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🚗 | Autonomous driving of buses and trucks: Standards for lane keeping established by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism


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Autonomous bus and truck driving: Standards for lane keeping established by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism

 
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The target vehicle types have been expanded to include large vehicles in addition to conventional passenger vehicles.
 

The Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism announced that it has established standards for autonomous driving of buses and trucks.Two turtles before and after monitorless ... → Continue reading

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      Large car

      Large carWhat is (Ogataji Dosha)?JapanInAutomobileGross vehicle weight of 11,000 kg (kg) or more, maximum load capacity of 6,500 kg or more, or Refers to a vehicle with a capacity of 30 or more and four or more wheels.

      Large carFirst-class license, Large carType XNUMX license(Hereinafter abbreviated as "Large license" and "Large type XNUMX license" respectively)Driver's licenseCan only be driven by.Abbreviation islarge.. (Large type XNUMX license is "Daini")

      Still more2007Due to the revision of the law that came into effect on June 6, the lower limit of the classification has been changed from the conventional gross vehicle weight of 2 kg or more, maximum load capacity of 8,000 kg or more, or passenger capacity of 5,000 or more (details will be described later).

      Road Transport Vehicle ActThen, it is classified as "four-wheeled or larger, larger than a small car, ordinary car".

      Features

      Due to the large body, it is difficult to move swiftly compared to ordinary cars, and due to the size of the blind spot due to the height of the car, it is difficult to deal with unpredictable behavior such as pedestrians, especially small children and elderly people jumping out. It is said that.WheelbaseFor a long timeInner ring differenceIs big.When turning left or right, it is necessary to confirm that it does not come into contact with objects inside the vehicle.Of course, confirmation is necessary even for ordinary cars, but more careful confirmation is required because of the large difference in the inner ring.

      In front of the vehicleOverhangIt is possible and necessary to drive the vehicle so that the front of the vehicle protrudes from the road surface, which cannot be achieved by a passenger car due to its large size.Driver's license examination site,Designated driving schoolThen this operation is always required.Often on the actual streetguardrailIt is not a very frequent driving operation because of the fact that it is necessary, but it is still necessary at times.When the steering wheel is turned, the body part in front of the rear wheels bends in the direction in which the steering wheel is turned, and at the same time, the body part behind the rear wheels swings to the opposite side of the steering wheel.For example, when turning left, the vehicle body behind the rear wheels swings to the right, sometimes protruding into the lane to the right.This is the same for ordinary cars, but it is not necessary to be aware of this because the overhang is short in ordinary cars, whereas it is necessary to be strongly aware of this because the overhang is long in large cars.Bonnet busWith the exception of, most modern large carsCab overBecause it is a form, the front wheels, which are the steering wheels,TrackThen almost right under the driver,busThen it is behind.Therefore, the timing at which the driver starts to turn the steering wheel is considerably later than that of a normal car.

      In a vehicle with two rear axles, the rear wheels have a strong force to keep going straight even when turning.Therefore, depending on the situation, the front wheel may lose and even if you turn the steering wheel, it may not bend as if you turned it.Even if it is a corner that should be able to turn if you turn the steering wheel a lot from the viewpoint of size alone, depending on the load, road surface, and slope, it is necessary to turn the steering wheel in several steps while repeating forward and backward movements.

      If you get a large class license, you will be able to drive a bus for non-business purposes.On the contrary, even if a person who does not have a large type acquires two large types, he / she will be able to drive a truck, but as mentioned above, the driving method is completely different between a truck and a bus even for the same large vehicle, so possessing a type license. If a person drives a bus and a class XNUMX license holder drives a truck, he / she must understand and drive it.

      License plateIs a large plate size.

      License system

      There is no division called a large driver's license in the old car license,Ordinary carI was able to drive a car equivalent to a large car just by having a driver's license (hereinafter abbreviated as "ordinary license")[Annotation 1],19568/1It is divided into a large driver's license and an ordinary driver's license.Cars with a passenger capacity of 11 or more[Question]Or, a freight vehicle with a maximum load capacity of 5,000 kg or more can no longer be driven with an ordinary license.Those who had an ordinary driver's license at this timeSecond-class driver's licenseThe license classification was changed to a large type XNUMX license in conjunction with the new establishment of[Annotation 2]..However, the types of vehicles that can be driven by the Road Traffic Control Law Enforcement Regulations are not large vehicles but ordinary vehicles.1960The classification of large vehicles was specified when the Road Traffic Act was enacted.[Annotation 3].

      Initially, I was 18 years old or older and could take the test directly from a large car even if I had no experience driving a normal car, but due to a series of large car accidents (Monkey throw dump accidentSee also item),1967The test method has been revised to limit the age at which a large driver's license can be taken to those who are 20 years of age or older and who have two years or more of driving experience after obtaining either an ordinary driver's license or a large special driver's license.[Annotation 4].

      Due to the enforcement of law revisions in 2007Medium-sized carA new license (including type XNUMX) (hereinafter abbreviated as "medium-sized license") has been established, and the lower limit of the vehicle scale that requires a large license (including type XNUMX) has not been revised.Specific large vehicleIt was changed to the equivalent of (Cabinet Order Large Vehicle).For this (new) large license, those who are 21 years old or older and have more than 3 years of driving experience are eligible to take the examination (excluding SDF personnel).[Annotation 5]), But this is the same as the driving conditions of the specified large vehicle before the revision.Therefore, if a person who received a large license (including type 4) before the revision drives a (new) large vehicle, it is necessary to meet the driving qualification of a specific large vehicle.With this amendment, the test vehicle has changed in both the test site and the driving school, and the so-called increased ton vehicle (XNUMX) with a large type licenseTThe vehicle size of 5.5-7 tons, total length of about 7-8 m) was often used until then, but it has been changed to a full-size (total length of about 12 m) large vehicle.

      From May 2022, 5, the qualifications for taking large-sized licenses, medium-sized licenses, and type 13 licenses have been relaxed, and by completing certain lessons, people over the age of 19 and have received ordinary, semi-medium-sized licenses, etc. You can now take the exam if the period is one year or more.

      In addition, drivers who had a regular license and a large license before this amendment will have a large + medium license at the time of renewal, and the license condition will be "Medium-sized cars are limited to medium-sized cars (8 t)Is displayed.In this case, as long as you have a large driver's license, you can drive a medium-sized car other than the "medium-sized car (8 t)" without any problem.In addition, if this driver fails the aptitude test at the time of renewal, such as deep eyesight, only the large size will be canceled and a medium-sized car 8t limited license can be obtained.

      On the other hand, if you get a (new) large driver's license after the medium-sized driver's license is enforced, the license column will be the same, but "Medium-sized cars are limited to medium-sized cars (8 t)"Will disappear (vested interest waiver).In addition, if the holder of a large-sized driver's license before the amendment obtains a medium-sized type 8 or large-sized type 3.5 license, the limitation of less than XNUMX tons will be lifted (because of the waiver of vested interests due to the acquisition of a higher-level license).Therefore, if these drivers fail the aptitude test at the time of renewal, the medium-sized driver's license and the medium-sized driver's license, which have the same pass criteria, will also be rejected (cancelled), and the new normal driver's license can drive up to a gross vehicle weight of less than XNUMX tons. A license will be issued.

      Similarly, when a quasi-medium-sized driver's license is newly established by the 2017 revision, if you obtain a regular license and a large-sized driver's license before the revision, the license column will be quasi-medium-sized + large-sized, but the license condition is "driving in quasi-medium-sized". The condition that "the quasi-medium-sized car that can be made is limited to the quasi-medium-sized car (5 t)" is given, and if you acquire the normal two-class + large-sized two-class, there is no two-class license for the quasi-medium-sized car, so the medium-sized two-class license + large-sized It will be a two-class license, and the license condition will be "There is no medium-sized car that can be driven in the middle two, and the quasi-medium-sized car is limited to the quasi-medium-sized car (5 t)".When you get a higher license, the above conditions will be canceled as well as the medium size 5t limited.

      Vehicles that can be driven with a large license (including type XNUMX) require a towing licenseTow vehicle[Annotation 6]Four-wheeled vehicles excluding (specificallyMedium-sized car,Semi-medium-sized Vehicle,Ordinary car) And 50 cc or lessMotorized bicycle, A small special car.Large motorcycleとLarge special vehicleIs "largeAlthough the name is included, you cannot drive with a large license.former TheLarge Two-wheeled VehiclelicenseCan be driven only bythe latter TheLarge speciallicenseIt is possible to drive only at.

      Large vehicles based on vehicle weight tax

      Automobile weight taxWhen buying a car車 検It will be paid at the same time.Also, the automobile weight tax is the samePassenger car(License plateの分類番号の上1ケタ目が3・5・7)でも、500 kg毎に納付額が異なるため、車検の料金表では、車両重量が1,500 kgを超え、かつ、2,000 kg以下の乗用車のことを、大型自動車、または、大型乗用車と表記されていることが多い。なお、貨物車については車検の料金表などで大型貨物車と表記されることはなく、道路運送車両法に基づき小型貨物車(4ナンバー車 : 分類番号の上1ケタ目が4・6)と普通貨物車(1ナンバー車 : 分類番号の上1ケタ目が1)で分類し、さらに重量で細分化されている。

      Large vehicles in the highway toll category

      highway"Large vehicle" in the toll classification of "" does not mean a large vehicle in the Road Traffic Act, but is based on the classification unique to the expressway.The toll classification differs depending on the expressway, but basically the next vehicle will be a large vehicle[1].

      • ordinaryLorry(3 axles or less): Maximum load capacity 5 t or more or gross vehicle weight 8 t or more
      • Ordinary freight vehicle (3 axles for a single tractor): All vehicles
      • Ordinary freight vehicle (4 axles / single unitVehicle restriction order(Within the limit): Length 12 m or less, Width 2.5 m or less, Height 4.1 m or less, Gross vehicle weight (depending on the axle) 20-25 t or less
      • bus(Medium size): Vehicle length less than 9 m, gross vehicle weight 8 t or more, passenger capacity 29 or less
      • Transit Bus Gross vehicle weight 8t or more or passenger capacity 30 or more

      Manufacturer

      ManufacturerCountry / region where you are based
      DAF truck Netherlands
      ERFUnited Kingdom
      GAZRussia
      MANGermany
      UD Trucks(Subsidiary of Isuzu Motors Ltd.)Japan
      Ashok LeylandIndia
      Pakistan
      Eicher MotorsIndia
      Isuzu MotorsJapan
      Chugoku
      IvecoItaly
      Western Star TrucksAmerica
      KamazRussia
      Modern car South Korea
      KenworthAmerica
      Chugoku
      (Saigon Transportation Machinery Corporation)Vietnam
      Finland
      JillRussia
      ScaniaSweden
      Chugoku
      DaimlerGermany
      Tata Daewoo Commercial Vehicle South Korea
      TatraCzech Republic
      Chugoku
      PackerAmerica
      PeterbiltAmerica
      Hino MotorsJapan
      FiatItaly
      Foden TrucksUnited Kingdom
      VolkswagenGermany
      FreightlinerAmerica
      Volvo TrucksSweden
      Mitsubishi Fuso Truck/Bus(Consolidated subsidiary of Daimler)Japan
      Renault truckFrance

      footnote

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      注 釈

      1. ^ 193311/1からSmallThere is a license. (1948Small car (first class),1949Changed the name to a small motorcycle license.
      2. ^ Road Traffic Control Law Enforcement Ordinance Supplementary Provision 2-1 (Cabinet Order No. 1956, July 7, 31) However, at this point, those under the age of 255 will be changed to a large driver's license, and when they turn 21 It was changed to a large class 21 license.
      3. ^ Vehicles other than special vehicles, tricycles, motorcycles, and light vehicles with a passenger capacity of 30 or more, a gross vehicle weight of 8,000 kg or more, and a maximum load capacity of 5,000 kg or more (Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations Article 2 (Road Traffic Law Enforcement Regulations Article XNUMX)196012/20Enforcement))
      4. ^ However,SDFAs a special case, it is possible to take the test even if you are 19 years old or older and have no experience in driving a regular car.In this case, the SDF personnel will not wait until a certain number of years have passed.SDFYou cannot drive a general large car that is not for use.
      5. ^ Only SDF personnel are 19 years old or older as a special case.This is used by the Self-Defense ForcesType 73 large truck After the revision of the law, it will be within the scope of a medium-sized license, but due to the operation of the unit[Question]By special caseSelf-Defense Forces Automobile Training CenterThis is to obtain a large-scale driver's license even after the revision only when training in.In this case, "" in the license condition columnLarge vehicles are limited to SDF vehiclesIn order to ride a large private car, it is necessary for the Public Safety Commission to lift the restrictions on SDF vehicles.
      6. ^ If the trailer is a "heavy towed vehicle" (gross vehicle weight over 750 kg).

      Source

      1. ^ Basic fare model list Dorapura (East Japan ExpresswayOperated by)

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