Photo Autonomous driving test vehicle on the highway using Honda Legend [Image is from 2017 "Honda Meeting 2017"]
world's first! Spring 2021 "Self-driving" commercial vehicles are finally starting!What is the ultimate vision of autonomous driving in the near future?
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It's like a dream story, but unless the traffic environment is changed so much, it will be difficult to fully popularize autonomous driving, including in urban areas.
In the spring of 2021, Honda will be the first in the world to introduce the advanced automatic driving function "Traffic Jam Pilot" as a commercial model ... → Continue reading
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A device/system that automatically controls vehiclesAuto pilotIs. The machine controls the traveling direction and speed of the vehicle instead of the human hand. The system called autopilotPassenger planeStarted withaircraftEspecially well introduced inShip,AutomobileHas also been introduced.
As long as the situation is stable, the autopilot device is a device that can continue to function with reliable accuracy (on the contrary, it is not used unless it is reliable).
Difficulty varies depending on the surrounding situation, and all aircraft operated by IFR (Instrument Flight Method)Air traffic controlWas decided according toRouteFly over the long-haul route because the danger of collision is very low once you take off and leave the airport,Passenger planeIt has advanced from an early stage. AlsoShipAlso travels to the destination you applied for in advance on the prescribed route and sails in the open ocean because there is no frequent course changeFreighterThe introduction is progressing.
On the other handPublic roadThen, because the situation changes rapidly,AutomobileThe technology of recognizing the surrounding situation is required to substitute the operation of the machine for the mechanical device, and fully automatic operation is in the development stage.
In modern autopilotsSafety deviceIs also incorporated,Human errorWarn againstReliability designDesigned to avoid danger at. In these, ensuring safety is the highest priority, and it is designed to take safer avoidance actions in contradictory situations.
Auto pilotPassenger planeIncludingaircraftIn the modern aircraft control system, it is necessary for human beings (pilots) to take off to take off, which is not possible with autopilots. ofcruise-approach(Entering the airport)landingFor example, there is an autopilot system that can be used at most stages.
They are,Inertial guidance deviceOr an external marker (which serves as a markRadio transmitter), etc., calculates the relative position of itself to the destination, etc., and automatically corrects the error with the planned travel route. In a simple one, a given direction (direction)WhenheightIt keeps only those and reduces the burden on the pilot. For advanced ones, FMS (Flight management equipment) Was entered inFlight planNot only is it possible to automatically operate the direction and altitude according tospeed) Is also adjusted. The propulsion force adjustment mechanism by the autopilot isAuto throttle (en: Autothrottle) Called[Annotation 1].. contemporaryAviation engineerAbolished by two peoplecockpitThen, when a problem occurs, it is the basic rule to let the autopilot handle the problem and let the pilot solve the problem.
As a supplementary function, routine work required for takeoff, cruise, and landing (flap adjustment, etc.) can be realized by mode switching, and "TO/GA switch (Takeoff / Go-around switch)” just take off andLanding returnThere is a function to raise the required throttle to the optimum value.
The autopilot autonomous system of an aircraftCompassFrom something likeSensor,Gyro compassIt is a combination of the control of the control device and the function to judge the direction, state, and surroundings of yourself, such asGPSThere is also a device that catches the radio waves of satellites and measures the current position of itself, and judges how to move to correct the error from the error with the planned route. In addition to the relative position indexing mechanism described above, if a moving route is input in advance, it is possible to go around a plurality of routes. However, operation error or malfunction of the same type of mechanism[Annotation 2]FromKorean aircraft shooting down caseIn some cases, such as in a tragic case, the alarms have been sounded for the overconfidence of such devices.
The simplest of the aircraft's autopilots are those that function properly only under certain conditions, so they are only actively used for route guidance during cruising when the situation is stable. is there. On the other hand, some aircraft have a sophisticated autopilot function, and it is possible to leave most of the aircraft's operations to the autopilot. However,take offOnly 2020 is still done manually.landingThe autopilot ofInstrument landing gearUsing (ILS)weatherconditions·pilotPerform in a situation where the qualifications of[Annotation 3].
In the case of aircraft including the above circumstances, if the altitude rises above a certain level, the probability of hitting an obstacle will decrease at once, and the situation is relatively stable, so the adoption of autopilot is also adopted. It is progressing. However, in the airspace where the danger of surface obstacles such as under clouds is expected, the operation of the autopilot is dangerous depending on the functions of these devices. In addition, if the autopilot fails to function due to some circumstances, there are many accidents in which the aircraft cannot be operated manually and it crashes. (Air France Flight 447 crash,Adam Airlines Flight 574 crash,China Airlines Flight 140 crash)
largeShipIn, autopilots that follow the entered route are popular.OceanIf it goes out, the probability of hitting an obstacle decreases and the flight situation is relatively stable, so the difficulty level is low but the obstacle (Drift ice-ReefEtc.) In some sea areas, the steering is done manually. Also, in ports and straits where many ships come and goPilotIs also provided.
At the time of berthing, the condition of waves and tides and the cargo loading capacity also affect the berth, so it remains a supplementary system. AlsoTugboatSince there is also support from, there is little merit in terms of cost and active development is not being carried out.
Sailing·boat(ヨ ッ ト)ofFishing Boat Cruising ExperienceIn many cases, the autopilot device is also used. Especially with a single handnavigationAt times, it is highly necessary from the viewpoint of securing sleep time. As with other ships, the pilot is obliged to keep an eye on the sailing boat, but since the rider needs to sleep, cook and eat, he cannot hold the helm for 24 hours. You will have time to do so by using the autopilot in areas where it is judged to be relatively safe where there is no ship.(For ships equipped with radar, for safety, turn on the automatic alarm switch. Put it in).
For the purpose of acting to keep the direction of the ship constant with respect to the wind(English edition)The mechanical autopilot called is used for a long time. ComputerGPSBy calculating the change in the course of the ship using the data of, and continuously expanding and contracting the rod-shaped part electrically, the bar (rudderThere is also a Tiller pilot to operate the rod, and the course can be specified by a number.
Self-driving carsRobot carAlso called.
As for the function which is marketed as of 2014Cruise control,Collision damage reduction brakeHowever, there was nothing to support the driver. At that stage, some argued that technical hurdles were still high when it came to automobile autopilots.mineIt has been put to practical use for vehicles that run on other than general public roads such as commercial vehicles.
Around 2016[Source required]Although passenger cars equipped with automatic driving functions at the commercial vehicle level have been released, and passenger cars and transportation vehicles that have been pilot-operated in the real world have appeared, commercial commercial passenger cars have the reliability of emergency. Because of sexual issues[Source required]The operator is limited to the auxiliary function to reduce the driver's labor (Level 2: Partial automatic driving), and the operator of the high-level self-driving vehicle that is being trial-operated judges the situation in an emergency and makes an emergency stop. Is riding[Source required]However, both of them are reported to be involved in traffic accidents and caused news, and as of 2017, efforts are being made for improvement.[Source required]. On the other hand, safety devices such as collision damage reduction brakes continue to be improved.[Source required], A passenger car that more aggressively prevents runaway due to incorrect operation is also on sale[Source required].
LaidOrbitFrom running overvehicleThe item controlled by the side is only speed in fact, and the technical difficulty is relatively low,1970 eraOr laterAutomatic train driving device(ATO) operation has been realized. The table below shows the comparison of automatic driving levels specified by GoA (Grades of Automation)..
|Automation level||Common name in level||Crew form||Main implementation status|
|GoA0 (level 0)||Visual operation (TOS)||Driver and conductor are on board||Tram|
|GoA1 (level 1)||Non-autonomous driving (NTO)||General routes with railroad crossings (ATS/ATCHas been introduced)|
|GoA2 (level 2)||Semi-automatic operation (STO)||The driver starts the train, handles the door, performs an emergency stop operation, and guides the evacuation.||ATO introduction route|
|GoA2.5 (level 2.5)||Self-driving with tour operator (DTO)||Persons other than the driver perform an emergency stop operation and evacuation guidance in front of the driver|
|GoA3 (level 3)||A staff member other than the frontal area guides evacuation.||Maihama Resort Line|
|GoA4 (level 4)||Automatic operation (UTO)||There is no attendant||New transportation system|
- The numbers in parentheses at the automation level are the driving level of automobiles, and there is no system equivalent to level 5 (fully automated driving) on railways.
By applying the technology of autopilot, the function of overwriting the human operation and correcting the posture and course has appeared.
On an aircrafttrimAssist functions such as automating the operation and the manual operation of the pilot such as the rudder and enabling turning by simply tilting the control stick are becoming widespread... In addition, even during manual operation, if the posture exceeds a certain angle, it returns to a safe posture.Spatial disorientationSometimes push the button to level your posture,HypoxiaThere are also examples of using it as a safety device, such as displaying a message at regular intervals at high altitudes where it is easy to get stuck and descending to a safe altitude without pressing the warning release button.Cirrus SR20It is also used in high-end private planes such as. At the touch of a button in landing modeLanding returnThe function of performing the operation of (ascending to a predetermined altitude while accelerating) is often adopted in large passenger aircraft.MulticopterIt is used to make the aircraft stand still without any operation. Furthermore, it is possible to stabilize the aircraft even if part of the aircraft is lost or the control system fails.
- ^ "Classification according to crew type of autonomous driving”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
- ^ From Garake to smartphone What is the evolution of the JMSDF P-1 patrol aircraft from the viewpoint of the pilot, from the P-3C? -Vehicle news
- ^ Latest Trends in Autopilot
- Mech robot
- Active safety
- Advanced safety car
- New transportation system
- Exdriver -An animation work that depicts the troubles that occurred in the near future when automobile autopilot became commonplace.
- Machine x - TV drama"Western policeA fictitious patrol car that appears in. 『PART-IIIIn the 47th episode, there is a scene in which the car is remodeled into a radio-controlled autopilot car and runs away.