Ocon "There was a problem with the fuel pump and I had to retire": Alpine F1 Round 10 Final
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However, a problem occurred in the fuel pump in the middle of the 38th lap, and unfortunately I had to retire.
2022 F1 Round 10 British Grand Prix final race, Alpine's Esteban Ocon becomes a fuel pump ... → Continue reading
Wikipedia related words
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AutomobileThe fuel pumps installed in the vehicle are as follows.
- Feed pump --Fuel is pumped from the fuel tank and sent to the fuel vaporizer.
- Priming pump --Older models manually send fuel when running out of fuel or starting.
- Injection pump - Common railExcluding formulasdiesel engine,Gasoline direct injection engineFuel is injected at high pressure into the combustion chamber of.fuelInjection pumpAlso called.
- Supply pump --The fuel is pressurized and supplied to the inside of the common rail of the common rail diesel engine.
Generally, the term "fuel pump" often refers to a feed pump.
Early car enginesMotorcycle engineThen in a position higher than the engineFuel tankThe fuel pump was not needed because the fuel was allowed to flow naturally into the carburetor.However, when the engine and the fuel tank are separated, or when the fuel tank became common after that,carburetorLow-pressure fuel pumps have become essential for vehicles in lower positions.In addition, mechanical or electronically controlled types that are now widely used.Fuel injectorThen, a high-pressure fuel pump is used to apply high pressure to the fuel supply pipe.
In many cases, carburetor-type vehicles use a mechanical fuel pump installed outside the fuel tank, while fuel-injector-specification vehicles use an electric fuel pump housed inside the fuel tank. ..recent yearsgasoline engineIn the case of, a low-pressure fuel pump for fuel removal inside the fuel tank, outside the fuel tankinjectorIn some cases, a high-pressure pump that supplies fuel to the fuel is placed in a dual configuration.
diesel engineIn the case of, a fuel pump with high pressure is indispensable due to the structure.Injection pumpA mechanically driven high-pressure fuel pump called "" has been used since the dawn, and a priming pump that supplies fuel from the fuel tank to the injection pump was also integrated.In the common rail type, a solenoid injector such as a gasoline engine is electronically controlled, and the pump is a supply pump that does not have a fuel injection function and only supplies fuel at high pressure.
Mechanical fuel pump
Prior to the widespread use of electronically controlled fuel injection devices, vehicles using carburetors used mechanical fuel pumps to supply fuel from the fuel tank to the float chamber of the carburetor.The mechanical fuel pump is operated by engine rotationDiaphragm pump(en: Diaphragm_pump)Met.
The inside of the diaphragm pump reciprocates with external power.leather,Synthetic rubbermembraneIt has a built-in diaphragm such as, to allow fuel to flow in one direction.Check valveIs provided at the entrance and exit of the pump.Diaphragm fuel pumps with the most common configurationsCamshaftTo useOHVIn the case ofCylinder blockAttached to the side and in contact with the diaphragmRocker armDriven by a cam,OHCIn Case ofCylinder headAttached toEccentric shaftOf the pump throughPush rodTell to.The diaphragm is pushed up by these external forces, and the diaphragm inside the pumpス プ リ ン グPushed back by.By repeating this movement, fuel is transported.
The fuel sent into the carburetor is inside the float chamber.フ ロ ー トFloat when it reaches a certain capacityvalveIs closed.At this time, the fuel sent out from the fuel pump loses its place due to the float valve, so the internal pressure inside the diaphragm rises, and when the pressure exceeds a certain level, the return valve is opened.The fuel will then be returned to the fuel tank through the return pipe.
However, these carburetor fuel pumps have a pressure (10-15) that does not push back the carburetor float valve.psi), So if the pump body and piping are heated by the heat of the engine, the fuel will be consumed.boilingIf air bubbles enter the fuel pump, the fuel cannot be pumped sufficiently.As a result, the fuel supply is insufficient and the power is insufficient.Engine stallMay lead to.
In addition, due to the structure of the diaphragm type pump, if fuel leaks from the diaphragm, the fuel will flow out into the cylinder block and cylinder head.engine oilTheDilutionThere is a risk of doing it.In addition, since fuel is originally sucked only at a weak pressure, even if the leakage is very small, if the engine is left unattended for a long time, air bubbles will stay inside the pump or fuel piping. , It is easy to have troubles that fuel is not easily sent when restarting.
Mechanically driven diaphragm pumps use the driving force of the engine and are always constant.horsepowerThere was also a drawback of loss, and some engines with carburetor specifications were replaced with electric fuel pumps.[Note 1].
Some diaphragm fuel pumpsIntake manifoldGenerate fromNegative pressureThere are also those that work with.Although the amount of fuel discharged is smaller than that of the mechanical drive system, the structure is simple, it can be miniaturized, and there is no horsepower loss when driving the pump, so it is mainly used for small displacement motorcycles.scooterUsed as a fuel pump for.
Electric fuel pump
Out tank type
Fuel injectorWhen it first appeared, it was a fuel for diesel engines.Injection pumpA mechanical fuel injection device having a structure imitating the above was used.Since this fuel pump injects with an injector, it was designed to generate a pressure of about 40-60psi, which is higher than that of a diaphragm pump.Since the horsepower loss on the engine side increased as the discharge pressure of the pump increased, the electronic control described later was performed at a relatively early stage.solenoidIt was replaced by a combination of an injector and an electric fuel pump.
Out tank type
Electric fuel pumps of this era are located outside the fuel tankOut tank typeIs.Compared to the in-tank type described later, it is easier to replace and inspect, but it has the disadvantage that the noise generated by the operation of the pump and the heat generated by the pump itself cannot be absorbed by the fuel.In addition, if the construction is not carried out with the utmost care in the strength of the piping and the power system, there is a risk that fuel will continue to be discharged and a vehicle fire will occur in the unlikely event that the fuel piping breaks.[Note 2]There is also.
Such electric fuel pumps are often mechanically controlled.Fuel regulatorThe fuel pressure is controlled by.The fuel regulator is a pressure release valve, and is equipped with a return pipe that opens when the pressure from the fuel pump reaches a specified pressure or higher and sends the excess fuel directly to the fuel tank.Fuel is sent to the injector while maintaining a constant fuel pressure by the fuel regulator.ECUFuel is injected into the cylinder by the valve opening signal from.If the fuel regulator is inadvertently replaced with another model, the set fuel pressure will change. If the fuel pressure is low, the air-fuel ratio will be low, and if it is high, the air-fuel ratio will be high.If the diameter of the return pipe is too small for the set discharge amount of the replaced fuel pump, the fuel will not be returned sufficiently even if the fuel regulator is opened, and as a result, the fuel pressure will be higher than the set pressure of the fuel regulator. Since the injection is performed with the air-fuel ratio raised, it also causes the air-fuel ratio to increase.
In automobiles equipped with modern electronically controlled fuel injection devices,In-tank typeThe electric fuel pump has a fuel filter inside the fuel tankFuel gaugeFloat sender to activateASSYIt is paid with.Compared with the pump of the mechanical fuel injection device described above, the in-tank type has an advantage that the heat generated from the pump can be cooled by the fuel in the tank.Therefore, the mechanical life tends to be longer than that of the out-tank type fuel pump.However, because the electric pump is submerged in the fuel, there is still a risk of a vehicle fire caused by the fuel pump in the unlikely event.
Generally, in the fuel tank where the in-tank fuel pump is installed, the vapor pressure of the fuel should not exceed the strength limit of the tank.Vapor collectorA fuel transpiration prevention device called is provided.
The pump is pressure-controlled by PWM (Pulse Width Modulation Circuit) such as a control unit, and the fuel pressure inside the fuel pipe is always kept constant, suppressing boiling of fuel and unnecessary consumption of electric power in the pipe. Be done.Return pipes are also being abolished due to improved flow control accuracy...However, at high temperatures, the vapor may not supply fuel accurately.
In recent years, electronically controlled fuel injection equipmentEngine control unitIn general, the operation of the electric fuel pump is also controlled, and the fuel pressure suddenly drops due to the breakage of the fuel pipe, andTraffic accidentProvided to the car body byinertiaswitchOr actuate or accelerateSensorA mechanism that immediately stops the fuel pump when it sends an abnormal value (Roll overValves) are often installed.
Replacing the fuel pump
In the case of a mechanical fuel pump, in order to suppress horsepower loss, it is often modified by replacing it with an in-line electric fuel pump to ensure a stable fuel supply.
In addition, the internal wear of electric fuel pumps tends to increase over time, and the discharge pressure tends to gradually decrease.When the discharge pressure decreases, the injection amount of the injector may decrease and the engine performance may decrease. Therefore, both the in-tank type and the out-tank type need to be replaced regularly.In this case, in the fuel piping計 力 計If the specified pressure is not generated, the fuel pump is defective, and if a pressure significantly higher than the specified pressure is detected, the fuel regulator is determined to be defective, and both are set as a set.Fuel filterWill be exchanged with.
Turbocharger,SuperchargerSuch asSuperchargerIn the case of an engine equipped with, if the fuel pressure is not stable due to a defect in the fuel pump or fuel regulator, the fuel supply amount will be insufficient at the time of full boost, and in the worst caseEngine blowBecause there is a risk of serious troubles such asNaturally aspirated engineIt also requires more rigorous management.for that reason,Boost upAnd big such as turbocharger replacementTurbo tuneIf this is done, it may be necessary to replace it with a larger capacity fuel pump.In the case of the out-tank type pump, it is relatively easy to strengthen it by using an external product, but in the case of the in-tank type, the fuel pump unit can be disassembled and only the pump body can be replaced, or the same manufacturer. Diverting the fuel pump unit from a large displacement vehicle[Note 3]It may be dealt with.
Diaphragm pump performance was not yet sufficientPrewarIn the car model etc.Priming pumpIt may be equipped with a manual fuel pump for starting, called.At the time of starting, the priming pump is first operated to send fuel to the carburetor before starting.Fuel is transported by a diaphragm pump after the engine starts rotating, but if for some reason the fuel is not sufficiently delivered, the priming pump is operated to forcibly send the fuel even while the engine is rotating. But mainlymovies,AnimeOccasionally seen in depictions of reciprocating aircraft such as.
Priming pumps on a regular basisFuel filterIt may also be installed in diesel engines that need to be drained from the water.Normally, it is not necessary to operate the priming pump, but when the filter is drained or the filter is replaced,Out of gasでengine stallIf light oil is refueled after the occurrence of, air may get caught in the fuel pipe and the injection pump may not be able to suck out enough fuel, so the priming pump was operated to manually send the fuel to the fuel filter or injection pump. The start operation will be performed later.
aircraftForJet engineWith a centrifugal or gear type pumpJet fuelMany supply, electric,hydraulic, There is a drive system by branching from the jet engine rotation shaft.In aircraft, not only fuel supply from the fuel tank to the engine, but also fuel movement between tanks for adjusting the change in aircraft balance due to fuel consumption, and in the air in an emergencyFuel dumpingFuel pumps are also used for (dumping) etc..
Liquid fuel typeRocket engineNow, let ’s use two liquids, fuel and oxidizer.Combustion chamberThere are several methods of supplying within.A fuel pump is not required in the "gas pressurization supply type" format, which is equipped with a dedicated gas generator for fuel supply and directly pressurizes the inside of the fuel tank.combustionpressureA high-power engine cannot be expected because it is necessary to lower the engine.A turbopump type fuel pump is used to increase the fuel supply pressure and improve the performance of the engine.There are three methods that use a turbo pump. One is fuelOxidantThis is a "gas generation cycle" in which a part of the liquid fuel is burned in a combustion chamber dedicated to the liquid fuel pressurization system, and the turbo pump is driven by the high-pressure gas generated at that time to pump two types of liquid into the combustion chamber.The combustion gas that drives the turbo pump is discharged to the outside of the rocket. The second was to cool the nozzlehydrogenIt is an "expander cycle" that drives a turbo pump using the expansion of gas.The hydrogen gas that drives the turbo pump is sent to the combustion chamber.The highest pressure is obtained in the third "staged combustion cycle". In the staged combustion cyclenozzleDepartmentcoolingA part of the generated hydrogen gas and liquid oxygen is sent into the pre-combustion chamber for combustion, and the high-pressure gas generated at that time drives the turbo pump and the pre-combusted hydrogen gas-rich gas is sent into the combustion chamber, and the remaining liquid oxygen In addition to this, all liquid propellants are used as propulsion..
Turbo molecular pump
Thermal power plant
Thermal power generationAt the plant, fuels such as petroleum are supplied into the combustion furnace by a fuel pump.As a relatively new technology for coal-fired power plants, there is a slurry method in which coal is mixed with water to make it liquid and supplied to a combustion furnace by a fuel pump.In terms of energy efficiency, the blower type fuel supply system, which crushes powder and supplies it on an air stream, is superior.
- ^ Replace the fuel pump electrically to reduce horsepower loss and ensure reliable fuel transfertuningWas carried out.in recent yearsOld carElectric pumps are used because it is often difficult to obtain old-fashioned parts when restoring.
- ^ In the case of a mechanical pump, the operation of the pump itself stops when the engine is stopped, so it is said to be safer than the easily constructed electric high-pressure fuel pump.
- ^ NissanIn the case of a carRB26DETT engineEquipped withス カ イ ラ イ ンGT-R andVG30DETTIt is common to use the genuine fuel pump of the on-board vehicle.