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In addition to the coronavirus, black racism has become a major issue these days.
 

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Racism

Racism(Racism,British: racial discrimination) Is

Overview

Definition
  • International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationIs Article 1 of 1 "Race,Skin color,DescentOrEthnic or tribalAll distinctions based on their physical origin,Exclusion, Restricted or prioritized,Politicsof,Economyof,社会of,cultureIn all other fields of public lifeequalityIn the position ofhuman rightsas well as the Basic freedomRecognize, prevent or harm the enjoyment or exercise ofthe purposeOr has an effect.” However, Article 1-2 states, "This Convention isCitizen[2]It does not apply to the distinction, exclusion, restriction or priority provided between non-citizens and non-citizens." However, it is said that it is limited to cases where there is a reasonable basis such as "participation right" because it affects the exercise of public power or the formation of the will of the state.
  • Sociologists defined racism as:
    • Arbitrarily selected features such as skin color are selected as important criteria (segregation), and these features categorize the human population.(in)(Racialization), giving negative/positive evaluation, and excluding/inclusion of a certain human groupideology.
    • Accompanied by a stereotyped representation of the Other.
    • Features that are the basis of classification are generally traits (eg skin color, head (en: human head)Form of,(Native) hair color,Eye color, Etc.) However, a natural phenomenon that is not immediately apparent (eg, pedigree) may be selected as an important feature.
  • Discriminatory expressions, including racial discrimination, and discriminatory behavior are also called "hate speech."Detail isHate speechSee.

History and examples

The history and current trends of racial discrimination are outlined below.

Europe

Whether to define the Greek-Roman period as ancient Europe is a question often asked by European skeptics. If included, some interracial interactions were seen through residents residing in the provinces of North Africa, but the majority of Africans in the provinces were of Caucasian origin.BerberHowever, exchanges with blacks in the South and South were very limited. Gallia and German in ancient Roman times were undeveloped from the Mediterranean world, the center of civilization, and the Middle East.Northern raceThe appearance defined as was written like a symbol of barbarians. However, the concept of so-called racism did not exist in ancient Greece and Rome.Greek mythologyThen blackAndromedaWas described as a beauty,Military emperorThere were also African residents who were appointed as emperor candidates at the time.

In the medieval era, which can be said to be feudal disorder, conflict between familiar aristocrats was the most important issue, religious conflict was the more important issue, and then ethnic conflict was a glimpse. It was a posterity that the whiteness of the skin came to be considered a sign of superiority.

Age of DiscoveryAfterWestern European New world Ofイ ン デ ィ ア ン,SaharaSouth ofNegroidDiscrimination against is remarkable in history. Also, even if the same WesternerアイルランドMany ethnic groups have a history of being discriminated against, such as people.RumorTherefore, there was also an era when one race was considered to be biologically primitive, and it was considered as a wild animal because it had poor intelligence and was barbaric. After the Age of Discovery, Westerners invaded most of the world with modern armies and colonized it.Colonial ruleThe Western European dominance was argued to justify that "white people are obliged to give civilization to non-white people." This advantage is "white people are the most evolved(I.e.The result is that even the value of "is"Radyard Kipling"White Duty",Cecil Rose"The country that is loved by God, England",Hugh Lofting"Dr. LittleOf the seriesAfrica snow''Nautical record"Such). This idea gradually expanded, and even in the academic field, a theory was announced that the characteristic difference between races was "evidence that one race is inferior",EugenicsWas justified in the name of. In thisTheory of evolutionIs greatly twisted,Cultural anthropologyIt is thought that this has greatly hindered development.

ドイツ

Anti-SemitismWas raisedNaziClaims a biological classification of "Sem race" and "Jewish race", and is mainly an ethnic/religious classification.JewI tried to distinguish them biologically.

ギリシャ

ギリシャIt is said that racist attacks are rarely convicted and racism is rampant.Greek economySince the crisis, their immigrants have been exposed to the Greeks' dissatisfaction, especially under attack[3]!

Africa

SaharaLived intensively in southern AfricaBlackIn ancient timesArab,PersianThere was a time when he was treated as a slave of and was subject to racism. A great Islamic philosopherIbn KhardunEven black people are subject to discrimination. However, the ProphetMuhammadBefore the era, when the Arab tribes were busy fighting among the tribes without having a unified nation on the Arabian Peninsula,エチオピアThere was a great black empire.Arabs were sometimes invaded by Ethiopia, and conversely they sought protection from Ethiopia.Therefore, there was a time when Arabs had the concept of awe-inspiring races with higher cultural standards than themselves, rather than blacks with inferior cultures.Certainly some Arabs owned black slaves, but blacks were only part of the slaves, and most of the slaves were abducted by war prisoners of the same Arab tribes, abducted by pirates, or bought by slave traders. He was a European inhabitant and was a so-called white man.AbbasidSouth in times(I.e.Was used in large-scale agriculture inBlack slaveIs dissatisfied with the harsh working environment and is causing rebellion (Zanju Rebellion).In addition, as a term that saw Africa from EuropeBlack africaThere is.

After the Age of Discovery, Europeans who discovered the "New World" used black slaves as a labor force there.Europeans have mainly used blacks living in West-Central Africa as slaves.This was due to the convenience of slaves for extremely intensive mass production in the "New World" and the death of many indigenous peoples in the "New World" due to infectious diseases brought by Europeans. Reasons for the need, such as the fact that blacks were believed to be resistant to infectious diseases and were considered qualified, and that their appearance was easy to distinguish from non-slaves. Can be given.European powers colonized most of Africa after the end of the 19th century, until then, when local African states and influential tribal chiefs captured hostile tribes and sold them as slaves to Europeans for profit. I was giving.Blacks purchased by Europeans were loaded into the holds of slave ships and transported to markets such as the New World.The conditions of the slave ship hold were so harsh that a significant proportion of blacks died before arriving at the market.Slave marketThen, it was displayed as a product on a stand and sold. They black slavesPersonalityWas denied and was treated the same as livestock. Very few were able to engage in light domestic work or were freed from slavery. Slave by these Europeans began in 1888.BrazilContinued until abolition of slavery. Sugarcane and cotton were the world-class products that were supported by slave labor.

アメリカ合衆国

Discrimination against Africans

America'sCivil WarHad the character of a slave liberation war as one of his personalities. The American slaves as institutions were abolished and liberated when the southern states, which supported the economic foundation of many black slaves and opposed to the liberation of slaves, were defeated, but substantial discrimination persisted.Second World WarAfterHistoryThen,Vietnam War OfAnti-war movementIn relation toMartin Luther King Jr.By the pastorCivil rights movementBut left an impact on many Americans.

Discrimination against Indians

In the United States, as a "disturber" when expanding territory,イ ン デ ィ ア ンImplemented a policy to eliminate (Native American) thoroughly.Thomas JeffersonIs an indianReservation placeThe 7th US President, pushing forward with the inclusion in (Reservation)Andrew Jackson"Indians are the inferior peoples that should be destroyed"US CongressI gave a speech at. MilitaryPhilip Sheridan"A good Indian is a dead Indian,"William Sherman"If you can kill as many Indians this year, you'll have less to kill next year," said the United States.Ethnic cleansingIt is a good representation of the attitude.

"Indian Forced Emigration ActThe illegalUnited States Supreme CourtAcknowledged and attached to the sentence that "Indians are humans."1879年It's finally here. After that, the IndiansColored(Colored)"1960 eraUntil"Jim Crow MethodWas targeted.

Discrimination against Asians

Yellow race (AsiaHas been evaluated by the white society for its hardworking and enthusiastic culture, and it has certainly penetrated into the white society.20st centurySince the latter half, there has been no situation of unilateral exploitation.North America,UKInEast AsiaImmigrantEducational HistoryThe standard of living is high among races other than white, and even on average exceeds whites. As a manifestation of that, in American university selectionAffirmative ActionThere is no preferential treatment, but rather a disadvantage.

On the other hand, in America in the first half of the 20th centuryカナダAtChinese immigrants,Japanese immigrantsLooking at the circumstances ofcoolieEven after being dropped into a slave situation such as, and struggling to establish an economic position,Yellow erosionThere is a history of encountering the movement of disfellowship in the background. Especially for NikkeiSecond World WarCitizenship was suspended inside, leading to concentration camps.Others who were also engaged with the United StatesGerman descent,Italian descent such asAxis countriesNatives and their offspring were almost unrestricted, soJapaneseIs considered to be racism against.

Latin America

スペインAfter invading South America,Maya,AztecDestroy their nation by force in the conquered areas such asAbuse・Large amountMassacreColonized byイ ン デ ィ ア ン,IndioWas put in discrimination.

In Spanish territory,Las CasasChristian evangelists from these countries work hard to protect the Indians, which eventually leads to the introduction of black slaves as an alternative to the workforce. Caucasian since modern times,Mixed, There are not a few nations whose social classes are divided by Indians.

Japan

Russo-Japanese WarLater Japan was the only non-European nation of colorStrong lineAnd many immigrants were also sent out, but in the WestImperialismIn response to the opposition from the government and the issue of exclusion from Japanese immigrants, they often took the position of "anti-racism" in order to protect their own right to survive.[4]. AlliesJapan representative who participated as a member ofWorld War IAfterParis peace conferenceso,Racial discrimination elimination clauseHowever, due to the exercising of the chairman's veto right by the British and American representatives and the disagreement, the meeting has failed.Shoichi WatanabeStates that Japan is the first country in the world to make a clear claim to eliminate racial discrimination at international conferences.[5][6].

Second World WarLet's make racial discrimination a national mottoNazi GermanyMilitary alliance(Japan-Germany Ikoku Union), both Europeans and whitesキ リ ス ト 教徒But not JapaneseNazi OfJewHe was uncooperative in persecution. Rather,ManchuriaToJewBuild an autonomous regionRiver pig planExists,Japan-Germany Ikoku UnionEven after being establishedFive-phase conferenceArranged not to persecute the Jews inAxis powers-It did not cooperate with the persecution of Jews as it did in the occupied territories.Therefore, Jews who escape from Europerefugeesfor,USSRからManchuria(Northeastern China)米 国The route to escape to others was important.However,Remaining measures measuresAs shown in, the diplomatic consideration will no longer be actively involved in the protection of Jews. Then JapanDiplomatWas working asChiune SugiharaTo thousands of JewsvisaIn order to rescue his life, but this is at his own discretion.[7].

Discrimination in Japan is not limited to specific races and ethnic groups, but Japanese (YamatoHumans other than ()Foreigner) Is to discriminate[8].

In recent years in Japan2000 eraEntered and became radicalKoreans and Koreans living in Japan"Discriminatory behavior against the public and community activities" is regarded as a problem[9],Act on Promotion of Efforts to Eliminate Unfair Discriminatory Behavior against People from Other Countries(Enforced on June 2016, 6)''[10]Or in Osaka or KawasakiHate speech ordinanceThe countermeasures such as this were approved.

Again to Japan2014年IsUnited NationsThe Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination has issued a recommendation requesting a response to racial discrimination.[11][12], Against that recommendationJapanese GovernmentCommented by the Japanese government on the final opinion of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9)[13][14]The answer is divided into two parts.

In the private sectorMeeting to eliminate black discriminationAre protesting about the expression of blacks.

South Korea

South Korea TheCommittee on the Elimination of Racial DiscriminationThe immigration control law was abolished without accepting the recommendation ofMigrant workerRestricting the rights of migrant workers and using prejudice against migrant workers to conduct abuse, assault, and exploitation of labor.[15].. According to the "Human Rights Situation Survey on Fisheries Migrant Workers" issued by the Korean National Human Rights Commission in 2012, 93.5% of seafarers migrants had been subjected to curse and assault, of which 42.6% had been assaulted. Was done[15].

2012 years,フィリピンKoreanLee JasmineWhen he became a member of the DietKorean InternetRacist aboveBashingHappened[16].

2014年2/14ToインドネシアJapanese sailor is assaulted by a Korean colleague and dies[15].. Although the United Nations Commission on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination recommended in 2012 the South Korean government to enact anti-discrimination and other laws, but the South Korean government has not implemented it. He has created a modern version of slavery and is still implementing racism policy." (Lee Jae-sang, Chairman of the South Korean Foreign Migration Labor Movement Council)[15].

June 2013, of a professional baseball playerKim TaiIs a black pitcherShane Yuman"The black face made him laugh at the mound, his white teeth overlapped with the ball, making it hard to hit," the National Human Rights Commission warned.[17][18].

2014年Was found in the Pocheon African Museum migrant labor exploitation case[15].. In this case, African artists received only half the legal minimum wage and workersslaveWhen protesting such labor, the museum replied, "Is it a lot of money in Africa?"[19].

2014年In September, the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights Special Rapporteur on Racial Discrimination conducted a survey in South Korea.[20].. Entertainers on Korean TV showsBlackWearing a mask of "Dis Africa"ChimpanzeeAFP news agency reported that "Korean people unconsciously discriminate against racism".[16][20][21].

International attempt to abolish

World War IIt is a peace conferenceParis peace conferenceThen,AlliesThe Japanese delegation who was a member ofProposal to eliminate racial discriminationWas done.UKRepresentativeオーストラリアA vote was taken against the hard-line of the representative, and as a result, the majority was 11-5, but the chairman of the United StatesWoodrow WilsonWas denied because he requested unanimous exception.

1963年11/20,United NationsBut"United Nations Declaration on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationWas adopted.1965年The United NationsInternational Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial DiscriminationThe treaty came into effect in 1969. Paragraph 1996 of Article 1976 that the Treaty in Japan in 20 stipulates in 2 as "law prohibiting advocacy of national, racial or religious hatred that causes incitement to discrimination, hostility or violence" includingInternational Covenant on Civil and Political Rights(International Human Rights Agreement) has been established. It also states that in Article 2, “If a country has no legislation to discriminate against discriminatory behavior, it should be put in place.” Does not recognize such rights."

2001 years,Republic of South Africa OfDurbanHeld inUnited Nations Conference on Anti-RacismIn (WCAR),Southern hemisphereDiscrimination by national representatives ofColonialism,大西洋CrossingslaveBuying and selling, andZionismAccusation of racism against him was a succession. The meetingEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIt resolved the unanimous criticism of the protection of human rights and Zionism. USA,イ ス ラ エ ルThe delegation fought against this and boycotted the resolution.

From January 2009, 4スイス OfGenevaAt WCAR held in the US, in addition to Israel,カナダ-オーストラリア-ニュージーランド-ドイツ-イタリア-スウェーデン-ポーランド- NetherlandsEach country representative boycotted.

Facial harassment

Attacking or making anxious on the other side based on race, origin, or nationality is called sexual harassment. It can occur in all relationships, including disdainful remarks about the origin, conversations and businesses that assume that there is only a specific ethnicity, and evaluations that link mistakes and ideas to specific roots. Expressions singing the superiority of a particular ethnic group, and remarks on the exclusion of foreigners, etc., are considered as harassment.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ Daijizumi "Racism"
  2. ^ “Citizen” is a key concept to understand the relationship between the nation and people in developed countries. Japan is still a littleUnderdeveloped countryAnd this concept of "citizen" is not well understood.PeopleIs often expressed as ".
  3. ^ “Angle:'immigration crisis' in austerity Greece, an outlet for social dissatisfaction”. Reuters. http://jp.reuters.com/article/worldNews/idJPTYE8B800420121209 2014/8/23Browse. 
  4. ^ "Japanese and African-Americans-Aspects in the History of US-Japan Relations-" Hiromi Furukawa,Furukawa Satoshi Akashi bookstore ISBN 9784750319223 P79-86
  5. ^ It was Japan that first appealed for the elimination of racial discrimination at an international conference[1]
  6. ^ Shoichi Watanabe "Showa history that tells the truth" PHP Research Institute, published on July 2015, 7 (pages 16-292)
  7. ^ Katsumasa Watanabe "The Truth, Sugihara Visa" Taisho Publishing, 2000 ISBN-4 8117 0309-X- [Page number required]
  8. ^ Naoki Tsusaka (May 2019, 5). "Discrimination in Europe, repelled by Japan ... The origin of the" right-wing "Japanese Americans". Asahi Shimbun. https://www.asahi.com/articles/ASM552RN7M55UHBI006.html 2020/5/29Browse. 
  9. ^ Mainichi Shimbun "Hate speech report from open newspaper committee" Mainichi Shimbun Tokyo morning edition 2016.7.1[2]
  10. ^ Act on Promotion of Efforts to Eliminate Unfair Discriminatory Behavior against People from Other Countries - e-Gov Law Search
  11. ^ International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination[3]
  12. ^ Respect for Okinawa's People's Mind Recommendation to Japan by United Nations Commission on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination 2014.8.30[4]
  13. ^ Comments by the Japanese Government on the Final Opinion of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9) (August 2016)[5]
  14. ^ To the final opinion of the Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination (CERD/C/JPN/CO/7-9)Japanese GovernmentComment (December 2016)[6]
  15. ^ a b c d e Labornet “Korea: Japan's Racial Discrimination Eliminates Racial Discrimination” Severe 2014.30.20[7]
  16. ^ a b AFP Communication October 2014, 10 "UN begins investigation on racism in Korean society'
  17. ^ Chuo Nippo June 2013, 6
  18. ^ Chosun IlboSeptember 2014, 9 "Racism in South Korea by economic power" criticized by US papers
  19. ^ Hankyore 2014.2.1 "Secretary-General Hong Mun-Jung, the Senurit Party, who forced African dancers to'slave labor''
  20. ^ a b Xinhua2014年9/30"Racism is widespread in South Korea, the United Nations to survey the actual situation "I want you to thoroughly investigate" "Go to Japan next door"-Korean net'
  21. ^ Xinhua2014年9/30"Racism prevails in Korean society, UN embarks on investigation'

References

Related books

  • Christopher ThornWritten "Race Problems in the Pacific War" Translated by Yoichi Ichikawa, Koshisha, 1991
  • John DowerWritten "Wars of Mercy, Racism in the Pacific War" Translated by Genichi Saito, Heibonsha Library, 2001

Related item

Orthocoronavirus subfamily

Orthocoronavirus subfamily(Orthocoronavirinae / CoronavirusCoronavirus〉) isgenomeAsRibonucleic acid (RNA) WithSingle-stranded plus-strand RNA virusso,mammalian,birdsTosickcauseウ イ ル スOne of a group of[1].Nidovirus eyesCoronavirus familyBelongs to[2][3].

The viruses included are from the Coronavirus familyAmphibianIt is a so-called alpha to delta coronavirus, excluding the subfamily Letovirinae that infects.In the past, it was called "Coronavirinae" before 2018 and "Coronavirinae" before 2009.SortAs a name, in 2018 ``Orthocoronavirus subfamilyWas renamed to.

Outline

If you just say coronavirus,Coronavirus family, Or this orthocoronavirus subfamily. Since the Coronavirus family includes the Retovirus subfamily in addition to the coronaviruses from alpha to delta, the actual classification range is Coronavirus=Orthocoronavirus subfamily.

Orthocoronavirus is a virus particle surfaceEnvelope (membrane structure)Has long spike-shaped spike protein protrusions (S protein, about 20 nm)コ ロ ナ((I.e.Similar to[1].. Spiral symmetricNucleocapsidWithEnvelope virusIs. Polymorphic, size 80-220 in diameternmIs about[1]..Genome size is about 26-32Kilobase (kb) in knownRNA virusIs the largest[4].

Symptoms depend on the type of organism, and in the case of chickensUpper respiratory tractCausing disease and in the case of cattle and pigsdiarrheacause.

Human capitalThen,coldincludingRespiratory infectionscause.SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV),MERS coronavirus (MERS-CoV) andSARS coronavirus 2 It is lethal in viruses of the type (SARS-CoV-2).To prevent human coronavirus infectionvaccineHas not been offered yet[5].

Name

The name of "coronavirus" isLatin Ofcrown(コ ロ ナLight crownMeans (round ring of light) κορώνη(korṓnē Derived from[6][7].

This name iselectronic microscopebyVirionDerived from the characteristic appearance of (infectious virus particles).Billions have large spherical surface protrusion edges andSun coronaCreate an image reminiscent of.The subfamily name "Ortho-" is derived from the Greek word ορθός (Orthos), which means "undistorted."

History

The first to be discovered in this group was the chicken reported in 1931.Infectious bronchitis virusIs[8].. Mouse hepatitis virus and swine infectious gastroenteritis virus were also reported in the 1940s.[Note 1].

As a human pathogen, from a human who caught a cold in 1960,Human coronavirusB814 was discovered. This strain was later lost because it was difficult to culture. In the 1960scoldOf a human patientNasal cavityからHuman coronavirus 229EandHuman coronavirus OC43Two viruses were discovered[9]..Initially, the relationship between these viruses was unclear.Human coronavirus was also once called the human respiratory virus.

In the 1960s, electron micrographs pointed out structural similarities.[10], Many people call it coronavirus[11].. In 1971CoronavirusWas summarized as.

In 2009, the classification was advanced due to the progress of molecular phylogenetic analysis. The genus Coronavirus was dismantled and a new Delta Coronavirus was installed from Alpha. In addition, a subfamily of torovirus (later independent as the family of torovirus) was discovered as a virus closely related to coronavirus, and as a group of coronaviruses from alpha to delta.Coronavirus subfamilyWas set.

In 2018, there was another move, with the Torovirus subfamily becoming independent of the Torovirus family, while the Retovirus subfamily was set up as a new group of the Coronavirus family. At this time the coronavirus subfamilyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyIt has been renamed to the present.

Changes in classification of coronaviruses and related strains

1971年

Upper classificationSubclass
(No settings)CoronavirusInfectious bronchitis virus
Mouse hepatitis virus
Human respiratory virus, etc.

2009年

Upper classificationSubclass
Coronavirus familyCoronavirus subfamilyAlpha coronavirus
Beta coronavirus
Delta coronavirus
Gamma coronavirus
Torovirus subfamilyTorovirus

2018年

Upper classificationSubclass
Coronavirus familyOrthocoronavirus subfamilyAlpha coronavirus
Beta coronavirus
Delta coronavirus
Gamma coronavirus
Retovirus subfamilyAlpharetovirus

Sort

Virus classificationIn the Orthocoronavirus subfamily together with the Retovirus subfamilyCoronavirus familyinclude[12].. Orthocoronavirus contains 4 genera of 45 genera.

Orthocoronavirus subfamily

Alpha coronavirus

  • (English edition(Alphacoronavirus) Type:
    • seed:Bat coronavirus CDPHE15, Bat coronavirus HKU10, Rhinolophus ferrumequinum alphacoronavirus HuB-2013,Human coronavirus 229E,Lucheng Rn rat coronavirus, Mink coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus 1, Miniopterus bat coronavirus HKU8, Myotis ricketti alphacoronavirus Sax-2011, Nyctalus velutinus alphacoronavirus SC-2013, Pipistrellus kuhlii coronavirus 3398, (Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus),Scotophilus bat coronavirus 512, Rhinolophus bat coronavirus HKU2, Human coronavirus NL63, NL63-related bat coronavirus strain BtKYNL63-9b, Sorex araneus coronavirus T14, Suncus murinus coronavirus X74, Alpha Coronavirus 1

Beta coronavirus

Gamma coronavirus

Delta coronavirus

  • (English edition(Deltacoronavirus) Type: Bulbul coronavirus HKU11
    • seed:Wigeon coronavirus HKU20, Bulbul coronavirus HKU11,Common moorhen coronavirus HKU21, Coronavirus HKU15, Munia coronavirus HKU13, White-eye coronavirus HKU16, Night heron coronavirus HKU19

Construction

Viruses belonging to the subfamily Orthocoronavirus are particulate, and their surface is a lipid bilayer membrane similar to that of cells in general. When photographed with an electron microscope, the appearance of many spike proteins growing on the surface looks like a crown. This lipid bilayer membrane, called the envelope, has a function of recognizing the host cell to be infected with spikes.HemagglutininProtein embedded (especially beta coronavirus subgroup A member)[13].. Inside the envelope is the viral genome. The genome is a piece of RNA wrapped in protein, and the state in which this genomic RNA is wrapped in protein is called nucleocapsid.

genome

Orthocoronavirus subfamily (and most otherNidovirus eyes), one of its features is that its genome is RNA rather than DNA. The genomic RNA remains intact in the host cellMessenger RNA(Messenger RNA, mRNA,proteinTo翻 訳Can be doneNucleotide sequenceWith information and structureRNAIt has an array structure that functions as[6].. mRNA consists of several mRNAs that extend from the '3 side to the '5 side of genomic RNA with different lengths, and the '5 end of each mRNA is at the 5'end of genomic RNA.Leader arrayhave[6].

Viral protein翻 訳Is generally present at the '5 end of each mRNAOpen reading frame Translated only from (ORF)[6].. Genomic RNA (mRNA-1) consists of two ORFs (encoding 5kDa in 20a and 2b) at about 1 kb at the 1'end.Pseudo knot called (pseudoknot, Pn)Nucleic acid tertiary structurehave[6].. There are cases where translation is terminated only by the 1a protein, and cases where Pn synthesizes the 1a + 1b fusion protein. The 1a + 1b protein is cleaved into 16 regulatory proteins,Protease(Peptide bondHydrolase),RNA polymeraseWork as[6].

protein

Virus particle structureProteinThe highest amount of nucleoprotein (N) binds to genomic RNA. It binds to genomic RNA,NucleocapsidBecome[6].. Wrap the nucleocapsidenvelopeHas a crown-like process characteristic of coronavirusSpike protein (S),Integral membrane protein (M),Envelope protein There is (E)[6].

Proliferation process

Orthocoronavirus propagates by infecting animal cells. The process generally consists of three stages: infection (1, 2), replication (3-5), and release (6).

  1. Spike protein S exposed on the surface of the viral envelope and, depending on the species,HemagglutininThe protein HE recognizes and binds to molecules on the surface of target cells.
  2. The spike protein undergoes cleavage and activation by a host protease such as TMPRSS2.
  3. Direct fusion of the viral envelope with the cell membrane of the target cell, orEndocytosisThe virus is taken up by the cells. In the case of direct fusion, the viral genome was directly introduced into the cell, but if incorporated by endocytosis, the virus was once included.EndosomeAre produced in the cell, where the viral genome is introduced by fusing the endosomal membrane with the virus. In the endosome,Proton pumpThe internal pH is lowered withLysosomeIs blocked by the virus as it is transported to.
  4. Since coronavirus has a positive-stranded single-stranded RNA as its genome, it remains intact in the cytoplasm of the target cell.mFunctions as.Of the target cellRibosomeTo produce a viral protein containing RNA synthase.The viral RNA synthase does not replicate other than the viral genomic sequence, but replicates as a minus-strand RNA using only the viral genomic RNA as a template.This prepares the virus to replicate only its own RNA sequence.
  5. Positive-strand RNA is synthesized for each gene from the negative-strand viral genomic RNA, and they bind to the ribosome of the target cell to produce viral proteins from each.In addition, the positive-strand genome that constitutes the virus is replicated from the negative-strand genome.Its genome is the same as the RNA sequence that has invaded the cell.
  6. The produced viral protein N binds to the plus-strand genomic RNANucleocapsidOf the target cellsEndoplasmic reticulum Imported into (ER).Viral membrane protein M, spike protein S, and hemagglutinin HE are integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane of target cells.The membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum becomes the membrane of the virus as it is.The virus is made from the nucleocapsid and the membrane of the endoplasmic reticulum (which becomes the envelope).
  7. From the endoplasmic reticulumGolgi bodyViaExocytosisReleases the virus extracellularly from the target cell.The viral spike protein is then released in a manner that clings to the exocytosis membrane.This replicates the virus.

A specific example of SARS coronavirus, defined on SReceptorThe binding domain is the viral cellular receptorAngiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) Mediates binding to[14].

Evolutionary process

The latest of all coronaviruses (=orthocoronavirus subfamily)Nearest common ancestor (MRCA) is believed to have existed in 8000 BC, but the MRCA for some models dates back more than 5500 million years.BatWithLong-term co-evolutionSuggest[15]. (English editionMRCA was around 2400 BC,(English editionAround 3300 BC,(English editionIs around 2800 BC,(English editionIs believed to be around 3000 BC. Flying warm-blooded vertebrate bats and birds are the hosts that promote the evolution and spread of coronaviruses for coronavirus gene sources (alpha coronavirus and beta coronavirus bats, gamma coronavirus and delta coronavirus birds). Ideal as[16].

Because of this, many human coronaviruses originate from bats[17].. Human coronavirus NL63 had a common ancestor with the bat coronavirus (ARCoV 1190) between 1449 and 2 AD[18].. Human coronavirus 229E also had a common ancestor with the bat coronavirus (GhanaGrp1686 Bt CoV) between 1800 and 1[19].. In a more recent example, the alpaca coronavirus and human coronavirus 1960E diverged before 229.[20].. MERS coronavirus emerged in humans from bats as an intermediate host via camels[21].. The MERS coronavirus is associated with several bat coronaviruses and appears to have diverged from these species several centuries ago[22].

In particular, the SARS coronavirus has a deeper relationship with the bat coronavirus than other human coronaviruses and diverged only around 1986.[23].. The evolutionary pathways of Keen bat coronaviruses and SARS coronaviruses suggest that SARS-associated coronaviruses may have co-evolved in bats for long periods of time. SARS coronavirus ancestors were first infected with leaf-nose bats of the bat family Batidae. After that, it was infected with horseshoe bats of the family Bombyx bat family, further civet cat, and finally humans.[24][25].

Unlike other beta coronaviruses, beta coronavirus 1 and the subgenus of the enbecovirus, bovine coronavirus, are thought to be of murine origin rather than bat origin[17][26].. In the 1790s, equine coronavirus diverged from bovine coronavirus across species[27]

Another in the late 1890s(English editionOccurred and human coronavirus OC43 diverged from bovine coronavirus[27][28].. It is speculated that the 1890 influenza outbreak may have been caused by the spillover of this virus, not the influenza virus, due to the fact that the pathogen has not been actually identified, and due to its timing and its neurological symptoms.[29].. Human coronavirus OC43 causes respiratory disease and is suspected to be involved in neurological diseases[30].. The most common genotypes now emerge in the 1950s[31].

Mouse hepatitis virus infecting mouse liver and central nervous system is systematically associated with human coronavirus OC43 and bovine coronavirus[32].. Human coronavirus HKU1 also originates in rodents[17].

Human coronavirus

Coronaviruses that infect humans are known to be 4 types of cold syndrome and 2 types of severe pneumonia virus (SARS-CoV, MERS-CoV) that are transmitted from animals.[33], And 2 types including SARS-CoV-7 (as of March 2020)[34]Is. The following alpha coronaviruses and beta coronaviruses are known[34][Note 2].

Animal coronavirus

Coronavirus家畜,Laboratory animal,Pet,Wild animalsAnd so onAnimalAnd cause various diseases[33].Dog,cat,cow,pig,Chicken,A horse,camelLivestock, such asBeluga,Giraffe,ferret,Sunkus,Bat,SparrowA unique coronavirus has also been detected from[33].

家畜

Laboratory animal

Pet

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ However, these viruses were merely isolated as pathogens, and were not characterized by electron microscopy.
  2. ^ (- Human enteric coronavirus 4408 (HECV-4408): is excluded)

Source

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Coronavirus disease of livestock and poultry National Research and Development Agency National Agriculture and Food Research Institute Animal Health Research Division April 2003, 4
  2. ^ AMQ King, ed (2011). “Family Coronaviridae". Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Oxford. Pp. 806-828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6 
  3. ^ ICTV Master Species List 2009-v10 (xls)-International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (24 August 2010)
  4. ^ “Homology-Based Identification of a Mutation in the Coronavirus RNA-Dependent RNA Polymerase That Confers Resistance to Multiple Mutagens”. Journal of Virology 90 (16): 7415-28. (August 2016). two:10.1128 / JVI.00080-16. PMC: 4984655. PMID 27279608. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4984655/"CoVs also have the largest known RNA virus genomes, ranging from 27 to 34 kb (31, 32), and increased fidelity in CoVs is likely required for the maintenance of these large genomes (14)." 
  5. ^ Eiji Kusumi Coronaviruses can "defend" if you know them correctly Toyo Keizai 2020/02/01 5:30
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h Fumihiro TaguchiCoronavirus Virus Vol. 61, No. 2, pp. 205-210, 2011
  7. ^ Tyrell DA, Almeida JD, Berry DM. Cunningham CH, Hamre D, Hofstad MS, Mulluci L and McIntosh K. (1968) Coronaviruses. Nature (Lond.) 220: 650.
  8. ^ “Coronaviruses, a New Group of Animal RNA Viruses”. Avian Diseases 14 (2): 330-336. (1970). two:10.2307/1588476. ISSN 0005-2086. JSTOR 1588476. 
  9. ^ “Human coronaviruses: insights into environmental resistance and its influence on the development of new antiseptic strategies”. V 4 (11): 3044-3068. (November 2012). two:10.3390 / v4113044. PMC: 3509683. PMID 23202515. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3509683/. 
  10. ^ https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC224637/
  11. ^ https://www.nature.com/articles/220650b0
  12. ^ Virus Taxonomy: 2019 ReleaseICTV
  13. ^ AMQ King, ed (2011). “Family Coronaviridae". Ninth Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. Elsevier, Oxford. Pp. 806-828. ISBN 978-0-12-384684-6 
  14. ^ “Structure of SARS coronavirus spike receptor-binding domain complexed with receptor”. Science 309 (5742): 1864-1868. (September 2005). bibcode2005Sci ... 309.1864L. two:10.1126 / science.1116480. PMID 16166518. https://semanticscholar.org/paper/bbedaafec1ea70e9ae405d1f2ac4c143951630bc. 
  15. ^ “A case for the ancient origin of coronaviruses”. Journal of Virology 87 (12): 7039-45. (June 2013). two:10.1128/JVI.03273-1 2. PMC: 3676139. PMID 23596293. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3676139/. 
  16. ^ “Discovery of seven novel Mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus deltacoronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of alphacoronavirus and betacoronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of gammacoronavirus and deltacoronavirus”. Journal of Virology 86 (7): 3995-4008. (April 2012). two:10.1128 / JVI.06540-11. PMC: 3302495. PMID 22278237. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3302495/. 
  17. ^ a b c “Molecular Evolution of Human Coronavirus Genomes”. Trends in Microbiology 25 (1): 35-48. (January 2017). two:10.1016 / j.tim.2016.09.001. PMC: 7111218. PMID 27743750. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111218/"Specifically, all HCoVs are thought to have a bat origin, with the exception of lineage A beta-CoVs, which may have reservoirs in rodents [2]." 
  18. ^ “Evidence supporting a zoonotic origin of human coronavirus strain NL63”. Journal of Virology 86 (23): 12816-25. (December 2012). two:10.1128 / JVI.00906-12. PMC: 3497669. PMID 22993147. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3497669/"If these predictions are correct, this observation suggests that HCoV-NL63 may have originated from bats between 1190 and 1449 CE." 
  19. ^ “Distant relatives of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus and close relatives of human coronavirus 229E in bats, Ghana”. Emerging Infectious Diseases 15 (9): 1377-84. (September 2009). two:10.3201 / eid1509.090224. PMC: 2819850. PMID 19788804. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2819850/"The most recent common ancestor of hCoV-229E and GhanaBt-CoVGrp1 existed in ≈1686-1800 AD." 
  20. ^ “Identification and characterization of a novel alpaca respiratory coronavirus most closely related to the human coronavirus 229E”. V 4 (12): 3689-700. (December 2012). two:10.3390 / v4123689. PMC: 3528286. PMID 23235471. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3528286/. 
  21. ^ “Molecular Evolution of Human Coronavirus Genomes”. Trends in Microbiology 25 (1): 35-48. (January 2017). two:10.1016 / j.tim.2016.09.001. PMC: 7111218. PMID 27743750. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7111218/. 
  22. ^ “Genetic characterization of Betacoronavirus lineage C viruses in bats reveals marked sequence divergence in the spike protein of pipistrellus bat coronavirus HKU5 in Japanese pipistrelle: implications for the origin of the novel Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus”. Journal of Virology 87 (15): 8638-50. (August 2013). two:10.1128 / JVI.01055-13. PMC: 3719811. PMID 23720729. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3719811/. 
  23. ^ “Evolutionary insights into the ecology of coronaviruses”. Journal of Virology 81 (8): 4012-20. (April 2007). two:10.1128 / jvi.02605-06. PMC: 1866124. PMID 17267506. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1866124/. 
  24. ^ “SARS-Coronavirus ancestor's foot-prints in South-East Asian bat colonies and the refuge theory”. Infection, Genetics and Evolution 11 (7): 1690-702. (October 2011). two:10.1016 / j.meegid.2011.06.021. PMC: 7106191. PMID 21763784. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106191/. 
  25. ^ “Evolutionary relationships between bat coronaviruses and their hosts”. Emerging Infectious Diseases 13 (10): 1526-32. (October 2007). two:10.3201 / eid1310.070448. PMC: 2851503. PMID 18258002. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2851503/. 
  26. ^ “Discovery of a novel coronavirus, China Rattus coronavirus HKU24, from Norway rats supports the murine origin of Betacoronavirus 1 and has implications for the ancestor of Betacoronavirus lineage A”. Journal of Virology 89 (6): 3076-92. (March 2015). two:10.1128 / JVI.02420-14. PMC: 4337523. PMID 25552712. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4337523/. 
  27. ^ a b “Evolutionary dynamics of bovine coronaviruses: natural selection pattern of the spike gene implies adaptive evolution of the strains”. The Journal of General Virology 94 (Pt 9): 2036-2049. (September 2013). two:10.1099 / vir.0.054940-0. PMID 23804565. "See Table 1" 
  28. ^ “Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event”. Journal of Virology 79 (3): 1595-604. (February 2005). two:10.1128 / jvi.79.3.1595-1604.2005. PMC: 544107. PMID 15650185. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544107/. 
  29. ^ “Complete genomic sequence of human coronavirus OC43: molecular clock analysis suggests a relatively recent zoonotic coronavirus transmission event”. Journal of Virology 79 (3): 1595-604. (February 2005). two:10.1128 / JVI.79.3.1595-1604.2005. PMC: 544107. PMID 15650185. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC544107/"However, it is tempting to speculate about an alternative hypothesis, that the 1889-1890 pandemic may have been the result of interspecies transmission of bovine coronaviruses to humans, resulting in the subsequent emergence of HCoV-OC43." 
  30. ^ “Hosts and Sources of Endemic Human Coronaviruses”. Advances in Virus Research 100: 163-188. (2018). two:10.1016 / bs.aivir.2018.01.001. ISBN 9780128152010. PMC: 7112090. PMID 29551135. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7112090/. 
  31. ^ “Molecular epidemiology of human coronavirus OC43 reveals evolution of different genotypes over time and recent emergence of a novel genotype due to natural recombination”. Journal of Virology 85 (21): 11325-37. (November 2011). two:10.1128 / JVI.05512-11. PMC: 3194943. PMID 21849456. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3194943/. 
  32. ^ “Mouse hepatitis virus infection of the CNS: a model for defense, disease, and repair”. Frontiers in Bioscience 13 (13): 4393-406. (May 2008). two:10.2741/3012. PMC: 5025298. PMID 18508518. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5025298/. 
  33. ^ a b c d e f g h What is coronavirus National Institute of Infectious Diseases, Jan 10, 2020 Accessed: 2020-01-20
  34. ^ a b "Impact of containment of "gene information" in the new corona of China”. Toyo Keizai Online (May 2020, 3). 2020/3/6Browse.

References

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