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State of Hesse
Hessen flagHessen coat of arms
State flagState coat of arms
Position of Hessen in Germany
State capitalWiesbaden
area21,114.88 km² (7
 - Grand total
 - Population density
6,092,354 people (5
288.5 people / km²
ISO 3166-2: DEDE-HE
Official WebsiteHessen State Government
State Prime MinisterVolker Bouffier (CDU)
Ruling partyCDU, Grüne
Last election2013May 9
Next election2018
US House of Representatives(Senate)
Number of voting rights in
Number of municipalities
 * Independent city

Hesse(State of Hesse[1]) IsGermanyThere are 16Federal stateOne of.The state capital is located in the southwestern part of the stateWiesbaden..The economic center is located in the southern part of the stateFrankfurt.Grimm brothersFabricHanauTo the north, starting fromGrimm Fairy TalesConnecting the places related toGerman Fairy Tale Road, A town of half-timbered architecture,AlsfeldThere are tourist destinations such as.


Hessen is located in central western Germany, northLower Saxony, NorthwestNorth Rhine-Westphalia, SouthwestRhineland-Palatinate, SouthBaden-Württemberg, SoutheastBavaria, EastThuringiaIs adjacent to.

Rhine RiverBorders the state of Rhineland-Palatinate in the southwest, and the southern part of the state is a tributary of the Rhine.Main RiverCrosses.The area between the two river basins is a gradual stretch to the south of Baden-Württemberg.Odenwald MountainsExcept平野The population of the state is concentrated here.The main cities in this area areFrankfurt am Main(Frankfurt), Offenbach am Main (Frankfurt)Offenbach),Wiesbaden,Darmstadtand so on.Also in the northwestern part of the state is EnglandRoyal familyDuke of EdinburghMountbatten family (Battenberg family) There is a place related to Battenberg.

In the northern and central parts of the state, there are gentle mountains and hills.Fulda riverNarrow along the flow of rivers such asbasinAre scattered.Northern part of the stateKassel,Fulda, Central stateGiessenCities such as are formed in such basins.


Most of the region of Hessen today is in the beginning of the Middle AgesFrank kingdom-East Frank KingdomUnderDuchy of FranconiaWas part of the governing territory of.afterwards,Holy Roman EmpireOf the era1222ToThuringiaBecame part of the territory.1247Thuringian LandgraveHenry RaspeDied without a sword, and his nephew over his successorMeissen frontierHeinrich VAnd my nieceSophie von BrabantIt will be a war with1264Zoffy's son separated the Hessen region in the western part of the LandgraveLandgrave of HessenHeinrich III settled on the succession of Thuringian Landgrave.

Henry the Fowler1277ToKasselSettled in1292Acquire the position of.After that, the territory was gradually expanded to the south,15st centuryToDarmstadtAdd cities such as to the territory.The heydayPhilipIt was the time of (Hakudai Haku).He is germanReformationInProtestantIn support ofElector of SaxonyJohann FriedrichWithSchmalkaldic LeagueBecome a leader ofHoly Roman EmperorKarl IFought (Schmalkaldic War).1547Defeated by and imprisoned,1552Released to1555 OfAugsburg Peace of AugsburgProtestantism will be recognized in.

After Philip's death, the territory was divided and inherited by four sons according to his will.Hessen-Kassel,,,Hessen-DarmstadtIt was divided into four parts.Rheinfels1583Marburg was annexed to Kassel1604There was controversy and armed conflict between Kassel and Darmstadt over this territory.1627I saw a tentative solution by splitting.But,Thirty years warAt the end of the territory again, with Darmstadt on the emperor's side,スウェーデンas well as the FranceThere was a war with Kassel on the side.During this period (1645-1648), not only soldiers but also the general public suffered many casualties, and the population fell sharply.

Hessen-Kassel LandgraveFriedrich IIIPrior to the succession of the Landgrave1720He was crowned King of Sweden, but thisDominion Union(Hessen dynasty) Ended for only one generation.1775ToAmerican Revolutionary WarHessen-Kassel LandgraveFriedrich III TheThe United KingdomBetweenmercenaryAfter signing a contract, 17,000 Hessen soldiers were sent to the battlefield to become the main force of the British Army.1803Hessen-Kassel LandgraveWilhelm I TheElectorAcquired the position ofHessen Elector"(Kurhessen, Kurhessen),1806Because the empire was disbanded, he never exercised its authority.

Hessen-Kassel1807ToNapoleonByKingdom of WestphaliaIt was integrated into, but once disappeared, it was revived by the fall of Napoleon, and under the anachronistic name of "Hessen Elector".German FederationJoined.Meanwhile, Hessen-Darmstadt was promoted to the Grand Duchy with the support of Napoleon.Line allianceJoined, after the fall of NapoleonMainz,WormsAnd joined the German Confederation.1866 OfBofu WarThen, both of them came to the Austrian side but lost, and the Hessen electorFrankfurt Free City,Duchy of NassauWithKingdom of PrussiaIt was annexed to and became.Hessen-Darmstadt, on the other hand, was allowed to survive by ceding part of his territory to Prussia, after which.1870ToNorthern GermanyJoined (only north of the River Main),1871ToGerman EmpireBecame one of the countries that make up (Grand Duke of Hessen-Darmstadt).

World War INear the end of1918ToGerman RevolutionOccurs, Hessen-DarmstadtRepublic OfPeople's State of HessenI moved toRhine RiverThe territory west of1930UntilFrench armyWas placed under the occupation of.Second World WarLater, the area west of the Rhine became a French occupation zone.The rest of HessenAmericaBecame an occupied territory of1945In September, Hessen-Nassau and Hessen-Darmstadt combined to form the "Great Hessen".1946The name was changed to Hessen on December 12th.West of the Rhine on August 4, 1946Rhineland-PalatinateBecame part of.


State legislature

The Landtag has a fixed number of 110 (the allocation of seats under the Election Act may result in overhang seats).2013May 9The allocation of seats by political party in the previous election held in Japan is as follows.

In the last 2009 election, the FDP made a leap and the CDU / FDP coalition recovered the majority, while the SPD, which was conspicuous in internal turmoil, drastically reduced the number of seats, but in the 2013 election, the approval rating was nationwide. The FDP, which had fallen, lost a lot of seats, and the SPD recovered eight seats. Although the CDU maintained the first party, the two parties could not secure a majority due to the decrease in the seats of the FDP of the coalition partner, so they negotiated a coalition with the SPD and the Greens.Was held on the same dayBundestag electionThen of CDU-SPDGrand coalitionHowever, in Hessen, the CDU will form a coalition with the Greens instead of the SPD.(German versionThe administration was established[2].

Successive prime ministers

  1. year 1945: Ludwig Bergsträsser (Ludwig Bergsträsser)
  2. 1945-1946: (German version (Karl Geiler)
  3. 1946-1950: (German version (Christian Stock) SPD
  4. 1950-1969: (German version (Georg-August Zinn) SPD
  5. 1969-1976: (German version (Albert Osswald) SPD
  6. 1976-1987: (German version (Holger Börner) SPD
  7. 1987-1991: (German version (Walter Wallmann) CDU
  8. 1991-1999: Hans Eichel (Hans Eichel) SPD
  9. 1999-2010: Roland Koch (Roland Koch) CDU
  10. 2010-: Volker Bouffier (Volker Bouffier) ​​CDU

Local administration

Hessen's state government has been in three states since 1981.Administrative district Divide into (Regierungsbezirke) and oversee the activities of local governments in the area.The administrative district is not a municipality, but an administrative agency without a parliament.

The state's lower administrative units are 21county (Landkreis) and 5 non-countyIndependent city It consists of (kreisfreie Stadt).The county has 177 cities (stadt) and 244 towns and villages (Gemeinde) as its lower administrative units.The total number of "gemainde" (basic municipalities) in a broad sense, including the city, is 426.


Classification map of county and independent city
  1. Bergstraße County (Kreis Bergstraße)
  2. Darmstadt-Dieburg County (Landkreis Darmstadt-Dieburg)
  3. Gross-Gerau County (Kreis Groß-Gerau)
  4. Hochtaunus County (Hochtaunuskreis)
  5. Main-Kinzig County (Main-Kinzig district)
  6. Main-Taunus County (Main-Taunus-Kreis)
  7. Odenwaldkreis (Odenwaldkreis)
  8. Offenbach County (Kreis Offenbach)
  9. ラインガウ=タウヌス郡 (Rheingau-Taunus district)
  10. Wetteraukrei (Wetteraukreis)
  11. Giessen County (Landkreis Gießen)
  12. Lahn-Dill County (Lahn-Dill-Kreis)
  13. Limburg-Weilburg County (Landkreis Limburg-Weilburg)
  14. Marburg-Biedenkopf County (Landkreis Marburg-Biedenkopf)
  15. Vogelsbergkrei (Vogelsbergkreis)
  16. Fulda County (Landkreis Fulda)
  17. Hersfeld-Rotenburg County (Landkreis Hersfeld-Rotenburg)
  18. Kassel County (Landkreis Kassel)
  19. Schwalm-Eder County (Schwalm-Eder-Kreis)
  20. Werra-Meissner County (Werra-Meißner-Kreis)
  21. Waldeck-Frankenberg County (Landkreis Waldeck-Frankenberg)

Independent city

The alphabet in front of the city name is the symbol on the right division map.


In the southern Baden-Württemberg province,HeppenheimThere is a block of Ober-Laudenbach.


What is depicted on the state coat of arms is to stand up獅子Is.The lion is drawn with white and red stripes (horizontal stripes) on a blue background.The lion is derived from the coat of arms of the Count of Thuringia, who occupied the region of Hessen today until 1247.The state flag has red and white stripes, similar to the lion on the coat of arms, with an aspect ratio of 3: 5.This design was originally one of the flags used during the Grand Duchy of Hesse after 1820.1949May 11Was officially adopted as the state flag.The government flag displayed at the state government building has a coat of arms in the center.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈


  1. ^ The state name is in German Hesse ,in English Hesse Spell out.In german HesseMeans a Hessen person, in English Hessian Spell out.Even sentences written in English are spelled in German Hesse May be written.Even very rarely Hessia It may be spelled as.
  2. ^ Prime Minister's ruling party to coalition with Greens = alleviation of conflict by nuclear phase-out-Western Germany(Newsletter June 2013, 12 Read June 18, 2014)

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