of the supersonic era, supersonic flight is thought to have an isolated difference from flight below the speed of sound, with performance quite close to that of a fighter or a derivative of an actual fighter / attack aircraft. A supersonic trainer (T-38(F-5 fighterSister machine),T-2(Later based on T-2F-1 fighterWas made),Jaguar) Was used in some countries.However, at present, it is recognized that there is not much difference between supersonic flight and flight at lower speeds, so subsonic aircraft whose maximum speed remains in the high subsonic to transonic range are the mainstream.In that case, since the specifications are similar to those of the basic jet trainer, the distinction between the two becomes a little vague, and it may also serve as the basic jet trainer.
Since it has performance close to that of an actual aircraft, many advanced trainer aircraft can also be armed.Further single seat and full-scaleAttack aircraftDevelop into (F-1, Hawk Mk200,L-159(Etc.), but even if it is made into a single seat and made into a dedicated machine, it will only have the performance of "hair grows on the training aircraft", and if it is a light attack mission, it can be fully fulfilled without having to make it a single seat, so it is not widely spread. ..
In the training of large aircraft pilots, the crew members other than the pilot (on the actual aircraft)Aviator) To be trained with trainees.
Double-seat training aircraft type of fighter
The performance of fighter aircraft has improved, and from the end of World War II, when jet aircraft appeared, training aircraft with additional instructor seats for training to convert to single-seat fighter aircraft began to be manufactured.Although the amount of fuel loaded in the aircraft may decrease or some equipment (machine guns, radar, etc.) may be omitted or abolished due to the addition of instructor seats, there is no major change in the aircraft performance itself, and if armed like a single-seat aircraft, There are many aircraft that can be put into actual battle.From here, it may develop into a dedicated double-seat fighter-bomber, multirole aircraft, etc. (F-15E,Mirage 2000N / D,Su-30Such).Also, as mentioned above, it may be used as the best training aircraft.
Also for bombers and reconnaissance aircraftCanberra,Il-28A model with one pilot likeU-2,SR-71Some models, such as those that are difficult to maneuver and require proficiency, are available as trainer aircraft.
In recent yearsAvionicsHas advanced avionics and armament training capabilities similar to modern fighter aircraft so that they can become accustomed to their operations and efficiently transition to operational aircraft.LIFT machine(Lift machine,Lead-in flighter trainer, Fighter pre-stage training aircraftAn advanced training aircraft called (abbreviation) has appeared.actuallyradarFCSSome are equipped with, while others can use data links to simulate radar operations.
On-board work training aircraft
In the past, due to the complexity of navigation and operation of communication equipment, full-time navigators and radio personnel were in charge of large aircraft, but for single-seat aircraft such as fighters, the operator had to perform it in parallel with maneuvering. rice field.Since it takes time to acquire these skills, specialized training such as navigation, radio, bombing, and shooting and emergency response training will be conducted.On-board work training aircraftWas prepared.
Currently, navigation and radio operations are simplified by the evolution of equipment, and these trainings are conducted in parallel with pilot training.On the other handBomber,Patrol aircraftSince crew members (aviators) other than pilots who ride on large aircraft such as these are familiar with in-flight work, training aircraft equipped with the same equipment as the actual aircraft are still in use today.
Japanese NavyShirakikuWas introduced as an on-board work training aircraft, but it was diverted to various missions such as short-distance transportation, communication, and patrol because of its large rear space and ease of use.
Beechcraft model 18ToUS Army Air CorpsForBomberThe "AT-11 Kanzan" was manufactured with a bombardier seat, a transparent overhang, and a bomb rack under the fuselage for training the bombardiers and bombardiers.
Examples of training aircraft of each country's army
|army||Elementary trainer||Basic trainer||Advanced trainer|
|Japan Air Self-Defense Force||T-7||T-4|
|US Air Force||T-6(For initial aptitude test DA20Etc.)||T-38|
|Royal Air Force||Prefect T1||T-6||Hawk|
|French air force||Grob G 120||PC 21||Alpha jet|
|Italian Air Force||SF-260EA||MB-339|
|Russian Aerospace Force||Yak-52||L-39/Yak-130|
|PLA Air Force||CJ-6||JL-8||JL-9|
Other training methods
Used extensively in World War IILink trainerSince (also known as Blue box), flight simulators have been used for the purpose of reducing wasted flight time and fuel costs and training time by shifting to training of actual aircraft after grasping the arrangement of instruments and the characteristics of the aircraft. ..
In the type where the cockpit is not covered, the instructor can give advice from the side, so it is possible to give side-by-side guidance even with a single-seat machine or tandem.
Organizations with a fixed schedule, such as the military, can use the time they cannot fly due to bad weather or inspections to conduct training.
In emergency response training, even training that is difficult to reproduce with an actual aircraft, such as "stop all engines immediately after takeoff" and "cannot steer during flight," can be practiced repeatedly without endangering the occupants or the aircraft.In addition, navigation training has great merits such as being able to fly for a long time with high fuel costs at low cost, such as following long-distance and complicated routes.
Currently, among the new fighter aircraft, which tend to have high flight and maintenance costs as well as research and development costs and manufacturing costs, there are models that do not prepare a double-seat type that also serves as a training aircraft and substitute a flight simulator (F-22,F-35).In particular, the F-35 is equipped with the same software as the actual aircraft in the flight simulator, and a full mission simulator (FMS) that can perform all training including the use of armament is prepared.
グ ラ イ ダ ー
Cheap and slow in primary trainingグ ラ イ ダ ーIs sometimes used.
Aspiring pilots of today have been able to get a feel for maneuvering in glider clubs since childhood.Motor glider, Often step up with an airplane.In the military, the glider course was once the primary practice, but in modern developed countries, the primary practice aircraft is used from the beginning.However,CadetThere is also a place where primary training is done with a glider for the purpose (US Air Force Academy,Royal Air Force OfVolunteer glider squadron(VGS) etc.).
In recent years, even a small engine or motor can secure sufficient output for flight.Motor gliderHowever, it is possible to move like an airplane.Indian Air ForceThen, a part of the elementary practice is a motor glider (Diamond HK36).
National Defense AcademyUses gliders, which are cheaper than airplanes, as teaching materials for learning about aircraft operations in general.
As a training to grasp the takeoff and landing procedure, on the ground, such as reciting a series of procedures while walking with a line that looks like a runway on the ground as a mark.Image TrainingIs cheaper than a flight simulator, so it is still used today.
The method by which an instructor uses a model to show the maneuver of an aircraft is inexpensive and can be explained to a large number of trainees and can explain complicated movements in detail, so it is not only before getting on the trainer aircraft.Basic fighter maneuversIt is also used for advanced training such as how to approach at the time of rescue..
Trainer aircraft other than aircraft
The crew of large vessels will be able to complete the lectureTraining shipGet in and take training.For small boats, after completing the lecture, a small motor boat will undergo a field test and a license will be issued.
The vehicle will be after the lectureTraining carRiding on a closed section (Driving schoolAfter practicing basic driving in), a license will be issued if you take practical training on a public road and pass the test.
Since it is rare to maneuver a spacecraft, it is common to use a procedure trainer to grasp the position of the switch.However,Apollo Lunar ModuleNow to study the behavior during landingLunar Landing Research VehicleWas developed.Based on the results of this research宇宙 飛行 士The training aircraft "Lunar Landing Training Vehicles (LLTV)" was developed and trained on the ground.AlsoSpace Shuttle OrbiterHas peculiar maneuvering characteristics and cannot redo the landingNASAでGulfstream IIRemodeledShuttle training aircraftI was doing landing training at.
- ^ TX next trainer --Boeing Japan
- ^ Days of sweat and tears of pilot trainees who will be the wings of JAL in the future - Japan Airlines
- ^ CIRRUS JAPAN
- ^ Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Transportation / Transportation Domain ｜ Aircraft Business ｜ Why don't you read the shape of an airplane?The movement of the five elements, the overall harmony
- ^ "G-suit to protect the lives of members Adhering before Blue Impulse training: Asahi Shimbun Digital”(Japanese). Asahi Shimbun digital. 2021/3/9Browse.
Cessna Skyhawk(Cessna Skyhawk) (Cessna 172)Cessna machineIt is a kind of 4 seats,Single-shot propeller promotion,High wingsWith a light aircraft of the ceremonyCessna Aircraft CompanyManufactured by (hereinafter abbreviated as Cessna)Light aircraftIs. It first flew in 1955 and began delivery in 1956.When aggregated by series name, the cumulative number of aircraft produced reached 2015 as of 4, making it the most produced aircraft series in the world in history.
Initially the model numberCessna 172It was sold under the name (Cessna 172), but is now a nickname.Skyhawk(Skyhawk) is the product name.
Cessna's first product, manufactured in the 1920s, "Model AAlthough there are differences in the airframe materials at that time, such as the frame of the wood-gold mixed structure and upholstery, it is possible to see a glimpse of the basic design of the high-wing arrangement monoplane of the single-engine light aircraft currently manufactured by Cessna. can. Developed shortly after the Great Depression of the 1930s, "Model EC-1"Or"Model EC-2If you look atLanding gearIt can be seen that it reached almost the same design as the current model 172 except for the arrangement of.
Cessna is one of the airplanes designed by Cessna for civilian aircraft.World War IIFrom the later developed aircraft series, it came to be represented by a three-digit number "model number".
The direct aircraft series that is the basis of the design of Model 172 isModel 170Is.Model 170 is a high wing arrangement monoplane wing, made of metalSemi-monocoque structureTorso,Horizontally opposed OfAir-cooled piston engineWas adopted.These basic designs were followed in Model 172 as well.on the other handLanding gearThe type was changed from the tail wheel type to the front wheel type, and the outer panel of the main wing was changed from cloth to metal.The shape of the vertical stabilizer isellipseFrom the moldrectangleWas changed to
The engine was originallyContinentalMade from 1967 model 172ILycomingIt has been changed to made.Of a small machinepropellerToHazel PropellerIs often adopted, but in Cessna from model 170MT propellerThe MT-Propeller was also adopted in the model 172.However, after Cessna became a subsidiary of Textron, it became a subsidiary of Textron as well.Macaulay Propeller SystemsBecame a subsidiary of Cessna, and the propeller was changed to the company's metal two wings (fixed pitch).
The first flight of the Model 172 took place in 1955.Mass production began in this year, and delivery began in 1956.
After that, as the years went by, we continued to make improvements little by little, and continued to develop and manufacture new models one after another (especially).the 1960sCessna was willing to launch a new model every year, just like the automakers of the time).Then in the 1980s,Product Liability LawBecause of entanglement issues and business profitability182 Sky Lane,206 StationaireIt will be discontinued along with other models such as. Manufacturing and sales resumed in 1996.
Due to the large number of products manufacturedTraining machineFrom business use such as cameras and camera to privately owned pleasure machinesGeneral aviationIt is often adopted in.This is a high-wing type, so it is highly stable, and because there are many skilled pilot instructors and mechanics, it is often adopted by pilot schools and there are many trained people, and used machines and after-parts are abundantly distributed and compared. This is because the price is low.
Since the basic shape has hardly changed, the flight characteristics have not changed,Glass cockpitAdoption etc.AvionicsWe regularly upgrade and change materials..Control stickIs a two-handed type that traditionally sticks out of the instrument panel.Initially it was a shape with 8 turned sideways, but later it was changed to a mountain shape.
Robert Timm とJohn Cook It is,Las Vegas OfMcCarran International Airportから飛び立ち、1958年12月4日から1959年2月7日に64日22時間19分5秒の滞空時間の記録を保持している。給油は走行中のトラックから行った。1987年にMathias RustWas also used when he landed on the Red Square in Moscow.
The military type isT-41 MescaleroCalled.
- This is the basic model of model 172.The first aircraft began production in 1955 and began delivery in 1956. It continued to be manufactured until the introduction of the new model 1960A in the early 172s.Continental O-300It is equipped with a horizontally opposed 145-cylinder air-cooled engine and has a maximum takeoff weight of 6 lb (2,200 kg).The base price at the time without options was $ 998. A total of 8,995 aircraft were manufactured in the five years until the end of production in 1960.1956 modelAlso called.
- The 172A is the successor to the 172 and is the second type to be type-certified in 1959 and delivered in 1960.Planar shape of the vertical stabilizerrectangleからTaper typeChange toReceding angleI put on.The fuel load has been increased slightly.The price was US $ 9,450 and a total of 1,050 aircraft were manufactured.1960 modelAlso called.
- The 172B is the third type that was type-certified in 1960 and began delivery in 1961.Landing gearSlightly shortened the length of the engine and shifted the engine mount position forward by about 3 inches.Engine cowlReshaped and furtherPropeller spinnerThe tip of the was sharpened, aiming to improve aerodynamic performance.In addition, two types of this model were manufactured, a standard equipment type and a deluxe equipment type, and the latter was nicknamed "Skyhawk".The name "Skyhawk," which is now the nickname for all models of the Model 2, came to be used for the first time at this time.The deluxe equipment type was still rare in light aircraft at that time.Gyro instrumentEquipped withInstrument flightWas made possible.Also in 172Bフ ロ ー トAttachedSeaplaneMolds were also manufactured.In the case of the seaplane type, the diameter was increased and the pitch angle was weakened.propellerIt was used.1961 modelAlso called.
- The 172C obtained type certification in 1961 and began delivery in 1962.Optional from this modelAuto pilotCan now be selected.How to start the engineRecoil starterFrom the formulaCell motorIt was changed to the key starter type by.The seat position can be adjusted in 6 steps.Optional cargo compartmentchild seatCan now be installed in two seats.The base price of the aircraft was US $ 2.A total of 9,895 aircraft of this model were manufactured.This model has increased the maximum takeoff weight to 889 lb (2,250 kg).1962 modelAlso called.
- The 172D obtained type certification in 1962 and began delivery in 1963.Review the structure of the aircraftcabinA window was provided behind.As a result, the field of view directly behind the aircraft was secured and maneuverability was improved.Cessna called this rear window an omnivision and first adopted it in the models 1962 and 182 in 210 and introduced it in the 172D the following year.Also newRudder pedalとbreak pedalEquipped with an integrated pedal.This willTaxiingThe maneuverability of time has improved.From this model, the maximum takeoff weight was 2,300 lb (1,043 kg).A total of 1,146 aircraft of this model were manufactured.1963 modelAlso called.
- In addition, the 172D is a high-performance model manufactured.172D PowermaticIt was named and manufactured.This high-performance model has an on-board engineContinental GO-300EChanged to.This engine has a mechanism to increase the output by increasing the rotation speed of the O-300 and rotate the propeller via the reduction gearbox.As a result, the engine output was improved to 175hp and the maximum cruising speed was increased by 11mph (18km / h) while suppressing the rotation of the propeller shaft to a low speed.This engine was already installed in another model, Model 175, and was manufactured, but it was taken over by the 172D Powermatic and Model 175 was discontinued.
- The 172E obtained a type certificate in 1963, and delivery began in 1964.In this model, the earth-leakage circuit breaker of the electrical system is used.fuseからCircuit breakerChanged to.We also redesigned the instrument panel.A total of 1,401 aircraft of this model were manufactured.
- The 172F obtained a type certificate in 1964, and delivery began in 1965.In this modelflapThe operation was changed from the human-powered type using the conventional lever handle to the electric-driven type.Also in France, Reims Cessna manufactured this model,F172Sold as.The production of lances continued until 1971.This model isUS Air Force Elementary trainerAdopted asT-41A MescaleroIt became the basis of. The T-41A was in operation throughout the 60s until the early 70s.A total of 1,436 aircraft of this model were manufactured.
- The 172G obtained type approval in 1965 and began delivery in 1966.The price was $ 12,450 for the standard version and $ 13,300 for the upgraded Skyhawk.A total of 1,597 aircraft of this model were manufactured.
- The 172H obtained type certification in 1966 and began delivery in 1967.It was the last model to be equipped with the Continental O-300 engine.Of the front legsShock absorberThe aim was to reduce the air resistance by shortening the length of the.A new crack-resistant engine cowl has been developed.At the same time, the engine mount was changed to a new vibration-absorbing one to reduce noise in the cockpit.The horn of the stall warning device was changed from electric type to pneumatic type.The selling price for this model was $ 10,950 for the standard model and $ 12,750 for the upgraded Skyhawk.A total of 839 aircraft of this model were manufactured.For the first time, the number of sales fell below the results of the previous model.
- The 172I obtained type certification in 1967 and began delivery in 1968.From this model, the engine is made by Continental AGLycomingIt was changed to made.The model of the engine is, and the output is increased by about 300 hp (5 kW) from the previous engine Continental O-3.7 to 150 hp (112 kW).It also improves speedAirspeedFrom 130mph (209km / h) to 131mph (211km / h).The rate of increase remains unchanged at 645ft (197m) / min.From this model, the layout of the control instrument became the T-type layout for the first time.A total of 1,206 aircraft were manufactured for this model, exceeding the number manufactured for the previous model.
- Cessna was planning to dispose of the basic design of the Model 172 series, which had been going on for a long time.I was thinking of selling it as a 172J with a clean design that is cantilevered and has no stanchions, instead of supporting and reinforcing the main wing with stanchions.However, as the deadline for completing the design based on the sales plan was approaching, dealers began to pressure the aircraft to revert to the original design and abandon the new plan.The reason is that it is difficult to use as a training aircraft in the new design.In the end, this pressure meant that the new plan would not be applied to the Model 172 and would continue to follow the previous wing design.This phantom 172J plan is a new modelModel 177 CardinalIt was taken over as, and development was carried out.In the end, the 172J was not manufactured and was absent.
- The 172K was type-approved in May 1968, and delivery began in 5.1969 modelIs.In this model, the tip of the vertical stabilizer has been redesigned and the rear window has also been reshaped.An additional 52 gallon (197L) fuel tank was offered in the wing to optionally extend the flight distance.The rear window is only 16in² (103cm)2) The area has increased.The standard model was priced at $ 12,500 and the upgraded Skyhawk was priced at $ 13,995.The total number of aircraft manufactured was 1,170.
- The 172K continued to be sold in 1970, but with different details than the one sold in 1969.It is the tip of a glass fiber wing shaped like a spindle.The seats are all jointed.Of the total number of productions mentioned earlier, 1970 were manufactured in 759.
- The 172L was type-approved in May 1970 and was sold for two years in 5 and 1971.From this model, the main landing gear support was changed from a leaf spring type to a tapered tube.The pillars of the hollow pipe, which has a slight taper, absorb more impact energy than leaf springs and have the effect of softening the jumping up during landing.It is attached diagonally downward from both sides of the lower part of the fuselage in a V shape.During takeoff and landing, this strut bends to absorb the impact.The tapered tube is wrapped in an elliptical scabbard fairing with a collapsed cross section to reduce air resistance at high speeds and ascents.In addition, a brake fairing is attached to wrap the tires.The C-shaped main landing gear widens the wheel track by 1972 inches (2 cm) and improves running stability.This main landing gear reduced the weight of the legs.In addition, the part just before the vertical stabilizer was extended forward and the joint with the tail was smoothly shaped.
- The 172L was $ 13,425 for the standard type and $ 14,995 for the upgraded Skyhawk. 1971 aircraft were delivered in 827 and 1972 aircraft were delivered in 984.
- For the first time in the 172 series, this model introduced a drooped wing tip (a wing with a bent downward) on the main wing, improving maneuverability during low-speed flight.This wing was called and operated by Cessna under the name of Camber Lift Wing.
- From the 1974M manufactured in 172, the "Skyhawk II" package was introduced as an option for the first time.In this package, navigation / voice response integrated communication device, ADF (radio wave type automatic direction finder),transponderHigh-performance equipment such as is standard equipment.In addition, the cargo space behind the cabin has increased.Anti-vibration type two-lamp landing light can be selected as an option.
- Manufactured in 1975, the popular "172" was priced at $ 172, the high-end "Skyhawk" was priced at $ 16,055, and the top-of-the-line "Skyhawk II" was priced at $ 17,890.
- In 1976, the standard "172" was discontinued, and the 172M will use the name "Skyhawk" for all packages.
- For the 172M, the instrument layout design on the instrument panel has been changed, and the fuel gauge and other pressure gauges have been moved to the left to make it easier for pilots to see.
- A total of 172 units of this model 4M were manufactured during the four-year manufacturing period.
- It became 1977N type from the manufacturing machine in 172. The 172N was called by the names "Skyhawk N" and "Skyhawk / 100".The previous 172 was 80/87Octane numberFor aviationgasolineThe new "Skyhawk / 100" comes from the fact that the onboard engine is premised on the use of 100 octane avgas.The "Skyhawk / 100" that uses this engine will be changed from the 1981P type manufactured from 172 to the same rated output due to the complexity due to the difference in fuel and the problem of reliability. ..
- From the 172N, the elevator trim is optional and a preset flap is standard equipment.
- The Skyhawk N was priced at $ 22,300 and the Skyhawk / 100 was priced at $ 29,950.
- From the 1978 manufacturing machine, the power system was reduced from 28 volts to 14 volts.The air conditioning system can now be selected as an option.
- From the 1979 manufacturing machine, the speed of the aircraft that can be flapped has increased from 10 knots to 110 knots (115km / h) with a flap angle of 213 degrees.The capacity of the fuel tank in the wing can be increased to 66 gallons (250L) as an option.
- The 172N was manufactured until 1980.
- The 172O machine is not manufactured and does not exist.
- From the 1981 manufacturing machine, it became the 172P type.Due to the reliability issue of the Lycoming O-172-H320AD engine of the previous 2N, the 172P was changed to generate the same rated output of 160hp, and the problem was improved. The maximum flap angle of the 172P has been reduced from 40 degrees to 30 degrees, and the maximum takeoff weight has been increased from 2,300 lbs (1,043 kg) to 2,400 lbs (1,089 kg).Optional 62gallon OfIntegral tankCan be selected.
- The selling price was $ 33,950 for the popular Skyhawk P and $ 37,810 for the upgraded Skyhawk P II.In addition, the Skyhawk P II, equipped with an integrated navigation and communication device, was sold for US $ 42,460.
- From the 1982 aircraft, the landing lights were moved from the nose to the wings, and the life of the bulbs was extended. In 1983, the noise inside the aircraft was improved from the manufacturing machine, and the windows of the cabin became thicker. From the 1984 manufacturing machine, the door lock became a double lock type.
- The 172P model was discontinued in 1986.Due to the issue of the Product Liability Law, the Model 11 series was not manufactured for the next 172 years.
- 172Q Cutlass
- The 172Q received type approval in October 1982. The 10Q was manufactured in parallel with the 172P in a short period from 1982 to 1983.Delivery began in 172.The 1983Q was nicknamed the same Cutlass because it had the same engine as the retractable landing gear 172RG. The aircraft of the 172P model is the same, but the engine is replaced with one that generates 172hp. By increasing the output by 180hp, the maximum takeoff weight increased to 20lb (2,550kg), and 1,157 knots (172km / h), which is 2 knots faster than the maximum cruising speed of 122P, could be pulled out.The payload increased by about 226lb (172kg) compared to the 100P, and the increase in maximum takeoff weight reduced the rate of climb by 45ft / min.
- Mass production of the 172 series was suspended in 1986.Since then, it has been suspended for about 10 years, but production and sales will resume in 1996.The first model of the 172 series after resumption is 172R. Type certification was obtained in 1996, and delivery began in 1997.The engine isFuel injection typeIt is equipped with.It was the first model in the 172 series to be equipped with a fuel-injection engine. In the 172R, the engine speed is lowered and the rated output is reduced from 180hp to 160hp.The maximum takeoff weight is 2,450 lb (1,111 kg). The 172R has made many improvements over its predecessor.The interior of the cabinInsulatorHigh-performance soundproofing measures have been devised to increase quietness.The ventilation system can be adjusted in multiple stages.Equipped with an advanced intercom system, the three-dimensionally designed interior retains shock absorption capacity.The seats are adjustable to the optimum position for seat level and backrest and are equipped with inertial locking reel seat belts.Equipped with a lightweight shock absorbing sheet with an airbag. From 2013, it will not be displayed on the Cessna website and it seems that the sale has already ended.In the most recent 2012, the number of aircraft delivered in one year was 1.
- The 172S obtained a type certificate in 1998, and delivery began in the same year.The engine is equipped with the same model as the 172R, but the engine speed that was used lower than the rating is restored and it is used at the rated output of 180hp. 172hp more than 20R.This increase in output has increased the maximum takeoff weight to 2,550 lb (1,157 kg). When the 172R was on sale, the 172R was nicknamed "Skyhawk" and the 172S was nicknamed "Skyhawk SP".However, after the sale of the 172R has ended, sales activities have been carried out for the 172S simply using the nickname "Skyhawk".Federal Aviation AdministrationIt is simply registered as 172S in the type approval data sheet of. The 172S was manufactured primarily for privately owned operators.After that, with a leather seat as standardGarmin G1000Equipped with an electronic flight instrument system,Glass cockpitIt has become. As of May 2013, it is the only model that is still in production.In the most recent 5, the number of aircraft delivered in one year was 2012.It was the largest number of deliveries among commercial piston engine aircraft.
- Engine as a derivative type that complies with recent environmental regulationsContinental MotorsMade ofdiesel engineThe "Turbo Skyhawk JT-A", which has been changed to "CD-155" and uses Garmin G1000 NXi for avionics, is available and was approved by FAA and EASA in 2017...Since it is possible to cut costs by standardizing fuel, it is being marketed as a training aircraft for government offices that use jet aircraft, and it is in Japan.Japan Coast GuardEtc. are adopted.
- 172RG Cutlass
- The 172RG received type approval in June 1979. Production began in 6 and was manufactured until 1979.The feature is that the landing gear is retractable.Also, the engine was changed to 1985hp and powered up. The 180RG was about $ 172 higher than the normal 172.The maximum cruising speed has improved to 19,000 knots (140km / h).Although the speed was greatly improved, both the initial cost and the operating cost were higher than the normal machine, so it did not sell well, and it did not perform well as a private machine in terms of sales.However, it was useful for training certified commercial airliner pilots who needed to operate the retractable landing gear, and sold well for aviation schools. A total of 260 1980RGs were delivered between 1984 and 1,177. The 172RG was sold and sold using the number 172, but the type approval is certified as one of the 172 model series.
- Lance FR172J, Cessna R172K Hawk XP
- FR172J Lance RocketIt is,FranceCompany in (en) Is a licensed aircraft. Produced from the 60s to the 70s,Rolls-RoyceIt is equipped with a fuel-injection engine licensed by the company.This engine generated 210hp (160kW).The propellerConstant speed propellerIt was a ceremony.
- The Lance rocket will then be sold by Cessna.R172K Hawk XPLeads to.This model was type-approved in May 1976 and sold from 5 to 1977.The aircraft was built at the Cessna factory in Kansas and the Reims factory in France.It will be equipped with a fuel-injection engine (later IO-1981KB). Generates 360hp (195kW).The propeller is a two-wing constant speed propeller.The Hawk XP can fly at a maximum cruising speed of 145 knots (2km / h).
- The R172J and R172K were sold and sold using the number 172, but the type approval is certified as one of the 175 model series.
- Some customers who purchased Hawk XP evaluated that the operating cost such as fuel consumption increased due to the larger engine, not the performance improvement that was suitable for the price such as speed performance.The seaplane type equipped with a float was well received.Compared to the conventional normal type seaplane type 172, the output has increased, and the takeoff performance from the water has improved dramatically.
Military operating country
Derived from 172T-41 MescaleroIt is,United States Air Forceas well as the army, In addition for security and surveillance of the US-Mexico border areaBorder guardIt is operated in.Some countries have adopted the consumer product 172 as it is.
- Austrian Air Force 1 × 172
Key points (172S)
- ^ Russ Niles (October 2007, 10). “Cessna to Offer Diesel Skyhawk". 2007/10/5Browse.
- ^ Mola, Roger A. (July 2006). “Cessna's Golden Oldie". 2009/4/16Browse.
- ^ Cessna Aircraft (June 2013). “Starting Price". 2013/5/24Browse.
- ^ a b "JAPCON delivers Japan's first Cessna Turbo Skyhawk JT-A 5 aircraft to the Japan Coast Guard | What's New | JAPCON Co., Ltd.". JAPCON Co., Ltd. --JAPCON. 2021/7/30Browse.
- ^ "Textron Aviation Turbo Skyhawk JT-A (Cessna 172 JT-A) Obtains FAA and EASA Approval ｜ What's New ｜ JAPCON Co., Ltd.". JAPCON Co., Ltd. --JAPCON. 2021/7/30Browse.
- ^ "JAPCON delivers Japan's first Cessna Turbo Skyhawk JT-A 5 aircraft to the Japan Coast Guard | What's New | JAPCON Co., Ltd.". JAPCON Co., Ltd. --JAPCON. 2021/7/30Browse.
- ^ a b Andrade 1982, Page 27
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 45
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 57
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 95
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 97
- ^ Strategy Page (February 2008). “Iraq Seeks Cessna Solution". 2008/2/19Browse.
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 61
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 147
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 151
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 172
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 189
- ^ a b Taylor, John: Jane's Pocket Book of Military Transport and Training Aircraft, page 67. MacMillian Publishing Inc, 1974. Library of Congress 73-15288.
- ^ Andrade 1982, Page 193