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✈ | Royal Air Force C-130J, landing training on the beach Controllers and firefighters also deployed


Photo C-130J landing on the beach

Royal Air Force C-130J, landing training on the beach Air traffic controllers and firefighters also deployed

 
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In Japan, it is known that the MC-130H Combat Talon II of the C-130 series made a forced landing at Sendai Airport, which was damaged by the Great East Japan Earthquake.
 

In July 2022, the Royal Air Force launched a C-7J Super Hercules at Pembury Beach in western England. → Continue reading

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Great East Japan Earthquake

Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake > Great East Japan Earthquake

Great East Japan Earthquake(Higashi Nihondai Shinsai,British: Great East Japan earthquake) Is2011(Heisei23 years)3/11Occurred at 14:46:18.1.Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquakebydisaster(fatherNagano Prefecture Northern Earthquake(May include disasters due to) and associated with it)Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentIs a disaster[1][2]..large-scaleEarthquake disasterBecause it is bigEarthquakeIs called.

East JapanBig shaking in various places[3],Big(I.e.-火災And so onTohoku regionIn 12 prefectures centered on1 dead / missingOccurred (excluding disaster-related deaths)[4]. this isMeijiLaterJapanAs for the earthquake damage ofGreat Kanto Earthquake,Meiji Sanriku EarthquakeSecond only3thWas damaged on a scale of[5].SmartphoneMany images and photographs were recorded in detail due to the spread of such things, and the appearance of the tsunami attacking and destroying the coastal towns,Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plantInmeltdownThe outbreak had a great impact on the whole world.

From the date of occurrence3.11(Santen Ichiichi, San Ichiichi[6][7]) And so on.

Earthquake

Friday, March 2011, 23 3: 11: 14 seconds (Japan time[8],MiyagiOshika Peninsula130 off the east-southeast ofKilometers (km) (latitude 38 degrees 06.2 minutes north, longitude 142 degrees 51.6 minutes east, depth 24 km)(I.e.ToTohoku-Pacific Ocean EarthquakeThere has occurred[9]..The magnitude of the earthquakeMoment magnitude (Mw) 9.0[10][Note 1]And at the time of occurrenceThe largest earthquake in the history of observation around Japan.

EpicenterIs vast,IwateFrom offshoreIbarakiApproximately 500, approximately 200 km north-south and 10 km east-west to the offshoresquare kilometer (kilometer2)[11][12].. maximum(I.e.Is Miyagi prefectureKuriharaObserved inSeismic intensity 7So, MiyagiFukushima・ Ibaraki ・TochigiWith 4 municipalities in 36 prefecturesSendai citySeismic intensity 1 upper was observed in 6 ward[13]..Maximum observedAccelerationIs Miyagi prefectureKuriharaK-NETBuilding (MYG004) 2,933 recorded at the stationGal[14].

Name

At 3:11 on the day of the outbreak (March 16)Japanese Meteorological AgencyBox'sSeismic phenomenonAgainst23 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake"(British: The 2011 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake)Whenname official[15].. In contrast,MediaAnd organizations / organizations focused on disasters (earthquakes) such as tsunamis and nuclear accidents caused by earthquakes, and arbitrarily used names such as "Great East Japan Earthquake" and "Great Tohoku Kanto Earthquake".

same year4/1ToJapanese goverment(Naoto Kan Cabinet) Is aroundCabinetAnd it was brought about by this earthquakedisaster(Earthquake) Is the name that points to ""Great East Japan EarthquakeAt that timePrime Minister OfNaoto KanAnnounced at a press conference following the establishment of the 23 budget[16][17][18]..After this, the earthquakephenomenon"Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake" and the resultdisasterThe two terms "Great East Japan Earthquake" that refer toEarthquake # Phenomenon name and earthquake nameSee).However, some media use the name "Great East Japan Earthquake" to refer to earthquakes and their activities.

The Japan Meteorological Agency asked, "Is the" Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake "the same as the" Great East Japan Earthquake "?"EarthquakeIt is the name of.The latter is ...disasterIt is the name of. Is answered[19].

The following are the main names of disasters that were used before the government unified the disaster names. Not only "major earthquake" but also "major earthquake" and "Huge earthquakeWas also used to refer to the earthquake.

Since the name of the earthquake was decided by the Cabinet, the Japanese Red Cross SocietyDonationThe reception account name has also changed.

In addition, it occurred in this earthquake(I.e.On the other hand, "Meiji Sanriku Tsunami (Earthquake) / Meiji Sanriku Tsunami" and "Showa" are partly centered on local newspapers.Sanriku tsunami(Earthquake) ”and“Heisei Sanriku Tsunami / Heisei Sanriku TsunamiIs used[46][47][48]..However, public institutions such as the government have not set a name (AomoriHachinohe CityからIwateVia the Pacific side ofMiyagi OfOshika PeninsulaFor up toRias coastAnd attachmentIslandsIs called the Sanriku coast, so it has the third highest number of victims.FukushimaIs it because there is no such thing or it joins Aomori prefecture where there are not many dead people).

damage

Due to this earthquake, the wave height is 10 in some places.Meters (m) AboveMaximum run-up height 40.1 mA huge tsunami that climbed up toTohoku regionKanto region OfThe Pacific OceanCatastrophic damage to the coast[49][50]..In addition to the huge tsunami, the shaking of the earthquakeLiquefaction phenomenon,Ground subsidence,damDue to the collapse ofHokkaidoFrom the south bank via the Tohoku regionTokyo BayDamage occurred in a vast area including the southern part of Kanto, and various typesInfrastructureWas shredded.

2020 years(Reiwa2 years)12/10At that time, 1 people were killed or missing due to the earthquake.[4],Building40 units in total[4]Has been officially confirmed.Approximately 47 evacuees during peak hours immediately after the earthquake[51],power failureOver 800 million households[52],Water outageOver 180 million households[53]Numerical values ​​such as are reported.Reconstruction AgencyAccording to the report, the number of evacuees as of February 2020, 4 is 8.[54]It is characteristic that evacuation has been prolonged.

The Government of Japan estimates that the amount of direct damage caused by the earthquake will be 16 to 25 trillion yen.[58]..This amount is 3 for Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima, which were heavily damaged.Prefecture OfPrefecture gross productComparable to the total of (Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeThen.HyogoIt was about half of the gross domestic product of one prefecture).World BankEstimatesNatural disastersIt is ranked first in history as the amount of economic loss due to[59].

casualties

National Police AgencyIs 2021 (ReiwaAs of March 3, 3 years, it has announced that there were 10 dead, 1 seriously and slightly injured, and 5899 missing persons reported to the police (but including unconfirmed information).aftershockIncluding those by)[4]..The total number of dead and missing people in Japan exceeded 1 due to natural disasters.Second World WarFor the first time after[60],MeijiEven laterGreat Kanto Earthquake,Meiji Sanriku EarthquakeIt was the second largest damage scale[5]..Injured in 3 prefectures in 1 prefecture and 1 road, and injured in 10 prefectures in 1 prefecture and 1 road, mainly in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures.[4]

Personal damage
(As of March 2021, 3)[4]
PrefecturesDeathMissingInjurymeter
00 /Total15,9002,5236,15724,582
01 /Hokkaido1-34
02 /Aomori30001112116
03 /Iwate4,6751,1112135,999
04 /Miyagi9,5431,2154,14514,903
05 /Akita--1111
06 /Yamagata2-2931
07 /Fukushima1,61401961831,993
08 /Ibaraki240001712737
09 /Tochigi4-133137
10 /Gunma1-4243
11 /Saitama--4545
12 /Chiba210002263286
13 /Tokyo8-117125
14 /Kanagawa4-138142
15 /Niigata--33
19 /Yamanashi--22
20 /Nagano--11
22 /Shizuoka--33
24 /Mie--11
39 /Kochi--11

Breakdown of the dead and cause of death

The National Police Agency will be in Iwate, Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures by March 2012, 3.AutopsyAnnounced details of 1 people.

age
  • 0-9 years old: 2.95% (496 people)
  • 10-19 years old: 2.65% (419 people)
  • 20-29 years old: 3.26% (515 people)
  • 30-39 years old: 5.37% (847 people)
  • 40-49 years old: 7.07% (1,116 people)
  • 50-59 years old: 11.93% (1,883 people)
  • 60-69 years old: 18.66% (2,945 people)
  • 70-79 years old: 23.81% (3,759 people)
  • 80 years old and over: 21.42% (3,381 people)
  • Age unknown: 2.48% (392 people)
Male [7,360 (46.62%)] Female [8,363 (52.98%)] Gender unknown [63 (0.40%)]
cause of death
Most of the deaths of the victims of this earthquake were water deaths caused by being involved in the tsunami.In the tsunami, there is a lot of sand and the seabedsludge, Port facilitiesheavy oilHazardous substances such as were contained.Foreign matter such as sandlungIf you entertracheaIf a toxic substance enters the lungs, it invades the body, and in that case it is of little help.The process leading to the death of water is that it makes breathing difficult, debris hits and loses consciousness, and in the snow of March.hypothermiaIt is probable that there were various circumstances such as accompanying.
Most of the deaths caused by crushing, injury, and burning are caused by debris caused by the tsunami.
The victims of the earthquake itself, such as the collapse of buildings, landslides, the fall of non-structural members of the ceiling, and the fall from high places, were 36 in Fukushima, 18 in Ibaraki, 13 in Miyagi, and Tokyo. There are 7 people, such as 90 people, just by knowing[61].

In the three prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima, there were 3 people as of June 2016, 6, whose arms and legs were found and their identities were identified, but they were not counted as dead due to the undiscovered head. For reasons such as "even if only the thumb is found, it does not mean that he is dead."Whether or not to exclude this number from the number of missing persons is divided among the three prefectures.[62][63].

Shizuoka UniversityThe Disaster Prevention Center summarizes the ratio of the number of dead and missing to the number of residents in the flooded area of ​​the tsunami.Meiji Sanriku EarthquakeCompared with.According to it, the largest is Miyagi prefectureOnagawa11.97%, followed by Iwate prefectureOtsuchi TownRikuzentakata CityBoth were 11.72%.Regarding the Meiji Sanriku Earthquake, the ratio of victims to the population of municipalities, not the flooded areas, was given, but Iwate PrefectureKamaishiIt has exceeded 50% in 11 municipalities, such as about 15%, and it is possible that this tsunami had a certain effect on disaster prevention measures.[64][65].

Earthquake-related death

In the Great East Japan EarthquakeShelterCases of death after evacuation due to unsanitary conditions or cold weather (Earthquake-related death) Is one after another, mainly among the elderly[66][67].Reconstruction AgencyThe death toll related to the earthquake is defined as "a person who died due to worsening injuries caused by the Great East Japan Earthquake and was eligible for the disaster-related condolence money payment based on the Act on Payment of Disaster Condolence Money, etc."[68]..According to the Reconstruction Agency, as of the end of September 20203,767(福島県2,313人、宮城県929人、岩手県469人など)が震災関連死に認定されている。死亡した時期別にみると、震災発生から1週間以内は472人、8日後以降1か月以内は743人、2か月目以降1年以内は1,587人で、5年目でも105人いる[69][70]..The number of deaths due to earthquake-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture exceeds the number of direct deaths due to earthquakes and tsunamis.[71]..Most of the earthquake-related deaths in Fukushima Prefecture are thought to be "nuclear-related deaths" that died due to the effects of evacuation from the nuclear accident, such as illness.Tokyo NewspaperAs of March 2016, at least 3 people in Fukushima Prefecture had nuclear-related deaths.[72].

Nuclear power plant accident

Approximately one hour after the earthquake, a tsunami with a run-up height of 1-14m struck.TEPCOFukushima Daiichi nuclear power plantLost all AC power at Units 1-5.ReactorCan no longer be cooled, and in No. 1, No. 2, and No. 3 furnacesCore melt(Meltdown) occurs.massiveRadioactive materialSerious with leaksNuclear accidentDeveloped into (→Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident).This accidentInternational Nuclear Event Rating ScaleWorst level 7,Chernobyl nuclear power plant accidentIt is positioned in the same way as.Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear power plant is locatedHamadoriThe evacuation of Fukushima residents in the surrounding area, mainly in rural areas, has been prolonged, and since 2012, it has been a “difficult-to-return area”.[73]"Restricted residence area[74]Was also set (→Impact of Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station).others,Thermal power plantThe Kanto region under the jurisdiction of TEPCO is serious because of the damage caused by such things.electricityDue to a shortage, it was the first time in 65 years in Japan for a period immediately after the earthquake.Planned power outageWas carried out[75]..Rolling blackoutsTohoku Electric PowerIn addition to being carried out immediately after the earthquake in the jurisdiction, the next day2012Before the summerKansai Electric PowerEven in the jurisdictionOhi Power StationThere was debate over the restart of (Oi Nuclear Power Plant), and the possibility of rolling blackouts was discussed.

In addition to Fukushima Daiichi, the following nuclear power plants were located in the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake.Both are serious as a resultNuclear disasterHowever, the loss of external power supply, damage to the emergency generator, and the seawater pump for cooling the reactor[Note 2]Some power plants were forced to one step before a serious nuclear disaster, such as damage to the power plant.Of these, the Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station lost its cooling function, just like the Daiichi Nuclear Power Station.Article 10 report based on the Act on Special Measures Concerning Nuclear Emergency Preparedness,Nuclear emergency declarationIt was announced.

Building

警察庁は2020年12月10日時点、全壊・家屋流失12万1992戸、半壊28万2920戸、全半焼297戸、床上浸水1628戸、床下浸水1万0076戸、一部破損73万0392戸の被害が出たと発表している[4]..Especially in the coastal areas of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures, many houses were washed away by the tsunami, and the number of completely destroyed or lost houses was 1 in Iwate prefecture, 9508 in Miyagi prefecture, and 8 in Fukushima prefecture. As many as 3005 households[4].

Various facilities

Chiba市 原 市of"Cosmo OilChiba Refinery "FUELThe tank explodes and burns[76], Due to this influence in the neighborhoodDepleted uraniumFire spread to storage facility[77]In addition, in the Tohoku region and Ibaraki, there are manyRefinery,工場The operation was stopped due to the disaster.industryIt had a wide impact on the world.In addition, many educational facilities in Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Kanto suffered damage such as damage to buildings and flooding.[78].Agency for Cultural AffairsConfirmed damage byCultural propertyWas 744[79].

Supply chain damage

  • Manufactures fuel injection systems for automobiles, etc.KeihinWas damaged, and four local suppliers were damaged.Was being suppliedHondaWas temporarily suspended.
  • Has a domestic market share of XNUMX% for automobile engine oil sealsNOKFukushima Factory (Fukushima) Was damaged.There was no particular damage, but the operation was suspended for about 20 days due to the suspension of infrastructure.
  • Silicon wafer6 factories with a global share of 2%Shin-Etsu SemiconductorShirakawa Factory (Fukushima Prefecture)Saigo Village)WhenSUMCOYonezawa Office (YamagataYonezawa) Has stopped operation.
  • For carsMicrocomputer[Note 3]MajorRenesas ElectronicsNaka Factory (Ibaraki Prefecture)Hitachinaka City) Was damaged.It was said that it would take one to two years to recover, but a total of 1 people cooperated with the support from the finished car makers and semiconductor manufacturing equipment makers, and they recovered in 2 days.
  • Produces 3% of architectural glassAsahi GlassThere is a Kashima factory (later AGC) (Kashima Seaside Industrial Area) Was damaged andKamisu CityThe private port in was also destroyed.
  • The largest tire factory in JapanSumitomo Rubber IndustriesShirakawa Factory (Fukushima Prefecture)Shirakawa) Was destroyed.
  • Produce 80 tons (t) of paper per dayNippon Paper IndustriesThe Ishinomaki factory was damaged.Besides, Iwanuma Factory (Miyagi Prefecture)Iwanuma City), Nakoso Factory (Fukushima Prefecture)Iwaki) Was also damaged.In addition, the tsunami caused paper to flow, and cracks occurred like the soil in a rice field that had dried up mixed with mud.[80].
  • It is the primary raw material for Japanese petrochemical products.ethylene1% (80 tons) ofMitsubishi Chemical(Currently Mitsubishi Chemical) Kashima Plant (Ibaraki Plant) was damaged and was affected by the fire at Cosmo Oil Chiba Refinery.Maruzen PetrochemicalEthylene production at the Chiba Plant has stopped.KashimaComplexHas more than 20 factories that receive ethylene supply from Mitsubishi Chemical.
  • 98% of the domestic distribution of "Chiradin S", a treatment for hypothyroidism, was manufactured and sold.Asuka PharmaceuticalThe Iwaki factory was damaged and production stopped.
  • Kirin BeerThe Sendai factory was damaged and it took a year to start full-scale operation.
  • Mitsubishi paperHachinohe Factory (Aomori Prefecture)Hachinohe City) Was damaged.Restoration is November.
  • Nissan MotorThe Iwaki factory was damaged and will be restored in May.

Liquefaction and land subsidence

In a wide range of Kanto and Tohoku regionsLiquefaction phenomenonOccurs, Chiba PrefectureChibaMihama-Urayasu city-Katori-Abiko,TokyoKoto-Edogawa,Kanagawa横 浜 市 OfHakkeijimaSurroundings, Hitachinaka City, Ibaraki PrefectureItako City,Miyagi PrefectureOsaki OfEai RiverIn the surrounding area, the slope of the building, water outage, etc.gasSuspension of supply,Paddy fieldDamage such as sedimentation on the ground occurred[81][82][83]..Tokyo BayLandfillFrom northeastern Chiba prefecture to Ibaraki prefectureDeerTo the southern part of the regionTone RiverAlong (MizugoDamage in the zone) was conspicuous, and damage also occurred in areas that were recognized by the local government as having a low risk of liquefaction.[81].

Due to the earthquake on the Pacific coast from the Tohoku region to the northern part of the Kanto regionGround subsidenceBycoastal,EstuaryThere is a risk of flooding or flooding in the vicinity[84]..In Shiotomi-cho, Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture,high tideSometimes the whole town is submerged[85]..In addition, due to the tsunami, 6 in 2 prefectures in Tohoku and KantoHaAgricultural land has been washed away or flooded,Salt damageAs a result, the removal of debris and the removal of salt from the soil were promoted.[86][87][88].

火災

330 fires broke out, mainly in Miyagi prefecture, which was heavily damaged by the tsunami.[89][90]..Of these, 159 cases (about 40%) of the causes of fire broke out.Tsunami fire[91], About 30%Electric fireMet[92]..It was also used as a light during evacuation during a power outage.candleThere are also reports of deaths due to fires from[93]..Besides, debris that had accumulated days to weeks laterBacteriaDue tofermentationHeat and ignite[94]Cases and vehicles flooded with seawaterElectrical equipmentThere have also been reports of cases where the part deteriorated and ignited.[93].

Tsunami fire
Buildings and vehicles collapsed by the great tsunami are pushed into the inland area as debris, and debris is contained in petroleum fuel for heating at the edges of flooded areas and where it is accumulated (accumulated) due to the influence of topography and wind.kerosene-heavy oil) The combustible material leaked from the tank, gas cylinder, or fuel tank for automobiles ignited due to some kind of spark.In particular, the seamlessly piled up debris spread the fire from the urban area to the forest.In addition, the spreading debris drifted over the sea and spread to the opposite bank and distant places.[93]..From the results of interviews with residents and firefighters, it was difficult to secure firefighting water use and transportation at the tsunami fire site, and to avoid secondary damage involved in the tsunami and the spread of fire, the fire extinguishing work was stopped. There was a situation where the site had to be abandoned, and the fire spread rapidly.[95].
Earthquake fire
Similar to the fires caused by earthquakes that occurred in the past, heating appliances, cooking utensils, electrical wiring, and damaged electrical appliances in collapsed houses and buildings ignited after the power was restored (recovery), resulting in a fire.[93].

Transportation

道路

The National Police Agency has announced that as of December 2019, 12, there were 10 road damages.[4]..Iwate PrefectureYamada TownFunakoshi Peninsula and Miyagi PrefectureMinamisanriku Town,Oshika PeninsulaAt least 3 people were isolated in the three prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima because the roads leading to them were cut off.[96][97][98]..Also, in Ibaraki prefectureKitauraSpanRokko BridgePart of[99].Shuto ExpresswayButWangan LineDamage occurred mainly in[100], The viaduct was damagedShinkibaDoorway-- Kasai JunctionMarch 3nd,Daikoku JunctionThe access road was closed until March 3th.

East Japan Expressway(NEXCO East Japan) JurisdictionhighwayThen, it was closed on a wide range of routes.Tohoku Expressway OfUrawa interchange - Ikariseki interchangewhile,Akita Expressway-Kamaishi Expressway-Hachinohe ExpresswayPart ofJoban Expressway OfMisato JunctionNorth[Note 4],Banetsu Expressway OfTsugawa interchangeEast and so onPublic Safety CommissionByEmergency traffic routeSpecified toEmergency vehicleDedicated[101].. The road closure was lifted at 3 o'clock on March 24, and general vehicles were allowed to pass.[102], Joban ExpresswayHirono Interchange - Tokiwa Tomioka InterchangeIn the meantime, the old Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accidentWarning areaHowever, on February 2014, 2, it was reopened for the first time in three years (traffic resumed).Joban-Tomioka Interchange originally scheduled for 22- Soma interchangeDuring that time, the opening was postponed.In addition, outside the old caution areaMinamisoma InterchangeThe north was opened in advance on April 2012, 4.afterwards,Namie Interchange --Between the Minamisoma interchange2014December 12, Joban-Tomioka Interchange-Namie Interchange20153/1The Joban Expressway was fully opened on this day.

Tohoku Regional Development BureauTo help coastal citiesComb tooth strategyWas executed.

As of June 2019, Fukushima PrefectureNamie TownDue to the tsunami on the road near the old Ukedo Elementary SchoolasphaltThe displacement (displacement to the sea side) of the surface layer of is clearly left.The places where traces of the tsunami caused by the XNUMX off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake can be seen in this way are extremely limited, and it is also valuable in fields such as disaster prevention learning.[103].

Train

East Japan Railway(JR East) In the jurisdictionTohoku ShinkansenThen,Sendai StationSuch as onestationWas damaged[104],Telephone pole,Overhead wire,viaduct OfPierAbout 1,100 parts were damaged[105]. Also,Kesennuma Lineな どConventional line7 stations were washed away in 23 lines,lineWas washed away for about 60 kilometers.[106].

Sanriku Railway TheNorth Rias LineMinami-Rias LineHowever, due to the outflow of the railroad track and the collapse of the viaduct, the entire line was temporarily closed.After that, restoration work was carried out and business was resumed in sequence.[107], The South Rias Line on April 2014, 4, and the North Rias Line on the following 5th resumed commercial operation in all sections.[108].. other than this,Sendai AirportDue to the tsunami that rushed toSendai Airport Railway Sendai Airport Line OfSendai Airport StationWas also severely damaged.

Immediately after the earthquake, JR EastShinkansenAnd the operation of the conventional line is suspended all day, KantoCapital AreaThen.Private railwaysubwayAll lines have stopped operating[109]..For this reason, it became difficult to return home from work.People who have difficulty returning homeEstimated about 515 million people in the metropolitan area[110]Of these, more than 11 people in the waiting area prepared by the local government[111][112], Public facilities such as the national government were also opened as waiting places, and many stayed there until the transportation was restored.[113]..For the restart time of each railway line in the metropolitan area, see "People who have difficulty returning home due to the Great East Japan Earthquake # Impact on railway companies in the Tokyo metropolitan areaSee.Also, from March 3thPlanned power outageDue to the influence ofSuspension, Reduced flights, etc.[114][115][116].

aviation

Sendai Airport TheRunwayWas flooded by the tsunamiAirport terminal buildingWas also severely damaged, so the takeoff and landing was stopped.[117][118]..The tsunami completely submerged the ground floor, leaving about 1 people waiting for help isolated, but almost all were rescued on the 1,200th.[119]..In addition to the terminal building, airport equipment and work vehicles were also severely damaged.The tsunami almost wiped out the aircraft parked at the airport and under maintenance in the ground facility.[Note 5]..Some of these damaged aircraftJapan Coast GuardIt includes a large number of aircraft belonging to the Sendai Air Base of the XNUMXnd Regional Coast Guard Headquarters.

From December 4Japan AirlinesReopened for the first time in a month on some domestic flights[120], Resumed regular domestic flights on July 7 for the first time in about four and a half months[121].. The airport building was completely restored on September 9, and regular international flights were resumed.[122]..To restore the function of Sendai AirportMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIn addition to promoting natural drainage by removing obstacles such as drainage channels, 25 drainage pump vehicles deployed nationwide by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism will be collected, and from March 3th, a wide range of inundation elimination will be prioritized and maneuvered. Implemented[123].

Hanamaki Airport(Iwate Prefecture) suspended regular flights because it was impossible for passengers to respond for the time being, and resumed operations at 3:11 on March 18, targeting only emergency transportation.Misawa Airport(Aomori Prefecture) also resumed operation at 18:50.Fukushima AirportWas operational as a replacement for the closed Sendai Airport, although the tower glass was completely destroyed.Kansai,Sapporo(Hokkaido) Will be operated as a special flight.Yamagata AirportWas suspended due to a power outage, but resumed operation from 3 o'clock on March 12, and temporarily started operation 4 hours a day.[124]..Ibaraki PrefectureOmitama City OfIbaraki AirportA part of the ceiling of the terminal building has fallen[125].. The airport was closed on March 3, and all flights were canceled.[126]..Ibaraki Airport resumed regular flights from 14th, and Hanamaki Airport also resumed terminal building operations on 17th.[127].

A seismic intensity meter in the airport recorded a seismic intensity of 5 or higher, and many international aircraft that flew long distances and had little fuel remaining were heading.[Note 6]Narita International Airport(Chiba Prefecture) and recorded a seismic intensity of over 5Tokyo International Airport(Haneda Airport) stopped all takeoffs and landings immediately after the earthquake for safety confirmation and closed the airport, so 86 aircraft heading for both airports could not get off.Chubu International Airport(Aichi) AndKIX(Osaka),New Chitose Airport(Hokkaido)Yokota baseTo (Tokyo)Alternative landingbottom.Ibaraki Airport also accepts two aircraft because there was no abnormality on the runway and because it is shared by the Self-Defense Forces, it can receive assistance from the Air Self-Defense Force in the event of an emergency.[Note 7]..Of these, 14 aircraft issued a "state of emergency" due to lack of fuel.Although some facilities at Haneda Airport were confirmed to be damaged, safety was confirmed and reopened within the day.Passenger terminalThe reopening of Narita Airport, which suffered damage to some of the facilities and facilities, was carried over to the morning of the 12th.but,Keisei Electric RailwayAnd JR East will be suspended until the afternoon of the 12th, and between the city center of TokyoLimousine busTo Narita Airport, such as suspension of service until the night of the 12thPublic transportAccess was temporarily cut off.After the accident at Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power StationInternational Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO),International Air Transport Association (IATA), andwho (WHO) has issued a statement stating that there are no health risks associated with traveling to Japan.[128]in spite of,Lufthansa,Alitalia-Italian AirlinesSome foreign airlines, such as, have switched flights to and from Narita Airport to Chubu International Airport and Kansai International Airport for fear of the effects of radiation and aftermath.

輸送

Due to the earthquake道路・ Railroad tracks, etc.TransportationBecause the net was damagedPost,transportIt has a big influence on such things.

oil

Located on the Pacific coast of Tohoku and Kita-Kantou due to the impact of the earthquake 2Refinery(JX Nippon Oil Energy Sendai Refinery,Kashima Oil Kashima Refinery) And 16 refineries have all been shut down or unable to be shipped, 7 of the 4 refineries in the Keihin / Chiba area have also been shut down, and the domestic crude oil processing capacity (about 450 million BD) is about 3 It decreased by a percentage (about 140 million BD).In addition, about 6 service stations in the 220 prefectures of Tohoku became difficult to operate due to the disaster, and for the transportation of petroleum products.Tank truckA great deal of damage occurred, including the damage to about 150 vehicles.[129]As a result, the disaster area suffered a serious fuel shortage.

The government initiallyoilBeing distracted by the production volume of oil, the response to the oil logistics problem was delayed.[130].. It's March 3thMari EedaMinister of Economy, Trade and Industry"Tank truckWest JapanWe will move 300 units from. "On the same dayJR freightByJX Nikko Nisseki Energy Negishi RefineryFrom the railway line on the Sea of ​​Japan sideMorioka Freight Terminal StationOil trains will be operated to. On March 3JNR DD51 type diesel locomotiveDouble headingAtBanetsu West LineOil transportation to the Koriyama Oil Terminal via the route was also carried out.[131].. September 3thSendai PortEntered the portJMSDF OfTransport shipOsumi keroseneenterDrumIn addition to transporting 70 bottles (14kl), on March 3stSendai Shiogama PortShiogama Minato Ward OfOil depotThe first oil tanker is arriving at the port.In addition, provisional routes were secured at the 3 damaged ports by March 23, and emergency supplies could be brought in from the sea.[132].

Water

Immediately after the earthquake, there were at least 4 million households in 17 prefectures, covering a wide area from Hokkaido to Aichi prefecture, centering on the four prefectures of Miyagi, Iwate, Fukushima, and Ibaraki.Water outageThere has occurred.Made by local water companiesJapan Water Works AssociationIs a national emergencyWater truckRequested about 210 units to be dispatched to the disaster areas in both the Tohoku and Kanto regions[133].Central part,Kinki,Chugoku,Shikoku,KyusyuWater trucks of local governments mainly on the western Japan side were dispatched to the disaster area.

logistics

More than 100 stations mainly in the Tohoku regionpost officeThere has been great damage such as the complete destruction of the building and flooding.Nagano Prefecture Northern EarthquakeDamage was caused to about 600 post offices, including those caused by the damage and those with a small scale of damage.[134][135].. other than thisSimple post office, Postal network facilities such as collection and delivery centers, and those engaged in postal services at those facilities have also suffered a lot of damage.[134][135].Kanpo no YadoThe tsunami rushed to the 3rd floor of Matsushima, but moved to the 130th floor with more than 4 evacuees, and all were rescued on the 12th.[134]..In addition, delivery of mail becomes difficult in Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, and Ibaraki prefectures, and Hokkaido, Tohoku 6 prefectures, and Ibaraki prefectures are the senders and destinations.home deliveryCanceled the underwriting of[136].

Yamato TransportOn March 3th, it stopped receiving and collecting all products to Hokkaido and the six prefectures of Tohoku and receiving low-temperature delivery services to the Kanto region.[137].Sagawa ExpressAlso postponed the collection for Hokkaido / Tohoku and the partial collection for Kanto.[138].Nippon YusenIt is,FreighterThree ships were hit by the tsunami in Fukushima Prefecture[137]..All have been resumed later, but no delivery within the caution area is possible.

E-commerceMajorAmazon JapanSuspended the express delivery service and stopped the delivery of goods to Hokkaido and Tohoku due to the earthquake damage in the company's distribution equipment.[139]..Although it was resumed later, delivery within the caution area is still impossible.[When?].

electricity

Immediately after the earthquakeTohoku Electric PowerWithin the jurisdiction, there are 440 million units in total in Aomori, Iwate, and Akita prefectures, almost all areas in Yamagata and Miyagi prefectures, and part of Fukushima prefecture, and 404 units in the entire area of ​​Ibaraki prefecture within the TEPCO jurisdiction.power failure official[52]..After that, TEPCO resolved the power outage by 3:19 on March 1.Within the Tohoku Electric Power jurisdiction, the number of households with power outages decreased to 4 by 7:16 on April 16, but 7 million households lost power again immediately after the aftershock that occurred on the night of April 401.[140].

pluralPower plantDue to the power shortage caused by the suspension of power outages, the areas within the TEPCO jurisdiction will be divided and power outages will occur in order.Rotational blackout(Rolling blackouts) were carried out until March 3th.In the summer, power shortages are expected again due to rising power demand, so large consumers are obliged to save 28% or more within the jurisdiction of TEPCO and Tohoku Electric Power.Electricity usage restriction orderWas activated, and rolling blackouts were avoided by efforts to save electricity.However, due to the impact of the accident, each area that entered the regular inspectionNuclear power plantSince the local government no longer approves the restart of the nuclear power plant, nuclear power plants nationwide have stopped operating one after another.Kansai Electric Power,Kyushu Electric Power,Hokkaido Electric PowerHowever, power saving was called for due to power shortage mainly in summer and winter.

communication

of AsiacommunicationAt each companyインターネット,TelUsed forSubmarine cableWas partially damaged[141].East Nippon Telegraph and Telephone(NTT East) was affected by the earthquake, and telephone calls were concentrated.switchSince there was a risk of exceeding the processing capacity of the above, a maximum of 90% call restriction was implemented.Also around the disaster areaPublic phoneMade available for free[142].NTT DoCoMo・ Tohoku branch officeMobile phoneFree charging andSatellite mobile phoneProvided services such as lending.Mobile phones that have stopped functioning due to a power outagebase stationWas continuously operated by the built-in private power generation, but the fuel of the private power generation facility was exhausted due to the long power outage, and the wave stopped one after another and the communication service stopped.[143]..Therefore, movePower carAnd portable typeGeneratorDeployed[144].

At mobile communication companiesCommunication failureCauses a situation where it is difficult to connect to the phone, and about voice callsNTT DoCoMoThen 90%,KDDIThen 95%,SOFTBANK TELECOMImplemented 70% communication regulation[143]..I used the Internet while the communication restrictions for voice calls continued.情报The exchange became active.TwitterSuch asSocial networking services On (SNS), you can call on the victims, volunteer, andHumanitarian assistanceCall forDoctorHealth counseling was held by.In addition, while there is a risk of power outage due to the lack of electricity supply capacity of TEPCO,Power savingThere was also an activity calling for[145]..On the other hand, because of the ease of exchanging informationFalse rumorA lot of information was sent and it became a problem.[146].

In addition, some amateur radios performed emergency communications at 7030KHz, and cooperated in information transmission.

Religious

Traditional religion-New religionBoth have been damaged by the facility.ShrineThere were 4,818 damage reports, including the total or partial destruction of the main shrine.[147].. country'sRegistered tangible cultural propertyMetFukushima Church of the Japanese Christian ChurchWas demolished after the disaster due to the huge repair costs.

Religious corporationAnd religious people have started to support the victims immediately after the earthquake, providing money and supplies.BelieversVolunteers and the opening of religious facilities as shelters continued.A lot of new religionsDonationThere is also a place that issued[148].

Religious scholarTetsuo YamaoriIt is,Goro HashimotoIn a sense, in a dialogue withEnd lawWhen asked about the role of religion in the post-earthquake world, "Great Hanshin Earthquake(1995) In both the Great East Japan Earthquake, religious people were at the same level as volunteers, even if they worked hard. " "Social MediaIs bloated and the words of religious people are not reaching the modern people, but I wanted them to say solid words. "[149].

Damage status by region

Due to the Great East Japan Earthquake, a large number of line of duty deaths have occurred.Hundreds of people were killed by the tsunami, including 262 firefighters and firefighters, 25 police officers, and two SDF personnel, as well as officials, faculty, and staff of medical institutions and nursing homes. Became.

In particular, many people died as firefighters who play the role of local disaster prevention support volunteers.[Note 8]So, the time of occurrence is the daytime on weekdays, and during the time from the earthquake to the tsunami, you can engage in work such as closing tide embankments and water gates according to the disaster prevention manual, guide residents to evacuate, collect information, and delay escape. 254 fire brigade members (as of September 2012, 9) who were on the way to the station to rescue the inhabitants or respond to a disaster died or went missing.[150][151][152].

As of 2011:7 (JST) on July 14, 15, there were 100 municipalities in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefectures with a total of 22 or more dead and missing.[153].

Aomori

The number of dead in Aomori Prefecture was 1 in Hachinohe City and 2 in Misawa City, for a total of 3 people, and the number of missing people was 1 in Hachinohe City.Both are due to the tsunami caused by the earthquake.There were a total of 18 injured, 77 seriously injured and 95 slightly injured.

私立学校関係の被害は、3市町16校(園)に及び、その被害額は約9,000万円であった。このうち、幼稚園が1市7園、約300万円、中学校が1市1校、8万円、高等学校が1市5校、約8,500万円、専修学校が3市町3校、約200万円となっている。

The amount of damage related to the prefectural office was about 100 million yen.this house,Prefectural officeIs about 50 yen, and the joint government building is about 50 yen.In the prefectural office, the south and east buildings were cracked in the corridors and the floor was partially damaged, and the west wing multi-story parking lot was also damaged to the extent that vehicles could not be stored.At the joint government buildingMutsuDamage was seen in the joint government building, and the main ones were cracks in the walls.

Regarding waste treatment facilities, the underground pump room of two human waste treatment facilities of the Hachinohe area wide area municipal office association was flooded by the tsunami, and the damage amount was about 2 million yen.[154].

Iwate

Most of the damage in Iwate Prefecture was caused by the tsunami.Since the damage was particularly large, along with Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures3 affected prefecturesCollectively referred to as.

The coastal area of ​​Iwate Prefecture is close to the coastline, and the flat land is narrow, so the area flooded by the tsunami is 58 km.2It was the smallest in the three prefectures.However, due to the widespread fishing port and urban area on the narrow flat land, the population of the flooded area is about 3, and the flooded area has a population of about 11.The population densityIs 1,900 people/km2It was the largest in the three prefectures.

Tsunami height increases in the central and southern part of the prefectureRias coastTherefore, it is a tsunami-prone area and measures against tsunami (breakwater-Seawall) Was the largest in Japan.Past tsunami folklore and stone monuments (Natural disaster tradition monument) Remained everywhere, and the residents were highly aware of disaster prevention, and many people took evacuation actions, but the tsunami, which was much larger than expected, caused enormous damage.

Rikuzentakata CityThen, most of the designated shelters such as the civic center and the civic gymnasium are almostceilingMost of the evacuees died and the entire city was devastated.A little less than 4 people were killed, including 27 people killed in the flooding up to the 1,800th floor at Takada Hospital.City officials too13A weak 113 people were killed, and the casualty rate for the flooded population is Miyagi Prefecture.OnagawaIt was the second highest, at 11.72%, which was the same rate as Otsuchi Town.

Otsuchi TownThen, of the 60 staff members who were preparing for the disaster response headquarters at the government office, they were the mayor at that time.Hiroaki Kato[155]A little less than 30 people were killed, including more than 1,300 people died.There was also a fire.The casualty rate for the inundated area population was the second highest after Onagawa Town in Miyagi Prefecture, at 11.72%, the same rate as Rikuzentakata City.

KamaishiThen, tsunami evacuation training was also conducted at the Unosumai District Disaster Prevention Center, which was originally a facility mainly for evacuation after a disaster, so 244 people were evacuated (most likely) and 210 people were killed. About 1,050 people were killed.FormerNippon Steel Kamaishi Rugby ClubWas a player and chairman of the Kamaishi Rugby UnionMasafumi Sano,[156],Masters Athletics104-year-old who had a world record inTakashi ShimokawaraWas also sacrificed[157]. Also,Guinness World RecordsThe deepest in the world that was also certifiedKamaishi harbor entrance breakwaterWas destroyed[158]..While the Unosumai area was a tragedy that accounted for more than half of the victims in the city, there was also a partial success of tsunami education called "Kamaishi's miracle (event)".Municipal Kamaishi Higashi Junior High SchoolThen, immediately after the earthquake, the students started to run to the evacuation site at their own discretion, and when they saw it, they were adjacent to each other.Unosumai SmallThe children continued.After arriving at the nursing care facility at the first evacuation site and confirming the safety of all the members by line-up roll call, the junior high school students pulled the hands of the elementary school students and ran to higher ground under the education that was not bound by the assumption, and the local residents saw it. Also followed.The school was hit by a tsunami with a height of more than 10 m, and the first floor of the nursing care facility at the first evacuation site was submerged, but all about 1 students who went to school on the day were safe.[159]Met.In addition, the long-term care facility side, which saw the students evacuating further up, had moved the residents on the first floor to the third floor, so there were no casualties.

Yamada TownIn the long-term care health facility "Seaside Karo", 74 residents and 14 staff members died, and more than 750 people were killed.In addition to the tsunami, a big fire broke out.Former Funakoshi VillageThen, I had moved to a higher ground in the past, but as the memory of the tsunami faded, houses began to stand in the lowlands.[160].

Miyako cityTaro districtA huge tide embankment with a total length of 2433 m and a height of 10 m above sea level surrounds the area like a castle wall, and the inhabitants call it the Great Wall of China and declare it a "tsunami disaster prevention town". However, more than 185 people were killed, including the death of 500 people in the entire district due to the destruction and overflow of the tsunami.

Ofunato CityThen, 62 people died at the special nursing home for the elderly "Sanriku-no-en", and a total of more than 400 people were killed.

Besides this,Noda,TanohataBut it suffered a great deal of damage.

Miyagi

Miyagi prefecture was the closest to the epicenter and was a severe earthquake along with Fukushima and Ibaraki prefectures.As for the damage caused by the tsunami, the flooded area is 327 km.2And the inundated area has a population of about 33, both of which are the largest in the three prefectures, so only in Miyagi prefecture.Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeHas caused more casualties.

The northern part of the prefecture is a tsunami-prone area because it is a rias-type coast where the tsunami height increases like the central and southern coast of Iwate prefecture, and measures against tsunami (breakwaters and tide embankments) were taken.The traditions of past tsunamis and stone monuments remained everywhere, and the residents were highly conscious of disaster prevention, and many people took evacuation actions.

The central and southern part of the prefecture was a monotonous coastline, but the water depth was shallow.Sendai TaiwanThe speed of the tsunami slowed down, and the later tsunami caught up and the tsunami height increased.It took an hour before the attack due to the slowdown, but the past tsunami was hundreds of years ago in the central and southern regions compared to the northern region, and the tsunami was hit by an unimaginable tsunami while the residents' awareness was low.Due to the wide plain, it was flooded several kilometers inland and suffered great damage.

Kesennuma CityThen, 59 people died at the Long-Term Care Health Facility "Riverside Haruno" and 12 people died on a hill 93 m above sea level where the residents of the Sugishita area evacuated, and the number of victims reached more than 1,350.In addition, the tsunami caused the fuel tank for fishing boats to collapse, causing heavy oil to spill over a wide area, causing a fire and a major fire that continued to burn all night.A large amount of debris on fireKesennuma BayFloating inside, it is the largest manned island in Tohoku(I.e.It burned down, and the islanders stopped the spread of fire. "Tsunami fireSee also.

Minamisanriku TownSo, it ’s a three-story building.Disaster prevention measures office buildingForty-two town officials, such as being submerged to the rooftop of the building, are five stories high.Public Shizugawa HospitalWas submerged near the ceiling on the 4th floor, and 107 out of 72 inpatients and 3 staff members died.also,Above sea levelMore than 15 people were killed, including 1 people who died when the first floor of the special nursing home for the elderly "Jieen", which was on a hill of 49 m, was submerged.

Onagawa is the closest to the epicenterRias coastA fierce tsunami struck the town, and the center was almost submerged to a height of 20 m above sea level, and the collapse of the reinforced building was conspicuous due to the strong pulling waves.The first floor of the designated evacuation center, Onagawa Hospital (Onagawa Regional Medical Center), was completely submerged even though it was on a hill 16 meters above sea level.XNUMX BankAt the Onagawa branch, 13 employees who had been evacuated to the roof were washed away and 12 died. The number of victims was about 900, and the casualty rate to the inundated area population was 11.97%, which was the highest in the disaster.On the other hand, in the 5-story Lifelong Learning Center, although it was submerged near the roof, it was sealed with iron doors and had no windows.boilerA little less than 30 people evacuated to the room were safe.

IshinomakiHas caused more than 3,700 casualties, the highest number in the disaster.

Old on the ria coast in the northeastern part of the cityOgachi Town, OldKitakami Town, OldKawakitaThe coast was almost completely destroyed.Ogatsu BayThe three-story Ogatsu Hospital, located in the innermost cove of the hospital, struggled to carry inpatients to the rooftop, but the tsunami that exceeded the rooftop caused all 3 inpatients and 40 staff members. 30 dead or missing[161],Kitakami River OfEstuaryAt the Ishinomaki City Kitakami General Branch on the north side, only 57 of the 3 staff and evacuees were survivors.The tsunami runs up with a tremendous force while flooding the Kitakami River, and is located 5 km upstream.Ishinomaki City Okawa Elementary SchoolIn (former Hebei Town), 78 children and 11 staff members who had been evacuated on foot were washed away, and only 4 children and 1 staff member were saved.[162][163].

The southern part of the city was the former Ishinomaki city, and in Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima, the largest urban area with about 12 people spread out facing the sea.For this reason, the number of victims is large, and it is difficult to move around the city.TransportationTraffic jamWas swallowed by the tsunami as it was, and many people were killed.Was the former mayorKimio DoiWas also sacrificed[164].

Higashi Matsushima CityThen 36% of the city area was flooded.In the Nobiru area, the tsunami that rushed from Sendai Bay (Ishinomaki Bay) on the east side crossed a little less than 2 kilometers inland, and on the west side.Matsushima BayFlowed into.About 13 people were killed in the Nobiru and Omagari districts, including the deaths of 56 people in the gymnasium of Nobiru Elementary School and 1,100 residents of the special nursing home for the elderly "Furuen".Japan Air Self-Defense ForceMatsushima BaseIt was also flooded and many aircraft were damaged.On the other hand, in the Nobiru area, Yoshifumi Sato, a civilian, spent 10 years building an evacuation staircase and an evacuation hut on the rocky mountain behind his house.Residents in the neighborhood treated Sato as a stranger, saying, "The tsunami can't come this far," and called this shelter ".Mt. SatoAs a result, about 70 people escaped the damage from the tsunami.[165][166].

Tagajo CityIs in SendaiBed townThere were many large suburban stores along the two large arterial roads.The eastern Sunaoshi River faces the seaEstuaryIt was only a small part of the city, and even the citizens were less aware that it was a city of the sea, and those outside the city who passed through the arterial road were even less aware.A tsunami suddenly struck between the buildings while the road was heavily congested due to the turmoil of the earthquake.The number of victims was less than 2, mainly in the cars on the two arterial roads, and half of them lived outside the city.

Sendai cityIs 104.7 million (2011)3/1Estimated population[167]To holdGovernment-designated cityIt was, but in the coastal areaSendai PlainMost of the development is limitedUrbanization control areaAnd because the countryside was widespread[168], There was almost no inundation in the densely populated areas.However, it is the main settlement in the coastal area.Wakabayashi WardArahama district andMiyagino WardNakano Gamo district was destroyed, and againSendai PortThe number of victims was more than 800, mainly in the industrial and commercial areas of the area.In Wakabayashi Ward, 60% of the area was flooded, and the state of flooding the countryside to 3-4 km inland was photographed by an NHK helicopter, and it was widely reported.Located in ArahamaSendai City Fire HeliportWas also damaged, and equipment other than the two helicopters that took off before the arrival of the tsunami became unusable, so relocation to the inland area is planned.

Natori CityThen 27% of the city area was flooded.The city center was inland, but on the coastYuriageA little less than 1,000 people were killed, including catastrophic damage to the district.A large truck collapsed due to the shaking of the earthquake at Yuriage Bridge, causing an accident that killed a passenger car driver in the oncoming lane and closing the road, causing traffic congestion in the area, which also contributed to the increase in casualties. rice field.Sendai AirportThe flooding of the runway was widely reported at home and abroad.

Iwanuma City48% of the city area is flooded and less than 200 peopleWatari TownBut 48% of the town was flooded and less than 300 people were killed.Like Sendai and Natori, the city center was inland, but the coastal settlements were destroyed.Former in Watari TownWomen's footballAthlete'sEriko Sato[169]Was also sacrificed.

Yamamoto TownThen 38% of the town area was flooded.82 people were killed in the care house attached to the nursing home "Umekaen", and Joban Yamamotodriving school5 shuttle buses were drunk by the tsunami, killing 39 trainees and instructors, etc.[170], A little less than 700 people were killed.

other than this,Shichigahama TownBut it suffered a great deal of damage.

on the other hand,Matsushima Town,ShiogamaThe damage was minor compared to the surrounding local governments.this isUrato IslandsAnd in the backMatsushima BayIt is presumed that the islands in the area alleviated and dispersed the power of the tsunami.[171]..However, it was only minor compared to the surroundings, and there was no change in the flooding of the houses and the casualties.

Akita

AkitaThe damage was 6 buildings that were partially damaged and 12 injured.The only prefecture in the 6 prefectures of Tohoku that has no deathsIt became.

Yamagata

YamagataThe damage was 3 dead, 29 injured, 37 completely destroyed and 80 partially destroyed.

Fukushima

In Fukushima prefecture, the entire area offshore became the epicenter area, and it was a severe earthquake along with Miyagi prefecture and Ibaraki prefecture.

As for the damage caused by the tsunami, the flooded area is 112 km.2It exceeds Iwate Prefecture.However, the coastal areas of Fukushima Prefecture have no bays or coves, and due to the shallow terrain.Fishing portIt was a prefecture that was not suitable for the city and it was difficult to form an urban area centered on the port (List of fishing ports in JapanAccording to the report, there are 111 locations in Iwate prefecture and 114 locations in Miyagi prefecture, compared to 10 locations in Fukushima prefecture).Since the central city area of ​​the coastal municipalities was several kilometers inland from the coastline, the inundated area population was less than 7, and the inundated area population density was 600 people / km.2It can be said that both are the smallest in the three prefectures, and the number of victims is proportionally smaller (however, the population of the flooded area is in Miyagi prefecture).15And the victim16Therefore, the sacrifice rate is almost the same).

The coast of Fukushima Prefecture is a shallow and monotonous coastline that extends from the south of Sendai City to Chiba Prefecture, and because there was no tsunami tradition in the past, the tsunami struck while the residents' awareness was low.Three large places that existed in the vast epicenter areaFaultOne of the destruction was in the sea near the northern part of Ibaraki prefecture, and in the southern part of Fukushima prefecture.IwakiIt seems that the tsunami arrived at the earliest and moved northward, and complicatedly intersected with the movement of the tsunami that occurred off the coast of Miyagi prefecture and moved southward.Near Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (Okuma Town) At 15 m, adjacentTomioka TownSince the tsunami height is 20 m in the vicinity, which is extremely high even though there is no particular difference in the topography compared to the surroundings, it is estimated that the tsunami from the north-south direction amplified each other in this area. To.

There are more than 100 casualties in the municipality where the fishing port is located,Soma CityAbout 450 people,Minamisoma CityMore than 650 people, more than 350 people in Iwaki City,Namie TownA little less than 200 peopleShinchi TownMore than 100 people were killed in the disaster, and the damage was enormous.

In addition, in Futaba DistrictFutaba Town,Okuma Town,Tomioka Town,Naraha Town,Hirono TownThe coast was also severely damaged, but the coastal settlements were so small or few that they killed dozens of people each.

Futaba-gun has been active since the past when the fishing port was underdeveloped and the industry was scarce.TEPCOBecame a power supply center forFukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant,Fukushima Daini Nuclear Power Station,Hirono Thermal Power StationIt was one of the leading power sources in Japan.Due to the total power loss that Japan has never experienced due to the earthquakeFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentWill lead to the occurrence of.

In Okuma TownFutaba HospitalIn the hospitaldementia患者と、隣接する老人介護施設の高齢者のうち227人が一時取り残された。原子炉が水素爆発して20 - 30 km圏内の住民10万人以上が各地の避難所へ避難する混乱の中、132人は医師・看護師を同乗させないまま観光用バスに乗せられ、13時間かけて200 km移動した。残りの95人は5日後に自衛隊によって救助されたが、最終的に50人がDebilitating deathdid.

In this way, in Fukushima Prefecture, there are many cases where elderly people are sacrificed while moving from one evacuation center to another due to forced evacuation.Earthquake-related deathThe number of certified persons is also the largest.

In addition, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentCaused byRadioactive materialSpreadFutabaIt has spread over a wide area of ​​Fukushima prefecture. 12 at 20:25 on the 20th in Minamisoma City, XNUMX km north μSV / hAt 15 o'clock on the 4th, the maximum value of 40 μSV / h was measured in Iwaki City, 24 km south.It was a temporary rise that passed by with the wind because it was sunny, and it decreased over time.The release of radioactive materials peaked on March 3, and at 15 o'clock, 9 μSv / h was measured near the main gate. On the afternoon of the 11,930th, the wind from the southeast flowed toward the northwest. 15 km awayIitate VillageThen it surged to 16 μSV / h at 23:18 and 45 μSV / h at XNUMX:XNUMX.Date City60km awayFukushimaHowever, it surged to 17 μSV / h at 22:19 and measured 24 μSV / h at 17:XNUMX.Unfortunately, rain (snow) began to fall in various parts of the prefecture from around XNUMX:XNUMX where the southeastern wind continued for a long time and high-concentration radioactive materials were flowing in, so the radioactive materials fell to the ground and settled in the soil. bottom.This caused serious soil contamination that extended to the northwest.

Iitate villageDate CountyKawamata TownSome areas of Date City received evacuation designations one month later, and some areas of Date City received evacuation designations three months later. There will be tens of thousands of voluntary evacuees such as evacuation.

Fukushima Prefecture suffered a great deal of damage from the shaking of the earthquake itself, and the number of victims was the highest.InlandNakadoriDamage is conspicuous even in rural areasShirakawaThen, Rokutanyama collapsed on a large scale and 13 people were sacrificed.SukagawaThen.Fujinuma DamA bank with a height of 18 m and a length of 133 m broke down at once, and about 150 million tons of water turned into flash floods with a height of 2-3 m involving trees and attacked the waterfall area more than 1 km away, 8 people. Was sacrificed[172]..This is the first time in Japan that a dam has collapsed due to an earthquake, and in 1999 worldwide.Taiwan921 earthquakeIt is rare after the Ishioka Dam that broke down in.also,KoriyamaThen, a part of the city hall collapsed and one person was killed.

In the central and southern part of Nakadori from Shirakawa City to Koriyama City, the damage to houses is more noticeable than inland cities, towns and villages in other prefectures.Yabuki TownThen, 30% of the total number of houses were completely destroyed.Kagamiishi TownIn Koriyama City, 23% of the total number of houses were completely destroyed, and in Koriyama City, 2 were completely destroyed, both of which were the largest inland municipalities without tsunami damage.

One month later, on April 1, there was an inland earthquake with an epicenter near the Idosawa Fault in the southern part of Iwaki City.Fukushima Prefecture Hamadori Earthquake) Occurred (seismic intensity 6 lower).Due to this earthquake, the Idosawa Fault, the Shionohira Fault, and the Yunodake Fault in the central part of the city move simultaneously over several tens of kilometers, causing faults (maximum head of 2 m) to appear and landslides throughout the city. , Four people were killed one after another due to cracks in the ground.

Ibaraki

IbarakiOffshore is the epicenter area, and above thatKanto PlainDue to the weak ground, a wide range of severe earthquakes were observed along with Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures.

As for the damage caused by the shaking of the earthquake itself, 6 municipalities observed shaking with a seismic intensity of 29 or higher, which was as many as 26 municipalities in Miyagi prefecture and 33 municipalities in Fukushima prefecture.NEXCO East JapanInstalled at each interchange ofSeismographThe highest seismic intensity was observed at 6 points in Miyagi prefecture and 6 points in Fukushima prefecture, followed by 6 points in Ibaraki prefecture.Mito Minami ICMet.

As a result, the damage to houses due to shaking was the second largest after Fukushima and Miyagi prefectures, and the number of victims was also the second highest after Fukushima prefecture.

Tokai villageHitachinaka Thermal Power StationNine workers were working near the chimney 200 m, but four people who fell along with the steel floorboards were sacrificed.WhereaboutsThen.Rokko BridgeCollapsed and one person was sacrificed.

As for the damage caused by the tsunami, the flooded area is 23 km.2And is in contact with Fukushima PrefectureKitaibaraki CityThere were casualties.also,Takahagi,Hitachi City,Hitachinaka City,Oarai Town,Kamisu CityThe city area was flooded due to such reasons.

Liquefaction phenomenonThe damage is widespread, especiallyKasumigaura / KitauraFrom the south bank to the lower reaches of the Tone RiverItako City, Kamisu City,Kashima City,InashikiThe damage was great, and less than 1 households were damaged.

Omitama CityIn YozawaIbaraki Airport OfAirport terminal buildingThen, the installed suspended ceiling collapsed.

Chiba

As for the damage caused by the tsunami, the flooded area is 17km.2AndAsahiThere were 14 casualties (2 missing).also,Choshi,Sanmu CityThe northeastern coastal area was flooded, causing one casualty in Sammu City.

Tokyo BayShoreLandfill,Tone RiverRiverbedLiquefaction phenomenon occurred one after anotherUrayasu cityThen 85% of the city is liquefied[173], Tilt of houses and utility poles, cracks in the ground, and depressions occurred in the Nakamachi and Shinmachi districts.There are about 4,000 water outages, about 11,900 households with sewerage restrictions, and about 5,800 suspensions of city gas supply, and the city estimates the damage amount to be 734 billion yen (as of March 3).[174].ChibaButMihama1,906 units centered on[175],AbikoFusa(Fusa) Eastern district[Note 9]Then, 119 houses were treated as completely destroyed, and as of January 2012, about 1 houses that were in danger of collapsing were requested to be demolished, but some people continue to live after repairing.[Note 10][176].

Many damage to historic buildingsKatoriLocated in Sawara (seismic intensity 6)Tadataka InoOld house[Note 11], Historical buildings lined upOnogawaDamage caused by the collapse of a part of the revetment and the roof tiles of Shobundo Bookstore[177], Ground cracks and land subsidence at the old house of Ohara Yugaku Ruins in Asahi City,佐 倉 市 OfFormer Hotta HouseHas cracks in the plaster,Ichikawa City OfHokkekyoji TempleThen, some of the decorations on the canopy of Hokkado fell off.[178].

Inzai City6 people were injured (seismic intensity 7 lower), 12 buildings were completely destroyed, 56 were partially destroyed, and 874 were partially destroyed.[179].市 原 市It is inCosmo OilLarge scale at Chiba RefineryComplexA fire broke out.

Tokyo

In TokyoChiyodaIt is inKudan KaikanA part of the ceiling finishing material collapsed and two people were sacrificed,KotoChemicals in metalworking factoriesTrichlorethyleneThe gas was filled with gas, and two employees who inhaled it were sacrificed.Machida-shiIt is inCostcoA total of 2 people died, including the collapse of the slope of the parking lot at Tamasakai and the death of 7 people.[4]..No one was killed by the tsunami.

In addition, KotoQinghaiA fire broke out at the Aomi Government Building of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, and Koto WardShinkiba,EdogawaSeishinchoLiquefaction occurred mainly in landfills such as.

Tochigi

In Tochigi prefectureHaga TownIt is inHonda R&D LaboratorieswallCollapsed and one man was sacrificed,Nasu KarasuyamaA couple in the Shincho districtLandslideTwo people were sacrificed by being involved inNikkoA woman fell off the roof and suffered a cerebral hemorrhage, killing one person and killing a total of four people.[180][181].

MokaLiquefaction occurred in several places in Sorimachi due to the effects of the earthquake, and from the crackssandErupted.It is said that the area where liquefaction occurred was once an old river or riverbank, and it spreads under the farmland with a layer of sand.

Utsunomiya CityThen, in the Itado areaNational Highway 408The ground along the road has suffered landslides, and roads have been blocked.

Nasushiobara OfNational Highway 400Then, due to the impact of the earthquake, rockfall occurred and the road was closed.

Tochigi CityIwafune TownThen, Sacred MountainMount IwafuneThe peak on the west side of the mountain collapsed into a V shape, and the mountain surface collapsed in another part, but there was no damage to people or houses.

Nakagawa TownThen it is one of the main roads in the prefectureTochigi Prefectural Road No. 52 Yaita Nakagawa LineThe Shin-Naka Bridge in Tokyo was affected by the earthquake, and cracks were found in the heads of 10 of the 4 piers.[182]Was to be removed[183][184].

Of Moka CityIgashira ParkXNUMX people poolHowever, due to the impact of the earthquake, the columns and pipes that support the waterslide broke and the business was closed, and it was completely restored in 2013.[185].

As damage to historical heritageMashiko Town OfJizo-in TempleSuccessive generationsUtsunomiyaIn the graveyardSengoku DaimyoShimotsukeUtsunomiya 17th head of the familyUtsunomiya, 18sUtsunomiya Tadanatsu OfOlympic towerWas damaged[186]. Also,Sakura CityThen it is a tourist spotKitsuregawa CastleCastle ruinsIt is inOmaruyama ParkHowever, due to the impact of the earthquake, a large-scale crack of 700 meters was created on the site, and various facilities in the park were damaged, so it was closed to the public.Currently, the land is being restored, but facilities such as the Kitsuregawa Sky Tower have not yet been restored.[187]..Located in NikkoNikko Tamozawa Imperial Villa Memorial ParkThen, the masonry has been damaged.

Kanagawa

KanagawaThen, power outages occurred one after another due to the impact of the earthquake, and one woman died due to the shutdown of the oxygen inhaler due to the power outage.横 浜 市,Fujisawa,Kawasaki CityIt has been confirmed that two women and one man died during an evacuation.In addition, two fires broke out in Yokosuka City, killing two men and women.There were 2 accidents (1 injuries, property damage) due to the effects of rolling blackouts, including this fatal accident, such as a collision between a motorcycle and a wagon at a prefectural road intersection in Atsugi where traffic lights stopped due to rolling blackouts. 2 cases).On the other hand, building damage occurs frequently in Yokohama city.According to the city, at least 2 homes and non-residential buildings have been damaged.37 building completely destroyed, 12 partially destroyed, 25 partially damaged.Buildings before 198, when the new earthquake resistance standards were introduced, are tilted and are said to be completely destroyed.In addition, many damages due to liquefaction have been reported in landfills such as coastal areas in the city.[188].

Kawasaki CityThen,MUZA Kawasaki Symphony Hall(Large hall)ceilingThe board collapsed on a large scale, and the Muza Kawasaki Symphony Hall was forced to close for a long period of more than two years.

Saitama

SaitamaKukiLiquefaction also occurred in the inland areas.Of the approximately 2 units in the Minamikurihashi area of ​​Kuki City, 11 were completely destroyed, 41 were partially destroyed, 54 were partially destroyed, and 71 were partially damaged.[189], Roads were uplifted and gutters were damaged on 21 lines, and water pipes and utility poles were also affected.[190].

Gunma

GunmaThen, the only victim in the prefecture was a woman who was weeding the garden at the time of the earthquake and died after being hit directly by the falling roof tiles.[191]. Also,National Highway 354(At that time, nowGunma Prefectural Road 142) At Goryo Bridge 4Centimeter A step of (cm) occurred[192].

Outside Japan

The United States of America OfCaliforniaCrescent CityFive people were kidnapped by the tsunami that crossed the Pacific Ocean, and one of them was killed.[193][194].

Indonesia OfPapuaBut the tsunami killed one and left five missing.[195].

The tsunami reached a wide area of ​​the Pacific Ocean, causing damage to buildings outside Japan.Hawaiian IslandsThen.Island of HawaiiThe tsunami rushed to the west bank, flooding and other factors that made three hotels inoperable, causing tens of millions of dollars in damage.[196]..Crescent City, CaliforniaSanta cruzThe harbor was damaged, causing $ 1,400 million in damages, including the damage to the berthed vessels.[197].チリDozens of homes were destroyed and nearly 200 people lost their homes.[198]..In Indonesia, housing damage has occurred in several villages along the coast of Yotefa Bay in Papua.[199].America OfOregonIt had not been confirmed in the field until then due to the adhesion to the drifting objects that had drifted to such places.Wakame,Kombu,SeaweedSuch asSeaweedHas been washed ashore and has been confirmed to be growing.These may harm the fishing industry and the environment[200].

影響

Population change

Evacuee

Evacuation centers in Iwate Prefecture were closed in October 2011, evacuation centers in Miyagi Prefecture were closed in December 10, and evacuation centers in Fukushima Prefecture were all closed in December 2011.[201][202]..SaitamaKazo CityFukushima Prefecture, which was set up inFutaba TownThe shelter for residents who evacuated from the area continued until December 2013.On the other hand, evacuation life in disaster public housing and temporary housing has been prolonged.The number of evacuees immediately after the earthquake was estimated at 12, but as of May 47, 2021, it was 5.[203]..The number of evacuees in each prefecture is 6966 in Fukushima, 1276 in Miyagi, and 798 in Iwate.2 evacuees from Fukushima[204], Miyagi 3583, Iwate 822.Built disaster public housing 3 units (planned 77 units), residential land development completed 3 units (planned 200 units)[205][206][207].

10 evacuees in Fukushima prefecture 3 years after the earthquake[208]

  • Evacuation outside Fukushima Prefecture (March 2021, 3) (total of about 31, evacuation within the prefecture is about 2.8)
    (1) Yamagata prefecture (1,822 people) (2) Tokyo metropolitan area (7,449 people) (3) Niigata prefecture (5,724 people) (4) Ibaraki prefecture (3,943 people) (5) Saitama prefecture (3,820 people) (6) Chiba prefecture (3,313) (7) Tochigi (2,948) (8) Kanagawa (2,449) (9) Miyagi (2,328) (10) Hokkaido (1,802) (11) Gunma (1,688) (12) ) Nagano prefecture (1,003 people) (13) Shizuoka prefecture (823 people) (14) Hokkaido (802 people) (15) Aichi prefecture (795 people) (16) Okinawa prefecture (738 people) (17) Osaka prefecture (734 people) ) (18) Yamanashi prefecture (710 people) (19) Kyoto prefecture (702 people) (20) Hyogo prefecture (604 people)

Estimated population

Of the disaster areas, from Hachinohe City in Aomori Prefecture to Iwaki City in Fukushima Prefecture on the Pacific coast and in the evacuation area of ​​the nuclear accidentEstimated population(2010 (22)CensusStandard) before the earthquake (2011)3/1) And the latest are compared below.

最新の推計人口は、青森県が2022年8月1日現在、岩手県が2022年8月1日現在、宮城県が2022年8月1日現在、福島県が2022年8月1日現在。ただし、2015年(平成27年)国勢調査実施時点で全町・全村が原子力災害による避難指示区域となっている浪江町、双葉町、大熊町、富岡町、飯舘村、葛尾村および、2015年9月4日まで全町が避難指示区域だった楢葉町については、福島県が最新の推計人口の発表をしていないため[209], 27 census preliminary figures (population as of October 2015, 10)[210]Substitute.

Before the earthquake (2011)3/1[211][212][213][214]And the latestEstimated populationcomparison
Prefecture市町村位置Before the earthquake
Estimated population
(Man)
Latest
Estimated population
(Man)
Rate of change
(%)
Aomori

1,369,7471,206,193-11.94
AomoriHachinohe CityMap237,205219,107-7.63
SannoheHashikamiMap14,65513,215-9.83
Iwate

1,326,6431,182,597-10.86
IwateKunohe-gunHirono TownMap17,77514,501-18.42
Kuji CityMap36,78931,664-13.93
Kunohe-gunNodaMap4,6063,816-17.15
Shimohei DistrictFudai VillageMap3,0652,351-23.30
Shimohei DistrictTanohataMap3,8382,928-23.71
Shimohei DistrictIwaizumi TownMap10,7088,210-23.33
Miyako CityMap59,22947,957-19.03
Shimohei DistrictYamada TownMap18,50613,827-25.28
Kamiikai-gunOtsuchi TownMap15,22210,580-30.50
KamaishiMap39,39930,621-22.28
Ofunato CityMap40,57933,247-18.07
Rikuzentakata CityMap23,22117,656-23.97
Miyagi

2,346,8532,280,955-2.81
MiyagiKesennuma CityMap73,15458,888-19.50
Motoyoshi-gunMinamisanriku TownMap17,37811,830-31.93
OshikaOnagawaMap9,9326,183-37.75
IshinomakiMap160,394136,493-14.90
Higashi Matsushima CityMap42,84038,568-9.97
Miyagi-gunMatsushima TownMap15,01412,992-13.47
Miyagi-gunRifu TownMap34,27935,218+2.74
ShiogamaMap56,22151,322-8.71
Miyagi-gunShichigahama TownMap20,35317,676-13.15
Tagajo CityMap62,99062,517-0.75
Sendai cityMap1,046,7371,099,162+5.01
Sendai cityMiyagino WardMap190,806196,073+2.76
Sendai cityWakabayashi WardMap132,159141,942+7.40
Natori CityMap73,60378,812+7.08
Iwanuma CityMap44,16043,816-0.78
Watari-gunWatari TownMap34,79532,964-5.26
Watari-gunYamamoto TownMap16,60811,790-29.01
Fukushima

2,024,4011,793,522-11.40
FukushimaSoma-gunShinchi TownMap8,1787,787-4.78
Soma CityMap37,72133,982-9.91
Minamisoma CityMap70,75257,512-18.71
Soma-gunIitate VillageMap6,132936[Note 12]-98.68
FutabaKatsuraoMap1,524360[Note 12]-76.38
FutabaNamie TownMap20,854901[Note 12]-95.68
FutabaFutaba TownMap6,8910[Note 12]-100.00
FutabaOkuma TownMap11,5700[Note 12]-100.00
FutabaTomioka TownMap15,9591,530[Note 12]-90.41
FutabaNaraha TownMap7,6763,586[Note 12]-53.28
FutabaHirono TownMap5,3865,367-0.35
IwakiMap341,463326,355-4.42

Economy

3 month 11 dayTokyo Stock ExchangeThe earthquake struck in 14 minutes until the closing of the event.The stock market was flooded with sales, and the Nikkei average, which had been around 10,350 yen, plummeted to 10,254 yen, down 43 yen from the previous day, closing the low price.The Tokyo market on March 180th of the week started trading as usual at 3 o'clock, but most stocks started selling.The Nikkei average started at 14 yen, a 9 yen depreciation, and a wide range of stocks were flooded with sell orders, expanding the range of decline, and the closing price was 210 yen (10,044 yen depreciation, 17% decrease), 9,620 I fell below 49 yen.Furthermore, on March 633, the following day, Unit 94 exploded and burned, and the radioactive contamination spread widely, causing the Nikkei average to fall sharply, temporarily dropping 6.18 yen to a low of 1 yen, and the closing price was 3 yen lower. It fell below 15 yen and 4 yen. 1,392thNikkei Stock Averageは前日比-10.55%、過去3番目に高い下落率の大幅下落を記録する事となった。震災前と比べ、3営業日で2,361円87銭安(22.3 %安)になった。その後、地震から4営業日目の16日に反発となり、488円高の9,093円まで戻した[215][216][217].

on the other hand,Foreign exchangeIn the market, the yen appreciated sharply due to the speculation that the value of the yen would increase to raise funds for reconstruction, and on March 3, the dollar temporarily reached the 17 yen level, reaching a postwar high.[218].. In contrast,Bank of JapanBased on the G7 agreementCooperative interventionTo stabilize the market[219],3/20Recovered to the 80 yen level, and the appreciation of the yen was temporarily stopped.[220]..In addition, the stock price rebounded when the progress of the response to the nuclear accident was reported, and the Nikkei average recovered to the 3 yen level on March 22.[221].

But,World BankThe maximum amount of economic impact was reported to be 2,350 billion dollars (about 19 trillion yen), and the Japanese government announced the estimated amount of earthquake damage of 16-25 trillion yen.[222][223],BOJ Tankan,Economic trendsThe survey also reported that business sentiment had deteriorated.[224][225]..Due to the damage to the factory and the shortage of parts, production was suspended and the shortage of specific products occurred in Japan and overseas.[226][227][228][229]on the other hand,"Earthquake disaster special demand"Special reconstruction demand" caused an upturn in some industries[230][231][232].. Ten years later, in 10, the autonomous growth of the private sector, such as the end of special reconstruction demand, the abandonment of return, and the outflow of population, will be issues.[233].

Reconstruction cost is 10 trillion yen in 32 years[234]Was also compensated by[235][236].

Problems arising from the turmoil of the earthquake

It was not without crimes that took advantage of the earthquake, but there were no looting or riots as seen in other countries, and order was relatively maintained.[237]..However, the movement of citizens who felt uneasy mainly in the metropolitan area to buy and save daily necessities did not stop, and even after the recovery of distribution, the retail stores continued to be in short supply, even in areas that were not affected by the earthquake. Enlarged[238]..Not only the earthquake but also the power shortage in eastern Japan was added, so the whole of Japan was surrounded by an excessive self-restraint mood, and there was concern about adverse effects on the economy.[239].

Criminal offense
In Miyagi Prefecture, in the eastern part of Sendai City, Tagajo City, Ishinomaki City, etc., which were severely damaged by the tsunami, there were a series of theft cases targeting gasoline in stores and houses without employees, gas stations, cars, etc. By the day, the total damage amounted to about 26 million yen.[240]..Also, while donations are being solicited nationwide.Fundraising fraudAlso occurred[241][242].
According to the police agency's announcement, there were 3 cases of cash theft from ATMs in the three affected prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima from March 3 to the end of June, and the total damage amounted to 11 million yen. ..Of these, 6 occurred in Fukushima Prefecture, most of which were committed within 56 km of the Fukushima nuclear power plant.[243]..Also, because the majority of residents evacuated within 20-30km,Empty nestThere was a considerable amount of damage. Since residents were prohibited from entering and exiting within 20km, there were many cases where burglaries were discovered for the first time after the temporary return home, which started several months later.
Pet abandonment
Due to the evacuation shelter, the owner has to let go of the pet, or the owner has died, so there are many pets that have no place to pick up or have become wild, especially in Fukushima prefecture.[244].
Difficulty in supplying petroleum products
JX Sendai RefineryThe supply of gasoline, kerosene, and light oil stagnated due to supply shortages due to the suspension of operations at oil refineries and oil depots in the Tokyo Bay area, and the loss of transportation means due to the damage and loss of tank trucks caused by the tsunami.In response, the government has instructed the reversal of petroleum product inventories in the western Japan region (reducing the number of days required for private stockpiling from 70 days to 45 days), increasing production by increasing the operating rate of refineries, and facilitating interchange between distributors and regions. death[245], Designated a particularly important base gasoline service station (SS) in the disaster area, and supplied priority gasoline.However, since general SS cannot receive supply from the original sale, measures such as setting a limit on the amount of refueling were taken.The supply shortage gradually disappeared from around March 300 due to the additional introduction of 3 tank trucks from the western Japan region and the resumption of operations at the refinery and oil depot.
Poor health
2013,Tokyo UniversityThe research group focused on the fact that many people complained that they were in poor physical condition since the Great East Japan Earthquake, and conducted a nationwide survey focusing on young people.As a result, it was announced that the number of cases was highly correlated with the number of felt aftershocks, and the correlation with the seismic intensity of the mainshock, the spatial radiation intensity, and the distance from the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station was low.[246].
20141/26,Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareThe research group conducted a survey using the "Child Behavior Checklist" (CBCL) for children who were nursery school children at the time of the earthquake in the three prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima. Announced that it was found that medical care was needed for the problem[247]..43.9% of children surveyed witness the tsunami[248].
Airport congestion
Immediately after the airport reopened, many foreign tourists rushed to the airport to evacuate from Japan for fear of radiation exposure, and there was a long line at the check-in counter.[249].
Double mortgage
As a countermeasure against the double loan problem, "Guidelines for private consolidation of individual debtors" for debts such as individual mortgages and loans of individual business owners whose debts have become difficult to repay due to the impact of the Great East Japan Earthquake. (Disaster loan exemption system) started operation on August 2011, 8[250][251][252]..However, as of April 2016, 4, the number of applications of this guideline is only 15.[253][254]..In addition, as a measure for businesses, in November of the same yearGreat East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction Support OrganizationA bill (double loan relief bill) has been passed.

Impact on trial

Murder of a member of a gangster in Nakano-ku, TokyoThe trial was suspended.

Exams etc.

Entrance examination

Miyagi Prefectural Board of EducationFrom March 3th to 14thClosed schoolAnd was scheduled for the 15thhigh schoolGeneralEntrance examinationDecided to postpone the announcement of successful applicants after the 22nd[255].

On March 2011th and 3th, 12 immediately after the earthquakeNational public universitiesThe second half of the entrance examination was scheduled, but on the 12th, 32 schools in the disaster areaUniversity(Private universitiesIncluding), the test will be canceled[256]..36 national universities, 15 public universities, and 7 private universities have delayed the start time of the examination on the 12th and responded individually to the examinees affected by the earthquake.[257],RetestThere is also a university that responded to[258].Ministry of educationThe number of examinees for the second half of the national and public universities on March 3 was 12 (a decrease of 6 from last year), and this decrease is due to the impact of the earthquake.[259]..Of the 12 national and public universities that were tested on the same day in the Tohoku regionAkita University-Akita Prefectural UniversityWas only[259]..On the following day, 13th, the examination was canceled at 6 schools, and the examination was postponed or individualized at 5 schools.[260].

Also, depending on the condition of the damaged houseAdmission fee and tuition feeConsidering the impact of earthquakes and rolling blackouts at universities that are exempt fromLessonAn increasing number of universities are starting from May[261].

Qualification test

The 2st scheduled to be held on March 3, two days after the earthquake.International Communication English Proficiency Test (TOEIC) is due to the fact that the venue could not be secured due to the impact of the earthquake.[262], Canceled at all 277 venues nationwide[263]..The number of people scheduled to take the exam was about 16.[262].

Spring 4, which was scheduled to be held on April 17thInformation Technology Engineer ExamWas decided to be postponed in consideration of the impact of the earthquake[264].. The "23 Special Information-Technology Engineers Examination" will be held on June 6th or July 26th (dates vary depending on the examination category to be taken).[265].

In addition, schedules have been changed nationwide or in some areas for various qualification tests.

job hunting

MajorCompanyScheduled to join the company in the spring of 2012StudentThere was a widespread movement to delay the start of recruitment activities targeting[266]..Also, due to the impact of the earthquake, mainly in the Tohoku regionUnofficial offerA series of cancellations and cancellations of recruitment activities, etc.Ministry of Health, Labor and WelfareSo I considered emergency support[267][268].

Events / Sports

Due to this earthquake, in the spring of 2011 (Heisei 23)AwardAndHonor,Japanese professional baseball OfOpener,J League,Nagoya International Women's Marathon,Horse racing,Bicycle raceAnd many publicEvent,EventsWas canceled or postponed, and the release of the movie was postponed and the release of the product was canceled.

News report

TV/Radio

A large-scale power outage occurred mainly in the Tohoku and Kanto regions due to the earthquake, resulting in a power outage.BroadcasterMany of them continued to broadcast by private power generation.However, in the Tohoku region, due to the delay in the restoration of electric power, many broadcasting stations appeared that the fuel of the private power generator was exhausted and the wave stopped.Even at major broadcasting stationsTohoku Broadcasting (TBC Radio),East Japan Broadcasting Themaster stationWas forced into a temporary outage, but recovered within a few days.on the other handRelay stationAs of March 3, 15 TV stations and 63 radio stations were stopped, and the impact on the broadcasting itself was prolonged.[269].

TV and radio stations in Tokyo organize extraordinary news immediately after the earthquake.After that, until the night of March 3th, almostPress special programWe organized a special organization centered on.Regular news programs were also removed from the program frame, and casters and staff were in charge of special programs in the time zone close to the normal frame.From 3th, 14 days after the earthquakeTerrestrial waveTV broadcastKey stationIn, the composition of the special news program was relaxed, and regular programs of some information programs and news programs were resumed.Drama-Anime-variety-moviesAlthough the majority of regular programs such as[270], Regular programs such as variety shows, dramas, and movies have resumed from dawn on the 15th.[271].

Also, on TV stations, immediately after the March 3 earthquake, TVCMは長時間にわたって放送が中止された。テレビ朝日の約74時間、TBSの62時間、日本テレビとフジテレビの61時間など、各局で長期間CM停止が継続し、CM総合研究所によると、在京民放キー局においては3月11日の14時50分に日本テレビで放送されてから、翌12日の23時56分にテレビ東京で再開されるまで、約33時間にわたってCMが一切放送されなかった[272][273][Note 13].

Even after the CM frame was restored, many companies refrained from doing so in consideration of the earthquake, so in order to fill the vacancy of the CM frame that occurred in large numbers.AC Japan4 types of public service announcements have been broadcast frequently and repeatedly.[274][275]..While this mass broadcast flooded with inquiries and complaints from viewers to AC Japan, there was also a phenomenon that AC Japan won the top spot in the CM favorability ranking.[272][275][276]..This large-scale self-restraint is one of the "self-restraint moods" that has spread throughout Japan since the earthquake, but it is said that there were cases where it was pointed out as a peculiar phenomenon by other countries.[277][278].

In each prefecture of Iwate, Akita, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki,Temporary disaster broadcasting stationAs existing asCommunity broadcastingThe station increased the output, and the local government suffered a disaster.FM radioOpened a station[279]..Other than that, it is the first time in history with 5 stations in Tokyo.Radio disaster information intersectionNot only was it activated, but the Internet Simulcast service started at 3:13 on March 17th.radikoArea restrictions are lifted and the Kanto region is nationwide.Kansai13 commercial broadcasters in the district can listen[Note 14]、3月25日10時からは中京地区の6局も加わった。この緊急対応は、関西・中京地区の12局で3月31日まで、関東地区の7局で4月11日まで継続された[280][281][282]..A service was also provided to listen to some commercial FM stations in the 6 prefectures of Tohoku and the Kanto region for free on a PC or smartphone.[283]..Commercial broadcastingAM broadcastBut for about a week after the earthquake,Ustream,Nico Nico Douga(Nico Nico Live Broadcast), There was a broadcasting station that carried out simulcast on its own website etc.[284][285][286]..Even in shortwave broadcasting, there was a station that provided broadcasting in the disaster area to the whole country.[287].

In addition, at the endAmateur radioSo many radio operators call for emergency communications, 7.030MHzWe are cooperating in collecting information at (designated emergency communication frequency) and confirming the safety at 7.043MHz, and are isolated by this.VillageWas saved in some cases[288][289][290].

On the other hand, in Ibaraki and Chiba prefectures, which were extensively damaged by earthquake motion, liquefaction, and tsunami, the target areas for rolling blackouts immediately after the earthquake included Itako city in Ibaraki prefecture and Asahi city in Chiba prefecture. It was mentioned that the damage situation was not sufficiently reported.[291][292][293].

In addition, the common antenna was damaged in the disaster area due to the earthquake, andDigital terrestrial broadcastingAs a countermeasure because the dissemination activities ofTerrestrial digital hard-to-see satellite broadcastingAfter the above, the full transition to terrestrial digital broadcasting scheduled for July 2011, 7 will be carried out in 24 for the three prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima.3/31Postponed to[294].

Even outside Japan, various media are reporting earthquake-related news.[295][296][297].

News (Chinese)

Immediately after the earthquakeNational newspaper,Block paper,Local newspaperSeveral papers all at onceOutsidersWas issued. ""Chunichi ShimbunIs on the 11thEvening paperThe final version of the E version was provided with a version called (2) and reported on the top page. As of March 1Morning newspaper TheSports paperEach newspaper, including, reported on the situation of the earthquake with the largest headlines and photographs from the first page to the final page.also,SundayThe evening edition is usually closed, but the Yomiuri Shimbun and Asahi Shimbun published a "special evening edition" on March 3 (Sunday, the third day after the earthquake). It has been posted on the final page for a while from March 13th.A TV scheduleThere were also many newspaper companies that prioritized earthquake-related coverage by relocating to the middle (national newspapers moved the program guide to the middle until the end of March).[298]..Most of the newspapers published immediately after the earthquake were devoted to reporting the earthquake, and the number of pages was reduced by about half.[Note 15], Newspaper advertisements were also refrained.

Newspapers located in the disaster area continued to publish newspapers by outsourcing production and printing to newspapers in neighboring areas with which they have a disaster relief agreement.[299][300]..In Morioka City, Iwate PrefectureIwate DailyFor the first time, the company requested the activation of a disaster mutual support agreement concluded by six local newspapers in the Tohoku region (excluding Kahoku Shimpo), and has its own generator.Aomori OfTooku NippoThe company prints 4 pages of paper.The block newspaper "Kahoku Shimpo", which is headquartered in Sendai City, Miyagi Prefecture, isSeismic isolationOf the structureRotary pressThe extra on page 2 printed in 23 was delivered to each evacuation center after XNUMX:XNUMX on the day of the earthquake.The next morning edition had a mutual support agreementNiigata DailyOutsourced paper production to the company and published an 8-page morning edition.As a result, many citizens have come to see details of the serious tsunami damage in the coastal areas that was not known as images due to the power outage.[301]..Ishinomaki City's local newspaper "Ishinomaki Nichinichi ShimbunThe head office was flooded by the tsunami and lost all the rotary presses and computers for editing work.We created a wall newspaper with handwritten information collected with an oil-based felt-tip pen on paper cut out from a printing roll that did not need to be soaked in water, and posted it to an evacuation center in the city from the day after the earthquake to provide information for 6 days. bottom[302].. On the 7th day, distribution of newspapers printed using the obtained compound copier was started, and two weeks later, printing was resumed on the old rotary press that was restored by the people concerned.This wall newspaper米 国Washington DCAt the request of the news museum "Newseum" in Tokyo, all 6 days were donated.

In the disaster areas of Tohoku and Kanto, delivery was delayed due to damage to transportation infrastructure and fuel shortages, and it took more than 4-5 days to recover. ""Iwate Tokai Newspaper(Evening newspaper centered on Kamaishi City, Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture), the only rotary press at the head office was submerged, and many readers were also damaged, making it difficult to secure income. The employee was dismissed and the publication was suspended.Even now, there is no prospect of resuming issuance.[303]..other than this,"Iwaki folk news(Evening newspaper in Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture)[304],Red flag』Tohoku version (Japan Communist PartyBulletin)[305],Osaki Times"(Miyagi PrefectureOsakiDaily newspaper), "Sanriku Shimpo"(Miyagi PrefectureKesennuma CityThe daily newspaper) was closed for several days.On the other hand, "Tokai Shimpo"(Iwate PrefectureOfunato CitySome newspapers, such as the daily newspaper, continued to publish by turning a rotary press with a private power generator.

Rice paper dated March 3 "New York Times"The harshness of JapanShockproofStandards andDisaster preventionAn article was published stating that "education saved many lives," and on March 3th, "you should learn from the Japanese national character that continues to be considerate and polite to others even in an emergency." There was also an article saying "There is something"[306][307].. Also"Washington PostHowever, he described the situation of firefighters, SDF personnel, and police officers involved in rescue and reconstruction activities as "efficient", and also described the victims as "calm, polite, and surprisingly blunt."[308].

Publishing / printing

With Nippon Paper Industries' Ishinomaki Factory (Ishinomaki City, Miyagi Prefecture) located in the waterfrontMitsubishi paperHachinohe Factory (Aomori Prefecture)Hachinohe City) Was damaged by the tsunami, and Nippon Paper Industries' Iwanuma Mill (Miyagi Prefecture) in the inland areaIwanuma City),NakosoThe factories (Iwaki City, Fukushima Prefecture) were also unaffected by the tsunami, but many of the production facilities and product inventories of paper mills along the Pacific coast, including these factories, were damaged.In addition, due to lack of fuel, it became difficult to ship from these factories, and the supply and demand of printing paper became tight nationwide.Japan Magazine AssociationAccording to the magazine, the publication was suspended / canceled or postponed as of March 3th.Weekly Shonen Jump』And reached 191 magazines[309].. For this reason,ShueishaAs an emergency measure, each publisher including "Weekly Shonen Jump"[310]And "Weekly ASCII"[311]The latest issues of some magazines such as these were distributed free of charge on the Internet.In addition, as the shortage of printing paper continued for some time after the earthquake, some magazines took measures such as reducing the number of pages and changing the paper quality.This made it impossible for some small and medium-sized printing companies to go bankrupt in a short period of time.

インターネット

As a means of providing information, the Internet is used as a means of providing information, and on TV, NHK and commercial broadcasting stations (excluding Nippon TV and TV Tokyo) provide "consideration for viewers who cannot watch TV due to power outages". Nico Nico Video (Nico Nico Live Broadcast), Ustream,Yahoo! JAPANDelivered in real time with[312]..Nico Nico Live Broadcasting will be live-streamed with the permission of NHK, Fuji TV, and TBS News Bird (NHK is a comprehensive television program.NHK World TVIn real time delivery)[313]We also carry out our own emergency special program[313], These deliveries could be viewed without an account[313].. On Ustream, NHK (Comprehensive Television / NHK World TV), TV Asahi, TBS (TBS News Bird), Fuji Television,Kanagawa, Yahoo! JAPAN delivered live streaming of NHK (Comprehensive Television / Educational Television)[314]..In addition, it is said that the reason for the Internet support was the unauthorized distribution of NHK's extraordinary news that was carried out by one junior high school student about 17 minutes after the earthquake.[315].

Press regulation

At the time of the earthquakeDemocratic governmentAbout the accident at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plantCore meltRecognizing the fact that it was (meltdown), he continued to avoid using this term in official announcements because he decided to avoid the panic and confusion associated with the publication of this fact.And he did not tell the exact facts at the official announcement about the situation of the accident.On the contrary, such an attitude caused distrust of the Japanese government, mainly overseas (mainly major Western media), and said, "Fukushima and the metropolitan area have been seriously damaged by radiation, but the Japanese government is hiding the facts." Speculation spread, leading to the situation where embassies in each country called on their citizens to evacuate from Japan.Later, from objective facts, it turned out that such recognition was not just speculation, and it was not a worrying situation.While major media outlets involved in the earthquake report expressed some remorse for the responsibility that fueled excessive anxiety through editorials, they criticized the Japanese government for calling for such speculation due to the inaccuracy of the government's announcement.

August 2012, 1,Reporters Without BordersRanked Japan from 11th place in the previous year to 22nd place in the "World Press Freedom Ranking" due to excessive media restrictions imposed in the areas affected by the Great East Japan Earthquake and the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident. bottom[316].

Movement of disaster measures

The Government of Japan was the first in history at 28:15, 14 minutes after the earthquake.Emergency Disaster Response HeadquartersWas installed.3/12Night rotationCabinetso,Cabinet Order"Disasters caused by the 23 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake"Act on Special Financial Assistance for Dealing with Severe DisastersBased on (Severe Disaster Law)Severe disasterAlso designated by Cabinet OrderSpecified Emergency Disaster Special Measures LawDesignated as a specific emergency disaster based on (Any Cabinet Order3/13Promulgation).In addition, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Tochigi, Chiba, and Tokyo prefecturesDisaster Relief Act(Applicable cities, towns and villages are specified for each prefecture).3/22, Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Chiba prefecturesCabinet OfficeAbout the damage caused by the XNUMX off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake and tsunamiDisaster Reconstruction Life Support Act(The applicable areas are Aomori, Iwate, Miyagi, Fukushima, Ibaraki, Tochigi, and Chiba prefectures).However, the national government and Fukushima Prefecture do not recognize long-term evacuation households due to the nuclear accident as long-term evacuation households under the Disaster Reconstruction Support Law, and do not apply to Fukushima Prefecture.

Rescue / support activities

The Cabinet Office Emergency Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters, which was established at 15:14 on the same day after the earthquake, had 2011 people from the National Police Agency by the same day on May 5, 17.Fire department,Japan Coast Guard,SDFAnnounced that it was rescued by a dispatched unit[317]..By organization, the Self-Defense Forces rescued 19,286 people, the fire department 5,064 people, and the police 3,749 people.

In addition, 156 countries / regions and 41 organizations outside Japan have announced their support, accepting rescue teams from 28 countries / regions / organizations and relief supplies from 53 countries / regions / organizations.[317].

In the disaster area, food, fuel, water, chemicals, etc. transported to distribution bases such as prefectures and cities did not reach every corner.Great Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeThere was a significant shortage of supplies compared to when it occurred.The reasons for this were that the ports in each area were damaged and the road network was cut off, that the city and town staff were sacrificed and the disaster area was not ready for evacuation, and that there was a shortage of fuel for transportation vehicles. The damage was widespread, and evacuees were dispersed in facilities other than designated shelters.Especially due to lack of fuel, it was difficult to move and warm up by car in the disaster area for a long time.Also in Fukushima prefectureFukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentbyExposureTrucks turned back for fear of, making it difficult for supplies to reach mainly in coastal areas.[318][319].Ou MountainsCross overNational Route 347As usual, some roads were closed in winter, but there were cases where vehicles heading for relief from the Sea of ​​Japan side returned without knowing the information.[320].

ReutersEditor ofFelix SalmonTo JapanDonationShould not be sent[321]Claims.Japan is a rich nation and can print hundreds of billions of dollars worth of money to generate financial resources.International financial assistance should be given to developing countries,Net foreign assetsJapan is the best in the world[322]It is unconvincing to apply the international aid model to[323].

In addition, TaiwanDonated at least 73 millionTaiwan dollarIt reached (about 200 billion yen, 2 million US dollars).Also, it was the second foreign rescue team that arrived after the US military and brought the first relief supplies to the disaster area.

Relief supplies

Water and food are used to procure relief suppliesMinistry of Agriculture, Daily necessities and fuelMinistry of Economy, Trade and Industry, PharmaceuticalsMinistry of Health, Labor and WelfareCollected from each industry and collected it from the Self-Defense Forces andMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismWill be transported by the carrier requested byNippon ExpressSuch as carriers andAll Japan Truck AssociationIs a designated public institution of the government)[324]..Supplies are the Self-Defense ForcesUS Army in JapanEach base ofGarrisonFromJapan Air Self-Defense ForceMatsushima BaseAnd was restored by the U.S. militarySendai Airport,Fukushima Airport,Hanamaki AirportAfter being airlifted to (Iwate Prefecture) and transported by land to the prefecture's primary material collection base, it was unloaded, sorted, and carried out by a private company and transported to the secondary collection point of the municipality.Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceThe method of transporting to each evacuation center by truck was adopted (* Iwate method)[325]).Other than the Self-Defense ForcesTokyo Fire Department Air CorpsHelicopter[326]Japan Coast GuardPatrol boatGoods are transported using aircraft and aircraft, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism is large.dredgingOil recovery ship "" "Kaisho Maru"Emergency goods transportation by" Hakusan ",National Institute for Sea TrainingBelongingTraining ship"Galaxy Maru""Kaiwo Maru (2nd generation)Transportation and investigation of emergency supplies such as pharmaceuticalsWhaling ship"Nisshin Maru"Fisheries AgencyBelongingFishery patrol ship,Fisheries Research Center OfResearch vesselSupplies were also supplied using[327]..In addition, a total of 3 purse seine fishing boats belonging to the Overseas Purse seine Fisheries Association headed to the disaster area after March 13, and used small boats (recco boats) mounted on the boats to feed areas where large boats could not berth. , Light oil, blankets, etc. were brought in.AlsoAll Japan Seamen's UnionUsing a chartered 200-ton squid fishing boat,Hakodate PortFrom (Hokkaido) to Sanriku ports (Miyako Port,Kesennuma Port, Ishinomaki Port)[328].

SDF

Ministry of DefenseEstablished the "Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters" at 4:3 on March 11, four minutes after the earthquake, and at 14 minutes.Self-defense fleetThe commander (at that time) ordered all ships that could be dispatched to leave the port, and the escort ship "Takami(Captain[329]Shoichi Yonemaru[330]) Has taken the lead in rescue off the coast of Ishinomaki.Ominato Air BasefromUH-60JStarting from the start, the Land, Sea, and Air Self-Defense Forces are for rescue and reconnaissance.helicopter,Fighter-Patrol aircraftEtc.scrambleI started.Ground Self-Defense ForceUH-1The images of the tsunami that struck over many waves taken by the media are broadcast nationwide through the media.[331]..In addition, in order to carry out rescue and support activities promptly and effectively, each unit of the Land, Sea, and Air Self-Defense Force will be on the 14th.Integrated mission unitAs,Eiji KimizukaTohoku area general managerOrganized a "disaster integrated mission unit" (JTF-TH) with the commander.Largest since the establishment of the Self-Defense ForcesDisaster dispatchWent[332].. As of the 27th, about 10 people (about 6900 on land, about 7 in sea and air), 3 rotary wings, 6000 fixed wings, and 217 ships are conducting relief activities.AlsoFukushima Daiichi nuclear power plantTo deal withCentral Nuclear Biological Chemical Welfare CorpsCentered onCentral readiness groupResponds mainly, and operates under a chain of command different from other units.

The Ministry of Defense will be the first since the establishment of the Ministry of Defense and the Self-Defense Forces on March 3 to recover from the damage that is expanding day by day.Responsive Reserve SDFandReserve SDFIssued a disaster convocation order[333][334].

The total number of SDF personnel mobilized in 2011 was 1,058 million.[Note 16](Maximum number of dispatched personnel per day is about 1)[335]..Almost half of the 23 Self-Defense Forces members were put in.

SDF[336]Has provided reconstruction assistance with 2 people for two months after the disaster, but in 105/2International terrorist organizationAl QaedaLeader ofAssassination of Usama bin Laden by US ArmyIn response to the announcement, it became necessary to use troops to prevent terrorist activities in the country, so the policy was to gradually reduce the scale of dispatch.The Air Self-Defense Force has shrunk to half its original size[337].

The maximum number of dispatched forces was about 107,000 (Ground Self-Defense Force about 70,000, Maritime Self-Defense Force about 15,000, Air Self-Defense Force about 21,600, Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant response about 500), about 540 aircraft, and 59 ships. ..The dispatch scale for the three months from the disaster to June 6 reached a total of about 11 people, about 3 aircraft, and about 868 ships.The main achievements were lifesaving 7000 people and corpse containment of 4 people.Transportation of goods etc. is about 1000 t, Medical team transportation is 18,310 people, patient transportation is 175 people.In terms of livelihood support for disaster victims, water supply support is about 32,820 tons, school lunch support is about 4,477,440 meals, and fuel support is about 1,400. kL..In addition, bathing support is about 854,980 people, and support such as hygiene is about 23,370 people.[338]..Witnessed the earthquakeUS Marine CorpsExecutives pointed out that if Japan had a military-capable organization like the US Marine Corps, it could have saved thousands of lives.[339].

March 7Toshimi KitazawaThe Minister of Defense (at that time) ordered the North Eastern Army General Manager Kimitsuka to dissolve the disaster integration mission unit.[340]..After the formation and dismantling of the disaster integrated mission unit, we have been performing support missions locally.9th DivisionIs in Iwate prefecture on July 7th[341],6th DivisionHas completed its support mission in Miyagi Prefecture on July 7st.[342]..The unit that had been responding to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident, headed by the Central Readiness Force Commander, was withdrawn on December 2011, 12, and a series of dispatches by the Ministry of Defense and the Self-Defense Forces were completed.[343].

Russian Federation ArmyandChinese PLAImmediately after the Great East Japan EarthquakeReconnaissance aircraft,FighterWavy JapaneseAir defense identification zoneI made it fly inside.The Self-Defense Forces will be dispatched by fighters in parallel with the disaster dispatch.scrambleWe took off and dealt with it.Aircraft from both countries have continued to fly into Japan's air defense identification zone, and the Russian army, in particular, has repeatedly sent aircraft off the coast of the Tohoku region for radiation measurements.

Self-Defense Forces damage

Japan Ground Self-Defense ForceTohoku areaMiyagi prefecture in the jurisdictionTagajo station[344]And the Japan Air Self-Defense ForceMatsushima BaseWas flooded by the tsunami after the earthquake, and the facilities and equipment were severely damaged.In addition, many facilities and equipment were damaged at the bases and garrison of other Land, Sea, and Air Self-Defense Forces located in the Tohoku region.

28 aircraft parked at the tarmac and hangar at Matsushima Air Base (F-2B fighter× 18 aircraft, T-4 training aircraft × 4 aircraft,U-125 rescue search machine× 2 aircraft, UH-60J rescue helicopter × 4 aircraft) All suffered damage such as being submerged[345].. This4th WingHas fallen into a situation where he has no hands or feet to carry out relief activities.

In addition, Sendai AirportThe Ground Self-Defense Force, which was under maintenance at1st Helicopter Corps Special Transport Helicopter CorpsBelongingEC225LPType 1 aircraft was submerged due to the flooding of the airport due to the tsunami, resulting in total loss.

Disaster-related deaths of SDF personnel

Those in their 12s who left the garrison on the 15th, the day after the earthquake, and had been engaged in work since the 50th.Sergeant(Japan Ground Self-Defense Force·Asahikawa stationAffiliation) died on April 4st[346][347].. Cause of deathDeath from overworkIs said to be possible[348]..The sergeant master sergeant belonged2th Special Regiment OfRegimental leader"I am very sorry and pray for the souls. I would like to investigate the causal relationship with the disaster relief activities and investigate the cause," said the sergeant master sergeant.[349].4/2, Ministry of Defense announced the master sergeant in one dayWarrant OfficerDecided to be specially promoted to[350].. On the 15th, he was in charge of operational adjustment at the command post in Tono City.9th Facility BattalionThe first-class land sergeant of the affiliationBrain stem hemorrhageDied in[351], Ministry of Defense specially promoted 1 Sergeant to Master Sergeant on the same date[352][Broken link][353].. The captain of the 1th Facility Squadron, to which 9 Sou belonged, said, "I am very sorry. I will inherit the feelings of the fallen members and do my best to manage their health."[353].. Before dawn on May 518th Ordinary Science RegimentThe third-class land sergeant who belongs to him died.Of the Self-Defense Forces members in this earthquakeDisaster-related deathBecame the third person[354].

Emergency fire support team


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Fire departmentNationwide by the instruction ofFire DepartmentからEmergency fire support teamA total of 10 people were dispatched and rescued 9919 people.[355].

  • Dispatch period --March 23, 3 --June 11, 23 (6 days)
  • Number of units / members ―― 1 city, 1 road, 2 prefectures, 40 prefectures, total personnel 30,684 (8,854 units) Total personnel 109,919 (31,166 units)
  • Area of ​​activity-Iwate prefecture, Miyagi prefecture, Fukushima prefecture, Chiba prefecture
  • Activities --The aviation unit engaged in lifesaving, aerial fire extinguishing, information gathering, etc., and the land unit engaged in fire extinguishing, rescue, emergency activities, etc.

Politics/administration

National politics

On the day of the earthquake, Naoto Kan will be the head of the headquarters.Emergency Disaster Response HeadquartersWas installed.This is in the event of a major disasterCabinet OfficeAlthough it is a temporary organization stipulated by law, it has never been installed in the past, and it was the first to be installed due to the Great East Japan Earthquake.

Naoto Kan 2st Remodeling CabinetIs the 23 budget planHouse of RepresentativesMain ConventionAlthough it was passed by a large number of people in favor of it, there is no prospect of enacting a budget-related bill.versusOppositionThe conflict between them was getting fiercer,[356], Naoto Kan soon after the earthquakePrime minister's residenceWe gathered together and held a meeting with the leaders of the ruling and opposition parties, and requested cooperation for "saving the country."Opposition also corrected the confrontational stance[357].. On the 14th, the ruling and opposition parties agreed on the early enactment of the Special Measures for Earthquake Disaster Response Law.[358].

June 2011, 23 (Heisei 4)CabinetBy decisionReconstruction Design Council for the Great East Japan EarthquakeWas installed.On June 6th of the same yearBasic Law for Great East Japan Earthquake RecoveryWas promulgated and enforcedGreat East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction Countermeasures Headquarters CabinetWas installed in. On July 7, the second supplementary budget for 25 (23 billion yen) was established, which included recovery and reconstruction-related expenses for the Great East Japan Earthquake. On November 1, 9,988, the third supplementary budget (11 billion yen) was established, centered on expenses related to the Great East Japan Earthquake of 20 billion yen. On December 11, the Great East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction Special Zone Law was enacted. December 7,335thReconstruction Agency establishment lawWas established, and the administrative affairs and organization under the jurisdiction of the Reconstruction Agency, which was established for the purpose of recovery from the earthquake disaster, were embodied.[359].. The Reconstruction Agency was established on February 2012, 24.[360].

Of the 2012 organizations related to the Great East Japan Earthquake on January 24, 1,「原子力災害対策本部」「政府・東京電力統合対策室」「原発事故経済被害対応チーム」「緊急災害対策本部」「被災者生活支援チーム」「官邸緊急参集チーム」「各府省連絡会議」「経済情勢に関する検討会合」「電力需要に関する検討会合」「電力改革及び東京電力に関する閣僚会合」10 organizationsPublic Records and Archives Management LawAnnounced the results of the investigation that the minutes were not prepared, and 5 of them had not prepared or partially prepared the minutes.At that time, the Prime MinisterYoshihiko NodaIs in the morningHouse of CouncilorsAt the plenary session, "It is regrettable that the document was not recorded at any time.PeopleIt is extremely important to be accountable to[361][362][363].

Political party movements

Local administration

Rikuzentakata City, Iwate Prefecture, Minamisanriku Town, Miyagi Prefecture, Onagawa Town, Miyagi Prefecture, etc.Flooding・ Many staff members were damaged in the Tohoku Pacific coast, which was damaged by the tsunami, and Hamadori, Fukushima Prefecture, where the nuclear accident occurred, such as the damage and the death of the mayor in Otsuchi Town, Iwate Prefecture. Some local governments have paralyzed administrative functions due to damage to administrative documents.[96][375][376][377].

The 2011th Unified Local Elections were held in April 4, but regarding the areas affected by the earthquake,Disaster area election postponement lawHas been postponed.

  • In Urayasu City, Chiba Prefecture,3/4Despite the enormous damage caused by the liquefaction phenomenon in the reclaimed land that occupies the land, Chiba Prefecture said that it would be implemented as planned, so only the city insisted that it should be postponed for up to two months and rebelled.Early voting[378]In May, because all the ballot counting work was not done.Re-electionUntilPrefectural assemblyTwo people were missing[379][380][381][382][383].

Although it is an indirect effect,Germany-Baden-WürttembergIn the state parliamentary elections held on March 3, due to the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant accidentAnti-nuclear powerDue to increased exercise, etc.Alliance 90 / The Greens PartyLeaped into the second partyGerman Social Democratic PartyTo form a coalition government with[384], Some foreign political affairs were also affected by the Japanese earthquake.

Royal family

Correspondence of multinational companies and diplomatic missions

Due to the damage from the nuclear power plant,Italy,France,The United States of America,AustraliaGovernment employees such as office workers stationed in JapanDiplomat,StudentTo temporarily evacuate travelers and travelersGovernment machineAnd private sectorCharter machineEtc. were dispatched to airports in Japan.At the same time as evacuating their own citizens abroad free of charge, they recommended that they be encouraged to temporarily evacuate to areas that are not considered to be affected by radiation.In addition, some foreign residents in Japan "voluntarily" fled the country even though there were no evacuation advisories from the government of their home country or their affiliated companies.[385].

Due to the evacuation and escape of foreign residents in Japan, some Japanese corporations and branches of companies in these countries have no choice but to temporarily suspend their normal operations. There was something[385]..Even after that, some foreign companies continued to use the Kansai region, where the head office and branches of Japanese corporations were said to be "less susceptible to damage from nuclear power plants."KyusyuConsider temporarily relocating to a rural area, etc., and actuallyArico JapanSome companies temporarily relocated to rural areas.

Also for the same reasonLufthansa,Air FranceUntil it is confirmed that the nuclear accident has subsided to some extent and no radiation damage has occurred.Narita International AirportStop getting intoKIXWe took measures to temporarily move the destination to such places.In addition, by operating to Narita International Airport via Kansai International Airport and South Korea and returning to these airports on the same day, crew members can stay at Narita International Airport and stay at Narita International Airport.In-flight mealSome airlines prevented the loading of[386].

reconstruction

With a large amount of disaster waste generated along the coasts of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima prefecturesTsunami depositThe treatment of (earth and sand, etc.) was completed by the end of March 2017, and the total amount was 3 million tons.[390].

In addition to the plan to add a temporary incinerator from the policy of proceeding with treatment in the disaster area[391], Processing outside the disaster area (wide area processing) was also performed[392].

Swept into the sea by the tsunamiseabedThe debris that sank in the area has been treated even 10 years after the earthquake.Some are specialistsSalvageBesidesFishing netOften found and recovered[393].

In areas such as Iwate, Miyagi, and the coasts of the three prefectures of Fukushima, where buildings and infrastructure were destroyed and urban functions were lost due to the tsunami, discussions were held on the direction of reconstruction, and some projects started. Has been done.Specific ideas include the following[391][394].

  • Relocation to hills-Reconstruction of lost urban areas and settlements by relocating to hills instead of the traditional tsunami inundation areas.It is planned that the national and local governments will purchase the land in the disaster area and carry out group relocation at public expense.[391].
  • Local reconstruction with ground raising --- Reconstruction after raising the ground to reduce the risk of tsunami in the conventional tsunami inundation area.There are plans for land readjustment methods and projects in which the national and local governments purchase and collectively maintain the urban areas that serve as bases.[391].
  • Separation of work and residence-Housing, government offices, hills, hospitals, etc. will be relocated to hills and raised ground, while industrial facilities will remain in the conventional tsunami inundation area.Considered in areas where fisheries and tourism are the main industries and full relocation is difficult[394].
  • Development of new businesses taking advantage of reconstruction projects-Collaboration of fisheries and fisheries, private investment in agriculture,Energy Conservation-再生 可能 エネルギー,smart gridIntroduction (eco town) etc.[394].
  • Strengthening tsunami protection facilities- SeawallIn addition to restoration and strengthening of highways and railroadsEmbankmentSomething that adds a function as an embankment,Disaster prevention forest,Green spaceThose that provide disaster prevention sites such as.According to Miyagi Prefecture's reconstruction plan, the southern part of the Sendai coast is a tide embankment along the coastline, and inside it is a multiple defense that forms a belt-shaped zone in the order of disaster prevention forest / green land, agricultural land, embankment road, industrial land, embankment railway, and residential area. I'm thinking of doing[394].
  • Strengthening tsunami evacuation facilities --- Buildings and towers for emergency evacuation of tsunami, roads for tsunami evacuation, and restoration and strengthening of primary, secondary and refugee shelters.Miyagi Prefecture's reconstruction plan envisions strengthening emergency evacuation facilities, especially in industrial areas (lowlands) where work and residence separation is planned.[394].
  • Strengthening support for tsunami evacuation behavior --Disaster prevention education to raise awareness of evacuation from tsunami, inheritance of earthquake disaster experience, etc.[394].

Fukushima Prefecture announced in July 2012 that the Fukushima Tourism Reconstruction Support Center[395]”, And introduces oral speakers (storytellers, 2014 people as of September 9), inspection destinations, volunteer destinations, and model courses. The number of oral speakers mediated by the center in 176 was 2013.[396].

Project completion rate aggregated at the end of March 10 2021 years after the earthquake[397].

Disaster public housing 100%, private housing housing 100%, ground and coastal construction 85%, coastal disaster prevention forest 88%, river measures (directly controlled section) 100%, river measures (local government section) 97%, hill relocation 100%, Roads (directly controlled sections) 100%, roads (local government sections) 99%, reconstruction roads 92%, ports 100%, fishing ports 97%, farmland 94%, railways 100%, schools 99%, water facilities 99%, sewers 100% , Disposal of disaster waste 100% (1843 million tons)[205]

Problems / Issues

After the earthquakevolunteerHealth regulations for activities and support vehiclesRoad Traffic LawIt became clear that the restrictions imposed by the current laws and regulations, such as the regulation of the above, are obstacles to the reconstruction.Since the delay in reconstruction has caused secondary damage to the economy and livelihoods, the relevant local governments have high expectations for the designation of special disaster zones and special legislation.In Rikuzentakata City, Iwate Prefecture, where the city area was destroyed, large-scale measures such as relocating the entire village to a hill are being considered, but there are still many issues.

Even after the earthquake, it landed in September 2011 with the largest force after the war.Typhoon 15The disaster area has been flooded extensively, causing damage such as rising levels of contaminated water at the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.

Since the national government and Fukushima Prefecture do not recognize long-term evacuation households due to the nuclear accident as long-term evacuation households under the Disaster Reconstruction Assistance Act, they are associated with long-term evacuation due to the nuclear accident.Disaster-related deathMeasures (especially called "nuclear-related deaths") and measures to support the reconstruction of the lives of evacuees from nuclear power plants are required.

In the coastal cities, towns and villages on the Sanriku coast, the population is declining as civil engineering workers are withdrawn and employment is decreasing as reconstruction and disaster prevention works such as seawalls are completed.Even in Hamadori, Fukushima Prefecture, where the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident occurred, many former residents evacuated and did not return.Sendai City, which is the destination of the inflow, has been over-migrated since 2011.[398].

Various movements after the earthquake

Mourning and memorial service

The three Tohoku prefectures, which suffered great damage, each developed a reconstruction prayer park, and the government set up a state-owned memorial facility in the park.The memorial facilities are Rikuzentakata City in Iwate Prefecture, Ishinomaki City in Miyagi Prefecture, and Fukushima Prefecture.Namie TownConstruction in (Reconstruction Memorial ParkFutaba TownArea including straddling) was approved by the Cabinet on September 2017, 9.[399].

Many of the affected municipalities have held memorial services for the victims of the earthquake on March 2012 every year since 3, the following year.Until 11 for the Government of JapanNational theaterIt was open at[400], January 2020, 1 at that timeChief Cabinet Secretary OfYoshii KanAt a regular press conference, he expressed his intention to end the government-sponsored memorial service in 10, which is the 2021th year of the milestone.[401].. July 2020, 3,Abe Cabinet TheImpact of COVID-XNUMXIn response, announced the cancellation of the memorial service sponsored by the government.[402], Decided to be canceled by the Cabinet meeting on March 3, the same year[403]..Instead of a memorial servicePrime Minister's OfficeFlower offering ceremony was held[404].. On March 2021, 3, the Cabinet decided to hold the memorial service for the same year by limiting the number of attendees based on the measures against coronavirus infection. I was attending until 2Shinzo Abe[405]In 1, which was the first yearYoshihiko Noda[406]..However, Abe will attend the Prime Minister's Office flower offering ceremony in 2020.[404]In addition to the attendance of Yoshihide Suga, who became the next Prime Minister[400],Emperor ImakamiTokujinEmpress MasakoAlso attended[407][408]..At the same time, the Emperor was the first to attend, including the time of the Crown Prince.[407]..In addition, the attendeesMASKSWear and attend[409][410], The flower donation of general participants who had been going until 2019 was shelved[407].

August 2022, 2,Minister of Reconstruction OfSaimei KozaburoOfficially announced at a cabinet meeting that it would not hold a memorial service sponsored by the government on March 11, the same year, which is the 3th year.[411]..On the other hand, of the Prime MinisterFumio KishidaVisited Fukushima on March 3th of the same year and attended a memorial ceremony hosted by the prefecture to pray for silence.[412][413]..In addition, some local governments will continue the memorial service in the three affected prefectures of Iwate, Miyagi, and Fukushima after 10 because the memorial service sponsored by the government has ended and the 2022-year break of the milestone has passed. , There was also a movement to divide into local governments that do not hold[414]..In addition, Sendai City initially planned to continue the memorial service, but due to the continued influence of the new coronavirus, the event was canceled in the same year and only flowers were donated.[415].

Earthquake Remains / Earthquake Tradition Facility

Buildings that have been partially destroyed and remain on the site of the tsunami's water have been found in various parts of the coast of the disaster area.Of these, if they are certified as "earthquake remains", they will be preserved at public expense in order to pass on the lessons learned to future generations.Since the principle of public expenditure is "1 municipality, 1 facility", public facilities are prioritized for official remains certification, and as of December 2017, private buildings areTaro Kanko Hotel(Miyako City, Iwate Prefecture) only.There are also buildings that are feared to be demolished for "private remains" other than those that the owner has decided to save at their own expense.[416].

OtherNatural disaster tradition monumentRe-evaluation of the site and the construction of similar monuments and facilities can be seen.The "Earthquake Tradition Network Council" by the Tohoku Regional Development Bureau of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism has registered more than 220 of these seismic tradition facilities.[417]In addition,Tohoku Economic FederationEtc. have established a general incorporated foundation "3/11 Tradition Road Promotion Organization" to promote the networking of earthquake disaster remains.[418].

The main earthquake disaster remains are shown below.[419].

Iwate

  • Miyako City
  • Kamaishi
    • Unosumai District Disaster Prevention Center: Dismantling completed in February 2014[421]
  • Otsuchi Town
    • Old government office building: Partial preservation policy[Note 17]Consider.The part where the mayor's office was located is scheduled to be dismantled from April 2014[422].. On June 2014, 6, dismantling of buildings other than the main government building, which is under consideration for preservation, started.[423].. In December 2016, the Great East Japan Earthquake Reconstruction Town Development Special Committee of the town council compiled a written opinion based on the final report.He did not give the view that it should be preserved or dismantled, and asked for consideration including the old government building while promoting disaster prevention education and community development.[424].
    • Sightseeing boat"Mayuri": Already dismantled, but collecting donations for restoration[425]..However, the amount of donations collected as of 2019 is much less than the required amount, and we are looking for a tradition in model exhibitions and AR etc.[426].
  • Rikuzentakata City
    Both areTakata Matsubara Tsunami Reconstruction Memorial ParkLocated in the area[427].

Miyagi

  • Kesennuma City
  • Minamisanriku Town
    • Minamisanriku Town Disaster Prevention Countermeasures Office: Minamisanriku Town had a dismantling policy (until the end of 2013 due to the business), but it will not be dismantled until the end of the Miyagi Prefecture Experts Meeting (during 2014).After that, in June 2015, it was decided to make it a prefectural facility until 6.
    • Takano Kaikan (privately owned)[430][Note 18]
  • Ishinomaki
    • Ishinomaki City Okawa Elementary School: In March 2016, Ishinomaki City decided to preserve the entire old school building of the damaged Okawa Elementary School.[431]..Some of the bereaved families have an opinion that they do not want to see the school building, so it is being considered to make the surrounding area a park and surround it with plants.[431].. Park development will start in 2019, cherry trees will be planted around it, a management building with an exhibition space, a memorial monument, a flower bed, a lawn plaza, etc. will be set up.[432].. The goal was to complete it by the end of 2020 (end of March 2021)[432], After postponement, opened to the public on July 2021, 7[433].
    • Ishinomaki City Kadowaki Elementary School: The school building will be partially preserved as the earthquake disaster remains.The storage location is the site of the school andMinamihama districtIt is a reconstruction prayer park maintained inIshinomaki Minamihama Tsunami Reconstruction Memorial ParkBecame[434][435]..The school playground is under development as of 2013 for use by neighboring schools as a playground.The construction of the school building will start in 2019, the school building will be dismantled except for the 6 classrooms in the central part, and the rest will be reinforced (the observation building will be set up and the inside will not be open to the public), and the special classroom building and gymnasium will be open to the public and exhibited.[432].. As of December 2018, it was reported that the goal is to complete by the end of 12 (end of March 2020).[432], Actually it will be released in April 1, about a year later[436].
  • Onagawa
    • Old OnagawaPolice box: We are soliciting donations from June 2011 for preservation.Onagawa Town has established a policy to maintain it as a "memorial park" including the surrounding area.[437], Maintenance work was completed in February 2020[438].
  • Higashi Matsushima City
  • Sendai city
  • Yamamoto Town
    • Yamamoto Municipal Nakahama Elementary School. Open to the public from September 2020, 9. Received the 26 Good Design Award, Good Design Best 2020, and Special Award Good Focus Award [Disaster Prevention / Reconstruction Design].

Fukushima

Three years after the earthquake, there are about 3 places in Miyagi prefecture and 15 places in Iwate prefecture that are being considered for preservation.[446].. As of May 2014, 5 facilities in 7 cities and towns are under consideration in Miyagi Prefecture.[447].

Asteroid naming

Pray for the recovery from the earthquake,International Astronomical Union"Asteroids / Comets / Meteors 2012" (May 2012)Niigata OfToki MesseHeld at)小 惑星The place name of the disaster area was named.this isNational Observatory Lowell ObservatoryIt was attached by requesting[448][449].

In addition, there are asteroids named in connection with the following earthquakes.

Work as the subject

Since the scale of the damage and damage was extremely large and had a wide range of impacts on society as a whole, many works and expressions related to the Great East Japan Earthquake were announced.The content is a disasterdocumentary,reportage, Experience notesNon-FictionThere are a wide variety of works, including works with requiescats, works with the theme of recovery from the Great East Japan Earthquake, and creative works triggered by disaster experiences and volunteer experiences.

The following are directly related to the Great East Japan Earthquake.Those dealing with "bonds" and "reconstruction" as general concepts are not covered here.

Research books, academic papers, critiques

It does not include those that mainly consider the physics and science of earthquakes and tsunamis themselves. (Scientific consideration is "Tohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake"What)

  • Makoto SaitoAuthor "Political Economy of Earthquake Reconstruction"Nippon Hyoronsha
    It is said that the damage amount estimate of 16-25 trillion yen announced by the government was excessive, and the impact of the reconstruction budget based on it on the economy is being examined.[450].
  • Yasuyuki SawadaHen "Giant Disaster / Risk and Economy" Nihon Keizai Shimbun Publishing Co., Ltd.
  • Emmanuel ToddWritten and translated by Harumi Ishizaki, "Talking about Todd himself"Fujiwara Shoten
    "The Great East Japan Earthquake hit only a part of Japan, and behind it is Japan's huge industrial power."[450].
  • Yotaro Hatamura"Unprecedented and unexpected learning from the Great East Japan Earthquake"Kodansha modern new book, 2011.
  • Ichiro Mori"Beyond Death: The Possibilities of Philosophy after 3/11"University of Tokyo Press, 2013.
  • Richard J. SamuelsWritten by Presi Minami Niko et al., "3.11 Did the Earthquake Change Japan?" Eiji Press, March 2016.

literature

Nonfiction, Lupo, Photobook, etc.
fiction

movies

They are listed in chronological order, and those with unknown months are attached at the end of the year.The work of unknown date is attached at the end.Including self-produced works.

Nonfiction, documentary
Soma Nika Part XNUMX "Festival Horse"[458] --Director Yojyu Matsubayashi[459].
Far from Futaba Part 2[461] --Released in October 2014.
Spin-off short story far away from Futaba Radioactivity[462] -2014
Far from Futaba 2016 Omnibus-2016
  • --Released in September 2012.directed by.
  • --Director in 2012.Live in Minamisoma for 10 days and bring out the true feelings of the people.
  • - year 2012.directed by.
  • - year 2012.directed by.
  • -2012
  • --2012.Kenji Aoikedirected by.
  • - year 2012.Director Kenji Aoike.
  • --Released in October 2013.Kaoru Ikeyadirected by.Rikuzentakata CityKesen TownA work closely related to a 77-year-old solitary old man in the Aramachi district.63rdBerlin International Film FestivalEcumenical Award Special Award, 37thHong Kong International Film FestivalWon the Firebird Award (Grand Prix)[463].
  • --Released in October 2013.Hideo Nakatadirected by.
  • --Released in October 2013.Hiroshi Shinomiyadirected by.Fukushima Prefecture became a caution area due to the nuclear accidentIitate VillageDraw the lives of people in Japan.
  • --Released in September 2013.directed by.
  • Gareki and radio --Released in April 2013. ,Kazunari Tsukaharadirected by.Miyagi PrefectureMinamisanriku TownDisaster radio station "FM everyone[464]Was dealt with.While calling for a documentary, "YaraseThe production was pointed out[465][466].
  • [467] --Released in September 2013.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2013.directed by.
  • [468] --Released in August 2013.directed by:Ayako Imamura[Note 23]..Draw a disaster experience for people with visual and visual disabilities.
  • --Released in November 2013.directed by
  • --Released in October 2013.Masaki Haramuradirected by.
  • Series 1-5 --Director: (November 2013-November 11 release / Japan) Followed the whereabouts of radioactive materials diffused by the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear accident.
  • [469] --Director, 2013
  • --Released in 2013. ,Ryusuke Hamaguchidirected by.
  • --Released in 2013.Directed by Kou Sakai and Ryusuke Hamaguchi.
  • --Released in 2013.Directed by Kou Sakai and Ryusuke Hamaguchi.
  • --Released in 2013. OurPlanet-TV
  • --Released in October 2014.Toshi Fujiwaradirected by.
  • [470] --Released in October 2014.Makoto Shinozakidirected by.
  • --Released in October 2014.Shinya Todoridirected by[471].
  • [472] --Released in November 2014.directed by[473][Note 24][474].
  • --Released in May 2014.The co-director is ,,,,,,.
  • --Released in July 2014.directed by.Born in KoriyamaHideo FurukawaIs set in the stage, and the recitation drama "Galactic train night』Recorded the performance[475].
  • --Released in September 2014.directed by.
  • [476] - directed by.
  • - Toshio IizukaDirector, shooting.2014 Yufuin Culture and Record Film FestivalReceived the Matsukawa Award.
  • [477][478] - OECD東北スクールの高校生約30人が制作。2015年2月14日(土) - 2月22日(日) いわき市で初上映、DVD化。2015年9月12日(土)〜9月18日(金)[479]Pole Pole Higashi Nakano Organizer: NPO corporation, co-sponsor: PorePore Higashinakano
  • --Released in September 2015.directed by.
  • , --Released in August 2015 and February 8.directed by.A series of photographs of the Hadenya village in the southern part of Minamisanriku Town, Miyagi Prefecture.
  • --Director: (Released in October 2015 / Japan / 10 minutes) A ​​reading circle "Tanemaki Usagi" by high school students from Fukushima will engage in exchange activities between the victims of the nuclear accident and people from all over Japan.
  • [480] - directed by:Junichi Inoue (2015 / Japan / 86 minutes) (Released in February 2016) Kazuya Tarukawa, a farmer in Sukagawa City, Fukushima Prefecture, lives with his mother.His father committed suicide the day after he received a fax that stopped shipping due to the nuclear accident.Four years after the earthquake, 2 students will visit.
  • [481] --Released in October 2016.Furui Mizuedirected by.Evacuated from Iitate Village, Fukushima Prefecture to Date City, and chased two women (2 and 78 years old) living in a room next to a temporary housing for four years.
  • --Released in September 2016.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2016.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2017.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2017.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2017.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2017.directed by.
  • --Released in May 2017.Haruka Komori, director.
  • --Released in September 2017.directed by.
  • --Released in October 2018.Mia Yoondirected by.
  • --Released in October 2019.Toshikuni Doidirected by.
  • --Released in September 2021.directed by.
  • --Released in September 2021.directed by.
fiction

tv set

Nonfiction, documentary
  • [488] --2013, Sendai Television.22ndFNS Documentary AwardWon the grand prize at[489].
  • [490] --Kazuhiro Kawamura, Director, Mariko Matsumoto, Director, TBC (Tohoku Broadcasting Co., Ltd.), the first broadcast in June 2015. Grand Prix at "6th" Local Age "Video Festival 35"[491]..A documentary about the people of Ishinomaki who have been reconstructed through Kagura for three years.[492].
  • I will never forget 3.11 A word from me ~ Yoshi-san's "Tendenko" ~[493] --General Producer Ikuya Kakunodate, Producer Yoshiko Nakamura, Producer Yuto Horigome, Photographed and composed by Yoshifumi Chiba.IBC Iwate BroadcastingIs one of the TV commercials for the earthquake disaster reconstruction campaign that has continued since 2011.National Association of Commercial Broadcasters Award / 2013 (25) TV CM Category Excellence Award[494].. One a month from February 2013. "Tsunami TendenkoYoshi Akanuma (97 years old, female, Taro Town) who escaped with "Reconstruction cannot be done with Tendenko".
  • Kibo ~ Fukushima no Mebae ~- Fukushima Central Television(NTV series) Weekday evening information program "Gojitere Chu!』75 seconds corner.Junya Maru, General Manager of the News Department, Masanobu Murakami, the Desk of the News Department.Supporting babies born in the prefecture. Starting from January 2012, it has counted 1 times as of February 2016.
  • Together[495] --Producer Yutaka Orihara.Sendai BroadcastIs a 1-minute program that introduces the history of reconstruction of each person in Miyagi prefecture once a month. Broadcasting from April 30, 2011, the 4th on February 23, 2016.
  • Moment of shock(National geographic) Season 5 Episode 1 "FUKUSHIMA" (First broadcast2012October 3)
    • In this broadcast, the situation from just before the earthquake occurred was broadcast in the "reproduction scene", a woman who was a nursery teacher in Fukushima prefecture at that time and a man who was a NISA employee,Kawasaki City Fire DepartmentA man who was the chief of the fire department and a deputy director of the Cabinet Public Relations Secretary of the Cabinet Secretariat.Kenichi ShimomuraTestimony etc. was broadcast.
Drama

theater

  • "When the eastern wind blows" Written and directed[Note 26][496]Young man
  • "" Nocturne-Nocturne "(2015) -Nocturne 2015-"[497].. Written and directed by:Satoshi Kuramoto,musics:Nobuo Kurata, Art :, Cast: Furano GROUP.
    January 2015, 1-Performance nationwide until March 10.The stage is Fukushima, and it was created with the desire to be close to the victims of the Great East Japan Earthquake and the nuclear accident.[498].
  • [499]Ibushigintaro. Presided over by Gin's Bar. Born May 1958, 5 Born in Miyagi Prefecture, graduated from Sendai City Sendai High School and Sendai Design Training School.Gintaro Ibushi "White-That day, the white snow danced" (premiered in 24), "Ihatov's snow" (premiered in 2012), "That year" (scheduled to premiere in 2015)[500]
  • National Noh Theater OfNoh"Old Woman in Natori" March 2016.Starring (shite)Umewaka GenshoBunzo Otsuki..Co-starring Kazuhide Hosho,Tatsunori Kongo..Umewaka GenshoYuriage(Natori City, Miyagi Prefecture) I made a new work with "Teaching of Famous Places" including beaches.Umewaka Rokusho says he wants to perform in Natori City someday.[501].
  • Misato YanagiRevised "Still Life" In 1991, the theme of life and death of his own work included the students' views of the disaster, and in September 2018, it was performed in theaters at the theater unit "Youth May Party" presided over by Yanagi.[502].

Comic

Anime

  • Wake Up, Girls! --Animated movies released on January 2014, 1, September 10, 2015, and December 9, 25, and TV anime broadcast on TV Tokyo from January 12, 11 to March 2014, 1.It depicts an idol group based in Sendai after the earthquake.The 10th episode of the TV anime is set in the disaster-stricken city of Kesennuma.
  • [506] - directed by.Namie Town Town Story Tsutaetai (Representative of Yoshihiro Ozawa), Town Story Production Committee (Representative)Hiroshima..Representative Takashige Niizawa).Voice appearanceYasuo Daichi, Namie MayorTamotsu Baba, Namie Town Fire Brigade, Hitoshi Takano, Namie Singer Yoshihiko Kadoma and others.Music: Yoshihiko Kadoma (living in Namie Town),Katsuhiko Kamitsuna(George Yanagi and Rainey Wood),Akitsu Chisho(Cellist).
While listening to the voices of people asking for help and saying "I will definitely come", I draw the remorse of the fire brigade who could not return to rescue due to the evacuation order of the nuclear accident.[507].
  • Mayoiga on the cape --Theatrical animation released on August 2021, 8.An animated film adaptation of the novel.
Short animation
  • Two roads now --An animation produced by Miyagi Prefecture that aired on March 2015, 3.The Great East Japan Earthquake strikes two people who talk about the future.
  • Fragment of feelings --The 2016-minute version was aired on February 2, 11, and the 5-minute version was aired on March 3, 24 on NHK.
  • --An animation produced by Fukushima Prefecture released on February 2016, 2.

Picture-story show

  • --Namie Town Town Story Tsutaetai, Town Story Production Committee.It is said that there are nearly 100 picture-story shows made.

Music

Art

  • Project FUKUSHIMA! --An art project established on May 2011, 5 with the aim of communicating the current situation in Fukushima.
  • "Pointing Worker" (2011)- Performance art
  • Junichi Kakizaki,Chim ↑ Pom"Exposed flowers(2011)
  • Tsubasa Kato"The Lighthouses --11.3 PROJECT" (2011) --500 participants in Iwaki CityShioyazaki LighthouseTriggered a model of.
  • Yoshiaki Kaihatsu"Politician's House" (2012)
  • Lieko Shiga"Spiral Coast" (2012)
  • Hikari Fujii"Coastal Landscape Record" series (2012-) --Record the coasts and forests of the disaster area with a fixed-point camera.
  • Koki Tanaka"Statement as Behavior" (2013)
  • Venice BiennaleJapan Pavilion (2013) --Posted a neon sign "1km" indicating the distance from the venue to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.The representative of this year is Koki Tanaka.
  • "Does this soup taste ambivalent? (2014) --Performance art of serving Fukushima vegetable soup at the Freeze Art Fair in England.
  • Haruka Komori, Natsumi Seo "Under the Wave, on the Earth" (2014) --Installation
  • "If the light of a thousand suns shines in the sky at one time" (2014) - Okuma TownThe film was buried in the ground and developed.
  • Naoya Hatakeyama"Rikuzen Takada 2011-2014" (2015)
  • "Don't Follow the Wind" (2015-)-An international exhibition being held in a difficult-to-return area.

Celebrity damage

Iwate

  • Hiroaki Kato --Mayor Otsuchi.Immediately after the earthquake, he died in the tsunami while holding an emergency response meeting in front of the government office.Many of the town officials were also affected.Year-round69.
  • Takashi Shimokawara --Athletics.Born in Rikuzentakata City. He was still active as an athletics player over the age of 100.He died in a tsunami at his home in Kamaishi.He is 104 years old.
  • Masafumi Sano -Yuanrugbyplayer.Former president of the Kamaishi Rugby Association.Died after being caught in a tsunami.He is 63 years old.
  • Toru Kikawada(57 years old at that time)- Democratic PartyMember of the House of Representatives, from Rikuzentakata City, elected, former Rikuzentakata City Hall employee.One daughter who happened to attend a driving school on a hill after losing his parents-in-law (who is his son-in-law), his wife (51 years old), eldest son (29 years old), and a man who is a public second secretary in the earthquake. Survive.His home was 1km from the beach. He moved into a temporary housing in August 2.
  • Midori Terui(48 years old at that time) --A poet.Iwate PrefecturalKamaishi High School[Note 29]I lived in a gymnasium and a training camp for a month after the disaster.[453]..The experience is expressed in his collection of phrases such as "Ryugu".
  • Scott Fardy(26 years old at that time)- Rugby Australia National Team(Rugby World Cup 2015Participation). From 2009 (Heisei 21)Kamaishi Sea WavesA player who belonged toKamaishiDamaged in.Although his home country called for evacuation, he stayed in the city and volunteered to support him.
  • Yoshimura Tsuchimura(20 years old at that time,Kyoto University of Art and Design2 years) --Actress.Moriokawhere one is from.He was on his way home from collegeTohoku ShinkansenWas damaged in the car, and was trapped for about 9 hours in the tunnel past Sendai Station.[512].
  • Aki Sasaki(9 years old at that time)- Chiba Lotte Marinespitcher.His father and grandparents died in the tsunami caused by the earthquake.
  • Akiko Kuji(At that time, a first year high school student) --Model, formerFuji Television Network, Incannouncer.

Miyagi

  • Eriko Sato - soccer player.Watari Townwhere one is from.He was caught in the tsunami and went missing, and his family confirmed the body on April 4.He is 2 years old.
  • Kimio Doi -YuanIshinomakiLong.Born in Ishinomaki.He was caught up in the tsunami and went missing with his wife, and his identity was confirmed from the body enshrined at the Ishinomaki City Gymnasium on March 3.He is 17 years old.
  • Muneyuki Sato(62 years old at that time)- Singer-songwriter..Lives in Sendai City.She is in charge of the moderatorMiyagi TV"OH! BandesWas damaged on the way to the same station to appear in.Sendai's representative song of SatoLocal songBut also "Aoba castle love song"But,1978(Showa 53) Occurred on June 6Miyagiken-oki EarthquakeFrom the background of the hit immediately after, Sato sang the same song in various scenes even in this earthquake.Keisuke KuwataThey also sang at a concert in Miyagi prefecture.Including SatoJunichi Inagaki-Yusa Mimori-Koichi YamaderaThe proceeds from the reconstruction support song "Let's Build a Rainbow" sung by members of the Ramiyagi Bikkiki no Kai are donated to support activities for children affected by the earthquake.
  • Ijuin Shizuka(61 years old at that time) --Writer.Damaged at his home in Sendai (he was reinforced a dozen years ago and was a stick)[513]..Later, he wrote and published "Introduction to the Man's Style [Earthquake]" with the theme of the Great East Japan Earthquake.Kohei Otomo(Miyagi PrefectureShiogamaProduced a charity song "Like a flower like a hagane" in combination with (from)[514].
  • Kumiko(56 years old at that time)- Chansonsinger.. Since the concert was scheduled to appear at the Ishinomaki Civic Center from the evening of March 3, an earthquake occurred when I was in the waiting room in the basement of the same building.[515]..In the back mountainQuarryAlthough she escaped from the tsunami because she evacuated to, the building was submerged, and Kumiko and others had to spend the night in the back mountains.[515]..The next day, I moved to Sendai, but there was no way to go to Tokyo,TaxiIn YamagataShonai AirportMove to Haneda flight3/13Returned to Tokyo at night[515][516](Cross over 200 km from Ishinomaki on the Pacific Ocean side to Shonai Airport on the Sea of ​​Japan side via Sendai).Since then, he has been energetically holding free concerts in the disaster areas, including Ishinomaki.
  • Bachi(48 years old at that time)- poet.. His home has been in Sendai since 2006 and he lived with her parents and eldest son.[517]..At the time of the earthquake, I was in Tokyo for work and took 5 days to return to Sendai.[517]..In the neighboring prefecture, which continued to operate even after the earthquake with children, thinking of avoiding the radiation damage caused by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accident.Yamagata AirportGo toNahaBy flightVoluntary evacuation official[517]. afterwards,IshigakijimaAnd settled as it was[517]..In March 1, he published "From that-Machi Tawara 3 Tanka Collection", which is a collection of tanka songs for one year from the occurrence of the earthquake, including the experience of this voluntary evacuation.
  • Hideaki Sena(43 years old at that time) --Writer.Damaged at my home condominium in Sendai.
  • Makoto Tekuramori(43 years old at the time) --Soccer player and director.Vegalta SendaiDuring his time as a director, he suffered a disaster on the second floor of a clubhouse in Sendai.The ceiling collapsed, the windows broke, and the furniture fell and escaped.He saw the stars at night and thought it was the "light of hope."2 minutes after the earthquake, the coachMakoto SegawaI later learned that my first child was born[518].
  • Oguchi Reiko(41 years old at the time)-Poet.Damaged by the nuclear accident in Sendai cityMiyazaki CityMoved to.
  • Sandwich man(36 years old at the time) --A comedy duo.Kesennuma PortIn the marketTohoku Broadcasting (TBC) "Sandy vague TV"ofLocationI was affected by the disaster. Operation started at noon on March 2013, 3It was appointed as an enlightenment poster for tsunami warning.
  • Keiichiro Hirano(35 years old at that time) --Writer.After seeing the tsunami damage in Onagawa, he said, "It was the most shocking sight in my life."Inspired by the fact that the flow of time differs between Tokyo and the damaged areas, the short story "Transparent Labyrinth" ("Shincho" July 2013 issue) was released.[519].
  • Marquinhos(34 years old at that time)- BrazilianProfessional soccer player.Although he belonged to Vegalta Sendai, he was shocked by the earthquake and left the group to return to his home country of Brazil.From the next season, otherJ LeagueI returned to the team.
  • Shuji Kondo(33 years old at the time) --Professional wrestler.To move to the match venueSengoku LineHe was damaged on the train while he was on the rapid train, and was rescued with other passengers the next day.All passengers on the train, including Kondo, were safe.
  • MONKEY MAJIK(30s at that time)- CanadianAnd by the Japaneserock band..Lives in Sendai.He continued volunteer activities such as removing mud and debris in the disaster area.She held a charity live "SEND Ai" and donated the sales.Ministry of Foreign AffairsWas appointed as "Ambassador of Earthquake Reconstruction" (Ambassador of KIZUNA).
  • rake(Age unknown) --Singer-songwriter.Born and resident in Sendai City.She was affected at her home in the city.She created a "wonderful world" in the wake of the earthquake, and her "vow" began in the wake of the earthquake.Tohoku Rokutama FestivalBecame the theme song of[520].
  • Ayase Senna(22 years old at that time,Takarazuka RevueFlower set)- actress..After the performance at Takarazuka Grand Theater, he was affected by the disaster while returning to Natori City, and although he and his family and relatives were safe, he remained unable to contact him.Senna returned to Takarazuka City after spending time at an evacuation center in Yamagata Prefecture to perform in Tokyo.[521].
  • Yuzuru Hanyu(16 years old at that time,Tohoku High School1 years)- Figure skatingplayer. "Ice rink Sendai"(Sendai cityIzumi ku), The building shook greatly while practicing, and I ran away with my skates on.Hanyu said the ice was rippling and he ran away crying, feeling the fear of death.His home was also damagedlife lineI lived in a shelter for 4 days because I stopped.I couldn't use the practice area, so I practiced and maintained my senses at about 60 ice show performances.[522][523][524].
  • Dorothy Little Happy(10s at that time) --Idol group.Members live in Sendai City. On March 2011, 3avex traxからmajor debutAlthough I was preparing for it, the earthquake occurred and the CD was released as planned outside the disaster area, but all the debut events were canceled or postponed, and the CD will be released in the disaster area for about a month. could not. "" Held on August 1th and 8thTOKYO IDOL FESTIVALAttracted attention in "2011 ~ Eco & Smile ~"[525].
  • Karen Iwata(12 years old at that time) --Idol group:AKB48Members of.On the day of the earthquake, he left elementary school early due to poor physical condition and encountered an earthquake with a seismic intensity of 6 or higher while resting at her home in Sendai city.After the earthquake, she took and passed the AKB48 research student selection that was held, and she started performing arts activities.[526].
  • Nanami Sato (11 years old at the time) --Idol group:AKB48 Team 8Iwate prefecture representative member of.He lived in a shelter when he lived in Sendai and suffered an earthquake and his home was completely destroyed.[527][528]..She then moved to Iwate prefecture and she was selected to represent Iwate prefecture in AKB48 Team 8.
  • Rikako Sasaki(9 years old at that time) --Idol group:AnjurumA member of (formerly Smileage).Born in Kesennuma.His home was swept away by the tsunami and forced to live in evacuation[529][530]..This was the impetus for her to start her entertainment activities.

Fukushima

  • Ryoichi Wago(43 years old at the time) --High school language teacher and poet.Fukushima Prefectural Hobara High School(Fukushima PrefectureDate City) Was in the middle of the entrance examination pass / fail judgment meeting."Poetry gravel" with the theme of the earthquakeTwitterContinued to send at, and later published.
  • GReeeEN(Around 30 years old at that time) --Vocal group (members areDentist).At that time, lived in Fukushima prefecture[531]..HIDE, a member, is working on identifying the victims of the earthquake (Autopsy)participated in.The Great East Japan Earthquake reconstruction project "Green boys Project" was implemented[532].
  • Masato Imai(26 years old at that time)- Athletics(Long distance-marathon)player.Minamisoma CityOdaka Ward(Former Soma DistrictOdaka Town)where one is from.At the time of the earthquake, he wasToyota Motor Kyushu Athletics ClubAlthough he belongs to the company and has not been directly damaged, his parents' house was damaged by the tsunami, many of the relay road race-related certificates were lost, and he was unable to contact his local friends.Because of this, I got married in the same yearRKB Mainichi Broadcasting SystemFormer announcerMami KawazoeAt first, he retired after getting married and decided to support Imai as a full-time housewife, but as a result of discussions with the couple, he came to the conclusion that "continuing each other's work is something that can be done for the sake of others" and retired. Withdrawn[533].
  • Tomoyo Shiina(17 years old at the time) --Actress and singer.She is from Iwaki City.When the earthquake struck, I witnessed the moment when the high school playground "split in two", and that night with waterチ ョ コ レ ー トJust surpass the night.It was downloaded to a portable player while the inconvenient life continued.J-POPBecame a support for my heart[534].. She won the Grand Prix at the "39th Horipro Talent Scout Caravan" and made her debut as her singer.
  • Kasumi Mougi (13 years old at the time) --Idol group: AKB48 Team 8 Fukushima representative member.Futaba DistrictHirono TownBackground[535]..Due to the impact of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station accidentHirono Municipal Hirono Junior High SchoolTransferred to Karaiwaki Municipal Yumoto Third Junior High School[536][537].. She was selected to represent Fukushima Prefecture in AKB48 Team 8.
  • Yuuki Aoi(11 years old at the time) --Actress.Damaged while living in Minamisoma City[538][539]..In 2012, when I was in a junior high school in Yamagata prefecture, "37thHoripro Talent Scout CaravanBecame a grand prix and made its debut in the entertainment world[540]..Set in Iwate Prefecture as one of the stagesContinuous tv novel"Ama-chan』In Miyagi PrefectureLocal idolPlayed the role of Kaoruko Onodera, the center of the group "Sendai Beef Tongue Girls".

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ US Geological Survey(USGS) data is Mw9.1.
  2. ^ It is the final heat sink when other cooling means are cut off.
  3. ^ The heart of car control.Remake for each model, not a general-purpose product.Manufacturing equipment also dislikes small vibrations.[Source required]
  4. ^ For emergency traffic route designationMetropolitan Expressway Misato Line・ Yashio South Exit-Misato Junction (down), Misato Junction-including Yashio Entrance (up).
  5. ^ Fortunately, at the time of the earthquake, there were no passenger planes taking off and landing because the scheduled departure and arrival times were off, and there was no damage to those passengers and crew.
  6. ^ At that time, Tokyo International Airport had not been fully re-internationalized and had only domestic flights and international charter flights.
  7. ^ The Self-Defense ForcesHyakuri Air BaseFor monitoring from the skyF-2Arrival and departure, and of the Ground Self-Defense ForceCH-47helicopterIt is operating as a relay base for.
  8. ^ In addition, a part-time special job local government employee who has the authority to carry out firefighting activities based on the spirit of "protecting his own town by himself" while having a livelihood = annual remuneration of about 5 yen.
  9. ^ Tone RiverIt has a landfill along the road.
  10. ^ 7 houses are HikiyaAkita CityRelocated to, for elderly dementiagroup homebecome.
  11. ^ Making reinforced concreteTadataka Ino Memorial HallWas completed in 10, and 2,345 pointsNational treasureThe materials were safe because the materials were preserved.
  12. ^ a b c d e f g 2015 (Heisei 27) census preliminary figures.
  13. ^ 4 commercial broadcasters except TV Tokyo1980After that, as an example of cutting the entire commercial and broadcasting it,19891/7 OfEmperor ShowademiseSpecial organization in (Time varies depending on the station, but generally from 1 o'clock on January 7th1/9(Approximately 42 hours before dawn) was the longest so far, and it exceeded that in the reports of the earthquake.note that,19951/17 OfGreat Hanshin-Awaji EarthquakeImmediately after that, there was a station that completely cut the commercial for almost two days, but this is justOsaka stationIt was not intended for the entire series because it was limited to a part of.
  14. ^ At that time, the radiko service was in Tokyo,Aichi,OsakaOnly the radio stations of the above participated, and the distribution service outside the broadcasting target area was not provided.
  15. ^ In the Tokyo edition of the Asahi Shimbun, 40 pages are usually 20-24 pages.
  16. ^ Great Hanshin EarthquakeThere are 225 million people.
  17. ^ It costs 3-8 million yen to leave all, so it costs 1.65 million yen to leave a part of the wall.
  18. ^ At the discretion of the employees, 300 elderly gardening tournament participants stopped returning home and evacuated to the rooftop at a height of 17m, but the rooftop was also hit by the tsunami and was saved by evacuating to an emergency space above.After that, I shared 1 PET bottles of water a day.
  19. ^ The old address is Arahama, Wakabayashi-ku, SendaiwordShin-Horibata 32-1.
  20. ^ a b March 2011, 3, the day after the great earthquakeNagano Prefecture Northern Earthquake.
  21. ^ Born in 1972, photographer and television director.
  22. ^ The title of the author's Facebook "Kei Kitano (anti-nuclear power plant, overthrowing Abe)"
  23. ^ Deaf person.Videographer.He lives in Nagoya.
  24. ^ The movie was temporarily discontinued, and according to officials and directors, the militant group "CoreThe reason is that it was pointed out from the outside that it was related to a woman in the movie and a clinic in Fukushima prefecture that examined the thyroid gland of a child.The woman became a core after the nuclear accident and was interviewed for two and a half minutes in the movie.According to the clinic, core members played a central role in calling for the establishment of the clinic, and the movie included a minute and a half of what happened at the clinic.
  25. ^ Born in 1980, from Hyogo prefecture.She graduated from the Department of Imaging, Osaka University of Arts.
  26. ^ Toru Takagi. 1950 Iwaki City, Fukushima PrefectureHisanohamabirth.At the time of the earthquake, a tsunami hit the first floor of his house, and he escaped from radiation for three days and was in a shelter.Meiji UniversityGraduation. 1972 --2013Young man..Received the 1989 Italian Broadcasting Corporation Award for "Kaze no Ie" (NHK), a fictional village near the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant that is devastated with gold."The old couple is debilitated by radiation.When the wind blows』(2011) script.
  27. ^ Aichi岡 崎 市Honjuku TownLive in.
  28. ^ Look, Mika, 29 years old.She is a singer-songwriter.She is from Namie Town and is living in Ota City, Gunma Prefecture.
  29. ^ 7km from the coast.

Source

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  145. ^ "To thoroughly save electricity, supporters of" Operation Yashima "spread on Twitter". ITmedia news(July 2011, 3). http://www.itmedia.co.jp/news/articles/1103/12/news017.html April 2011, 3Browse. 
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  153. ^ 23 off the Pacific coast of Tohoku Earthquake (Great East Japan Earthquake) (2011nd report) (PDF) Fire department
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  156. ^ "Yuji Matsuo yells at Kamaishi SW ... Rugby". ""Sports report』. (November 2011, 3). originalArchived as of October 2012, 7.. https://archive.is/20120709102731/http://hochi.yomiuri.co.jp/sports/ballsports/news/20110323-OHT1T00281.htm April 2011, 3Browse. 
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  159. ^ However, at Unosumai Elementary School, one child who was handed over immediately after the earthquake was sacrificed.List of earthquake response status of schools and children-related facilities in the Great East Japan Earthquake (PDF) --Kamaishi City
  160. ^ Memories of the monument | I swear to relocate to a hill (Funakoshi, Yamada-cho, Tanohama district) Iwate Broadcast
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  162. ^ "Daughter ... I found it right after the memorial service on the XNUMXth that I met on this day.""Asahi Shimbun". (December 2011, 4). http://www.asahi.com/national/update/0429/TKY201104280772.html?ref=rss April 2011, 9Browse. [Broken link]
  163. ^ "[Great East Japan Earthquake]" Go up in a deadly way "74 people died in the tsunami, unknown Miyagi / Okawako's" that time """Sankei Shimbun". (March 2011, 4). originalArchived as of October 2011, 4.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110417073938/http://sankei.jp.msn.com/affairs/news/110414/dst11041419270052-n1.htm April 2011, 9Browse. 
  164. ^ "Mr. Doi, former mayor of Ishinomaki, sacrificed in the earthquake""Kahoku Shimpo". (November 2011, 3). originalArchived as of October 2011, 3.. https://web.archive.org/web/20110321012928/http://www.kahoku.co.jp/news/2011/03/20110318t13012.htm April 2011, 3Browse. 
  165. ^ “Handmade shelter, Higashi Matsushima in a rocky mountain that saved 70 people over 10 years”"Asahi Shimbun". (December 2011, 3). http://www.asahi.com/special/10005/TKY201103290226.html April 2014, 1Browse. 
  166. ^ Testimony of the big tsunami that hit Higashi Matsushima City
  167. ^ Statistical information(Sendai city)