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🌤 | Atmospheric conditions are unstable over the 29th tomorrow Beware of heavy rain


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Atmospheric conditions are unstable over the 29th tomorrow Beware of heavy rain

 
If you write the contents roughly
Northern Japan will also have cloudy weather, and it is expected that it will rain mainly in the Tohoku region.
 

From today 28th (Wednesday) to tomorrow 29th (Thursday), it will rain from western Japan to eastern Japan due to the effects of low pressure and fronts ... → Continue reading

 Weather map


Wikipedia related words

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A lot of weather

Tohoku region

Tohoku region(Tohoku Chiho)Region of JapanOne ofHonshuIt is located in the northeastern part. "Ou region(Ouuchihou)"[2][Annotation 2].. maximumcity TheSendai city.


Although there is no clear legal definition in that range[Annotation 3], In generalAomori,Iwate,Miyagi,Akita,Yamagata,Fukushima6 prefectures[3]. These six prefectures account for about 6% of HonshuareaOccupy[4]. Tohoku regionEast JapanLocated inweather,Historical geographyAnd so onHokkaidoalong withNorthern JapanIt is assumed[5].

Geography

Prefecture nameTotal area (S)
Iwate15,279km2
Fukushima13,783km2
Akita11,612km2
Aomori9,607km2
Yamagata9,323km2
Miyagi7,285km2
Total66,889km2
Prefecture nameResidential area (P)P / S
Fukushima4,218km230.6%
Iwate3,710km224.3%
Aomori3,204km233.4%
Akita3,155km227.2%
Miyagi3,130km243.0%
Yamagata2,850km230.6%
Total20,267km230.3%
Prefecture name DID areaDID / PDID / S
Miyagi231km27.4%3.2%
Fukushima176km24.2%1.3%
Aomori156km24.9%1.6%
Yamagata113km24.0%1.2%
Akita87km22.8%0.7%
Iwate86km22.3%0.6%
Total849km24.2%1.3%
Prefecture namePopulation density (person/S)Dwellable population density (person/P)
Miyagi325.6 people/km2757.7 people/km2
Fukushima153.3 people/km2500.8 people/km2
Aomori152.0 people/km2455.6 people/km2
Yamagata131.9 people/km2431.5 people/km2
Akita100.5 people/km2370.0 people/km2
Iwate91.7 people/km2377.8 people/km2
Tohoku 6 prefectures145.7 people/km2480.7 people/km2
  • Statistics by Tohoku Transport Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. “P/S” is the ratio of habitable area (P) to total area (S). "DID" isConcentrated areaThat. “DID/P” is the ratio of DID to habitable area (P). “DID/S” is the ratio of DID to the total area (S).

terrain

Plate theoryThen Tohoku regionHokkaidoと と も にNorth American plateExists above and from the eastPacific plate Japan TrenchIt is diving in. for that reason,Trench typeAroundEarthquakeOften, sometimesTohoku-Pacific Ocean Earthquake(Great East Japan Earthquake), large-scale earthquakes with a magnitude of more than 9 may occur. In the center of the Tohoku region, in the north and south parallel to the Japan TrenchNasu volcanic beltIs running. Above this volcanic zone,Shimokita Peninsula OfOsorezan Mountains, And long north and southOu MountainsFrom the northOsorezan,Mt. Hakkoda-Hachimantai-Mt. Iwatesan-Mt. Kurikomayama-Zao mountain range-Azuma mountain range-Adatarayama-Nasu mountainSuch asVolcanoThere are many. Above the Nasu Volcanic Zone (Ou Mountains)Lake Towada-Lake Tazawa-Onikobe Caldera・Zao'sOgamaAroundcalderaThe terrain is visible and is the benefit of the volcanoSpaThere are also many. In addition,Lake Inawashiro TheFault lake.

On the Sea of ​​Japan side,Eurasia plateAnd the North American plate boundary run north to south, so parallel to the Nasu volcanic beltChokai volcanic beltIs running north to south. Above this volcanic belt,Shirakami Sanchi-Dewa mountain area(Mt. Taiheizan area, Asahi mountain area, Mt. Iidesan area)-Echigo mountain rangeAre in series,Mt. Iwakisan-Mt. Chokai-Mt. GassanYou can see a volcano with a beautiful ridgeline. In the area where the mountains touch the sea, there are hot springs along the coast, and you can take a bath while gazing at the sea.

On the Pacific sideKitakami MountainsAbukuma HighlandsThere is. They are,UpheavalThe terrain has been eroded and nowAged terrainIt is a gentle and low mountainous area.HillAs of 1917m above sea levelMt. HayachinesanHowever, it is basically a gentle mountain range, and there is less snow than the Ou Mountains on the Sea of ​​Japan side.Ski resortThere are few hot springs because it is not a volcanic belt.However, it is evidence that it was raised on the seabed in the past.Limestone caveSuch asLimestoneA lot of terrain can be seen. Kitakami Mountains are protruding to the seaRias coast OfSanriku CoastHere, you can see the complex coastline created by the limestone being washed by the waves and the white sandy beach,OyashioIt creates a contrast with the cobalt blue sea. Between Abukuma Highlands and the Pacific OceanSeashoreIt has become a small-scale island where the sea between the Rias coasts has been reclaimed.Alluvial plainContinues endlessly while alternating with the small mountains.

The north and south of these three stationsMountains・In the mountains,Kitakami River,Abukuma River,Omonogawa,Mogami RiverRivers such asbasin,平野Is producing.

climate

The climate is large, although it is modified by small topography.Sea of ​​Japan coast,The foot of the Nasu volcanic belt and the west side(basin),East side excluding the foot of Nasu volcanic belt(basin),Pacific coast Are divided into four groups, each with different tendencies. There are also subtle differences between north and south for each group. Except for the Pacific coast of Miyagi and Fukushima prefectures,Heavy snowfallAnd there are some special heavy snowfall areas.

Sea of ​​Japan coastThe foot of the Nasu volcanic belt and the west side(Basin) "Sea of ​​Japan side group"Sea of ​​Japan side climateAnd in the summerFern phenomenonAs a result, there are many sunny days, and it may become extremely hot (40.8 degrees recorded in Yamagata City). However, it is easy to spend the night because the temperature goes down because of the high temperature during the day. In winter, there are many sunshine hours and heavy snowfall areas, but especially in the basin on the west side of the Ou Mountains, there is much snowfall.

Pacific sideEast side excluding the foot of Nasu volcanic belt(Basin)Pacific climateInland climateAlso has. In the summer, there are both hot days due to the Fern phenomenon and cloudy days with low temperatures such as the Pacific coast. Even in winter, when factors such as cold air masses, north winds, and west winds are strong, it may snow like the Sea of ​​Japan side.

Pacific coastIs the Pacific climateOceanic climateAlso has. In the summer, the northern and central parts are usually cloudy and the temperature does not rise, so every few yearsStopThere is a year when it becomes a cold summer with low temperature and bad weather. Southern part (Fukushima prefectureHamadoriIn the summer of ), it is easy to be affected by the high pressure in the Pacific Ocean, and there are many sunny days with high temperatures. The central and southern parts of the country have little snowfall in winter, and the air is sunny and dry.

Winter in major cities (normal value)

cityCumulative amount of snowfallDeepest snowJanuary (normal value)
Daylight hoursDays of precipitationDifference between daysAverage temperature(I.e.(I.e.
Sapporo630 cm101 cm97.2 hours17.9th6.8 ℃-4.1 ℃-0.9 ℃-7.7 ℃
Fukaura385 cm44 cm31.3 hours18.1th4.7 ℃-0.4 ℃2.0 ℃-2.7 ℃
Akita409 cm41 cm44.6 hours20.6th5.4 ℃0.0 ℃2.7 ℃-2.7 ℃
Sakata375 cm37 cm39.9 hours22.7th5.4 ℃1.5 ℃4.1 ℃-1.3 ℃
Aomori774 cm114 cm56.7 hours22.1th5.8 ℃-1.4 ℃1.5 ℃-4.3 ℃
Shinjo878 cm126 cm43.1 hours23.8th5.8 ℃-1.2 ℃1.4 ℃-4.4 ℃
Yamagata491 cm50 cm89.6 hours15.2th6.6 ℃-0.5 ℃3.0 ℃-3.6 ℃
Wakamatsu537 cm58 cm80.9 hours14.8th6.4 ℃-0.7 ℃2.6 ℃-3.8 ℃
Mutsu564 cm70 cm77.0 hours17.7th6.8 ℃-1.6 ℃1.4 ℃-5.4 ℃
Morioka351 cm36 cm124.0 hours9.7th7.6 ℃-2.1 ℃1.7 ℃-5.9 ℃
Fukushima235 cm26 cm136.6 hours7.9th7.5 ℃1.4 ℃5.4 ℃-2.1 ℃
White river173 cm21 cm160.9 hours4.8th8.6 ℃0.2 ℃4.6 ℃-4.0 ℃
Hachinohe318 cm33 cm134.5 hours6.9th7.0 ℃-1.2 ℃2.5 ℃-4.5 ℃
Miyako186 cm32 cm163.6 hours4.6th8.8 ℃0.2 ℃4.8 ℃-4.0 ℃
Ofunato77 cm13 cm148.6 hours5.2th7.3 ℃0.7 ℃4.4 ℃-2.9 ℃
Ishinomaki56 cm17 cm167.6 hours4.3th7.2 ℃0.5 ℃4.4 ℃-2.8 ℃
Sendai90 cm17 cm151.3 hours5.5th7.2 ℃1.5 ℃5.2 ℃-2.0 ℃
Onahama14 cm6 cm189.6 hours4.1th9.1 ℃3.6 ℃8.2 ℃-0.9 ℃
Tokyo13 cm7 cm180.5 hours4.6th7.8 ℃5.8 ℃9.8 ℃2.1 ℃

Sea of ​​Japan coast,The foot of the Nasu volcanic belt and the west side,East side excluding the foot of Nasu volcanic belt,Pacific coast There are 4 groups of different colors.

Cumulative amount of snowfall : JMA statistical data"Total depth of snowfall". Amount of daily snowfall for the entire season (normal value)
Deepest snow: Most snowfall at one time (normal value)
Days of precipitation: Days when precipitation of 1 mm or more is observed (normal value)
Difference between days: The difference between the average high and low temperatures in January. Difference in temperature of the day (normal value)

Summer in major cities (8 Average value)

cityAverage temperature(I.e.(I.e.Difference between daysDaylight hoursPrecipitation amount
Sapporo22.0 ℃26.1 ℃18.5 ℃7.6 ℃173.5 hours137.3 mm
Fukaura23.1 ℃26.8 ℃19.9 ℃6.9 ℃185.9 hours157.4 mm
Akita24.5 ℃28.8 ℃20.9 ℃7.9 ℃200.4 hours181.9 mm
Sakata24.9 ℃29.1 ℃21.0 ℃8.1 ℃211.6 hours175.8 mm
Aomori23.0 ℃27.6 ℃19.3 ℃8.3 ℃190.8 hours129.3 mm
Shinjo23.9 ℃28.9 ℃19.8 ℃9.1 ℃177.5 hours174.5 mm
Yamagata24.6 ℃30.2 ℃20.3 ℃9.9 ℃184.7 hours148.8 mm
Wakamatsu24.8 ℃30.4 ℃20.3 ℃10.1 ℃199.5 hours131.0 mm
Mutsu21.7 ℃25.7 ℃18.2 ℃7.5 ℃152.8 hours140.4 mm
Morioka23.2 ℃28.1 ℃19.2 ℃8.9 ℃158.8 hours177.8 mm
Fukushima25.2 ℃30.2 ℃21.5 ℃8.7 ℃159.7 hours144.3 mm
White river23.3 ℃28.1 ℃19.7 ℃8.4 ℃154.0 hours228.2 mm
Hachinohe22.3 ℃26.5 ℃19.1 ℃7.4 ℃173.3 hours139.8 mm
Miyako22.2 ℃26.4 ℃19.1 ℃7.3 ℃165.2 hours180.8 mm
Ofunato23.0 ℃26.9 ℃19.8 ℃7.1 ℃161.5 hours198.6 mm
Ishinomaki23.5 ℃26.9 ℃20.8 ℃6.1 ℃178.1 hours127.0 mm
Sendai24.1 ℃27.9 ℃21.2 ℃6.7 ℃155.4 hours174.2 mm
Onahama23.9 ℃27.3 ℃18.5 ℃8.8 ℃193.9 hours141.7 mm
Tokyo27.1 ℃30.8 ℃24.2 ℃6.6 ℃177.5 hours155.1 mm

Sea of ​​Japan coast,The foot of the Nasu volcanic belt and the west side,East side excluding the foot of Nasu volcanic belt,Pacific coast There are 4 groups of different colors.

Difference between days: The difference between the average high and low temperatures in August. Difference in summer heat (normal value)

Region

Tohoku region

In the ancient Tohoku region (1)Taga CastleWas installed soonKinaiThe influence of the administration of the government based in Southeast Tohoku and the administration of Kinai is weak,Prisoner,Oshu FujiwaraThe north-south division from ancient times, such as north-east north, which was the base of; there wereOu MountainsThe east and west divisions by the are similar to those in the modern Tohoku region, although they have different meanings.

However, culturallySengoku periodOf the lord of theEdo Period OfClanThere is still an impact from the classification by, and it is far from the Shinkansen, highways and airports.SanrikuOn the coastShimokita PeninsulaAlso, at least consciously, they have formed their own regional area that is independent of other urban areas.

Pacific side and Sea of ​​Japan side

Tohoku regionThe Pacific Ocean"When"Sea of ​​JapanIt may be divided into two. The boundary between the two isNasu volcanic beltIt's aboveOsorezan~Ou MountainsLine, or centerwatershed[7]byTappimisaki(Tsugaru peninsula) ~ There are lines such as the Ou Mountains.

This classification isclimate It is often used for classification bySea of ​​Japan sideIs on the west side of the Ou Mountains, which is the Shirazan Mountains,Sea of ​​Japan basin(National Route 121-National Route 13-National Route 105A lot of snowfall in winterSea of ​​Japan coast(National Route 7Along the line is a windy area. On the other hand, the Pacific side is on the east side of the Ou Mountains,Pacific side basin(National Route 4Along the line)Inland climateHowever, the amount of snowfall is not so large as in the west side of the Ou Mountains,Pacific coast(National Route 6-National Route 45Even in winter, the roads are sunny, and snow rarely falls. In the summer climate, the coast of the Sea of ​​JapanFern phenomenonBecause of this, it is easy to raise the temperature in fine weather, but there are some years when the temperature is low due to the influence of the ban on the Pacific coast.

In addition,Ocean currentIn terms ofOyashioKuroshio, The Sea of ​​Japan sideTsushima Current(WhenLiman Current),Shipping Also in terms of "Pacific side" and "Sea of ​​Japan side". In pre-modern times, the Pacific coast had rough waves and dangerous voyages, so shipping was not as active as on the Sea of ​​Japan side. Now is the era of large ships with power,Pacific beltDue to the advantage close to, the Pacific side shipping is active.

Mutsu and Dewakuni

  • "Inland countries" and "Coastal countries"

Mutsu OfKokufu Sendai Plain OfTaga CastlePlaced inDewakuniKokufuShonai Plain OfSakataAs you can see from the fact that it was placed in the area, there is a tendency for Mutsu to be "inland countries" and Dewa to be "coastal countries."

Mutsu country (basin,The Pacific OceanThe coastal plain isIwakiSurroundings (characteristic coast:Shikura),Soma CitySurroundings (characteristic coast:Matsukawaura),Sendai Plain(Characteristic coast:Matsushima),Hachinohe CitySurroundings (characteristic coast:Kabushima) And the waves are roughOcean currentIt is also strong, so it depends on land transportationKanto regionIt was a landlocked country with a deep relationship with (→Michinoku).

On the other hand, Dewakuni (Coast of Japan)Shonai Plain,Akita Plain,Noshiro Plain,Tsugaru PlainAnd the coastal plains that connect to the inland areas are almost evenly spaced,KitamaebuneAs represented by, from ancient times to the Meiji era, by shippingKinkiIt was a “coastal country” with a deep relationship with (→Echigo countryArea in front of).

In the Edo period, the area along the coast of the Sea of ​​Japan was mostly silver and the area along the Pacific coast was gold, and the boundary was about the eastern coast of the Shimokita Peninsula.

  • segmentation

Boshin WarImmediately after the end, the first year of MeijiLunar calendar November 12(1869May 1), Mutsukuni is divided intoMutsu (1869-)-Land China-Rikuzen-Iwashiro-Iwaki countryWas installed, and also in DewakuniUzen country-Ugo countryWas divided into "Both wings" is a generic term for the front and rear of the wing, and "Mutoshi/Mutschu/Rikuzen" is a general term.SanrikuSometimes the region name is used.

North Tohoku and South Tohoku

Tohoku region is between major citiesTohoku Shinkansen-Yamagata Shinkansen-Akita ShinkansenIs passing. Also, it penetrates the inland Tohoku region from north to south.Tohoku ExpresswayBesides, it connects the Pacific Ocean side and the Sea of ​​Japan sidehighwayIt is cheaper, faster, and more convenient than a conventional line, which has a number of trains and operates a small number of trains.Express BusHowever, it is now operating between cities. Then, the relationship between the major cities, which had been connected to Tokyo by air so far, was to be reorganized by the connection by the Shinkansen or the expressway (express bus).

The three prefectures of north-eastern Tohoku were created by the governor of each prefecture under the political leadership of a “three-prefecture union” framework.TokyoDue to the long travel time from, the shift of passengers from air to land did not occur dramatically even when the Shinkansen was opened. As a result, it is a node of the ShinkansenMoriokaThere were not many mutual exchanges centered around, and low cost and high frequency of high-speed buses.

On the other hand, in the three prefectures of South Tohoku,Prefectural office locationAnd because the central city was originally close to each other, the area with strong economic ties with Sendai city is "Sendai Economic AreaIs formed. Three prefectures in the southeast Tohoku (Sendai CityYamagata-Fukushima) IsSouth Tohoku Central Metropolitan AreaIn addition to conducting a large city administration with a population of 334, a "Coalition of three prefectures and capitals" has been formed as an economic follow-up.

Relationship with surrounding regions

AomoriIn areas such as and Shimokita Peninsula,Seikan Tunnel,Tsugaru Kaikyo Ferry,Seikan FerryThroughHakodateHokkaidoDonanDeeply connected with the local areas. The concept of “Aomori metropolitan area” is being planned between Aomori and Hakodate.

FukushimaNakadoriIs adjacent to Tochigi Prefecture, and there are many exchanges with private cars, but the connection via the railroad is shallow (→Tohoku Shinkansen#Outline,Yamagata Shinkansen #Demand,Akita Shinkansen#Demand). However, Nasu hot spring villagesunlightThere is a great demand for tourism to tourist destinations such as the Tohoku region and Tochigi prefecture.Town information magazineAll nine TJN member magazines have a two-page spread in common.

Domain and name

The name of this region has changed historically. First,Ancient timesIsKinaistart fromKaido(AfterTokaido)WhenMountain path(AfterHigashisendo) EachroadBecause it is in the back ofMichinokuIt is said that the southern part of the region (South Tohoku)"Michiokukuni" (Michino Okunokuni) was installed. laterlandOhCountryOutwingCountryWhen was installed, one character was taken from both sides.OuIt was called "Ou Ryogoku" and "Oushu". In addition, the two parties were put together in effective control.Oshu Fujiwara,Oshu searchFrom examples such asOshuIt was said that.


"TohokuExamples of documents referred to as "" are mainly in the Edo periodTempoAfter periodBakumatsuSince then, it has been seen occasionally, and in this case, there is an example called "Tohoku country". The name "Tohoku" as a local name is first seen in official historical materials.Keio 4th year(1868)Yoshitake Satake(Akita domainIt is said that it was given to the Lord). However, "Tohoku" in this caseGoki ShichidoOf "Tohoku 3road(Tokaido, Higashiyama,Hokuriku Road), that is,EmperorIs whereKinaiFrom the east orNortheastIt refers to all the areas on the side, and the southwest 4 road (Sanin road-Sanyo road-Nankaido-Saikaido)[8]. OrEastern countryHokurikuIt is also considered to be a compound word.

The first year of the Meiji eraMay 12(A.D.1869May 1),Ouetsu Reihan AllianceAgainst various hanPostwar processing of Boshin WarAs part of theIwaki-Iwashiro-land-land-landOh), Dewakuni divided into two (wing-wingLater) Is said, "Riku"Or"Sanriku both wingsWas born. In this case, excluding the current Fukushima prefecture and the two countries of Iwashiro and Iwashiro, which correspond to the southernmost part of Miyagi prefecture, refer to the remaining 2 regions with "land" and "feather", and "Ou" is the area indicated. Are different, but thelandOkukuni and OutwingIt can also be seen as a “country”, so there are some examples of confusion. In the first half of the Meiji era, Ou and Ryogoku were either "Ou 7 states", "Tohoku 7 states", or newPrefectureFrom the number ofTohoku 6 prefecturesIs also said.

Abandoned DomainIs implemented and the whole country is under the direct control of the government,Hokkaido is separated from the region,Sendai prefectureMiyagi-gunSendai(AfterMiyagiSendai City) had a national branch office. While these jurisdictions are officially called "Ou,"Civil rightsIs "Ou" "Ou Yue" or "Ou andHokkaido"Tohoku" ("southwest(Compared with ")[8]. In the latter half of the Meiji era, it became customary for the private sector to call the range of “Ou” “Tohoku”, and “Tohoku” was officially used.[8].

As a result, "Tohoku"Region of JapanIs the only one of the[8]For more than 135 years since the Meiji era, it has been widely used as the name of major companies in the Tohoku region, national branch offices and universities. Therefore, currentlyname of poemThe name "Tohoku" is more common than the name "Ou" in this region.

Tohoku Electric Power and "7 Tohoku Prefectures"

In the past, it included more areas than the six Tohoku prefectures,1888For the "Tohoku"Freedom Civil Rights MovementAt the meetingNiigata,Nagano,Toyama,Ishikawa,FukuiWas participating[9].. Even now, legally and economicallyNiigataMay be divided into the Tohoku region. It started from the Meiji eraHydropowerHas a strong relationship with. One of the most important areas for power development in the regionAgano River(Tadami River), but this is the Shimoetsu district of Niigata prefecture and Fukushima prefectureAizuRegion (both regionswatershedThe west side of the Ou Mountains, which iselectricityThe Shimoetsu and Aizu regions were inseparable. Therefore, as a power company whose supply range is "Tohoku 7 prefectures",1942(Showa 17)Distribution Control OrdinanceByTohoku Electric Power Co., Inc.Was established.

Post-war occupationTo become andTroopsIs governed by the “Tohoku 7 Prefectures”[10],1950By (Showa 25)Tohoku Electric PowerWas established.1952(Showa 27)San Francisco Peace TreatyAfter it came into effect, a law for regional development covering the "7 prefectures of Tohoku" was created.

7 prefectures including Niigata prefecture are defined as "Tohoku region"law(Postwar)
  1. Hokkaido Tohoku Development Corporation Law(1956-1999)
    Reorganization of central ministriesAccording toHokkaido Tohoku Development CorporationDisbanded,Development Bank of JapanInherited to.
  2. (1957-1986)
    In 1986 (Special company) Is privatization. afterwards,Mitsubishi MaterialsMerged with.
  3. (1957-2005)
    National Land Development LawAbolished along with other local development promotion laws.
  4. (1965 -)
*1 to 3 may be collectively referred to as “Tohoku Sanho”.

Showa 30'sStart from the second halfNational comprehensive development planNational land formation planHowever, in accordance with these laws, the “7 prefectures of Tohoku” are referred to as the “Tohoku region” (the National Land Planning Law Enforcement Order that came into effect on April 2007, 4).[11]Hereinafter referred to as "Tohoku area"). Also, is being held in Hokkaido and the seven Tohoku prefectures.

In the economy, in accordance with the framework of the “7 prefectures of Tohoku” of these lawsTohoku Economic FederationAnd related industry-academia-government collaborationthink tank(Current name is "Tohoku Development Research Center"), Research and Development Organization (Tohoku Intelligent Cosmos Concept, etc.), Regionventure capitalAnd areaInvestment fund, Tourism[12]But Niigata Prefecture is included.

At the Tohoku Economic Federation, Tohoku Electric Power, which is the largest company headquartered north of Tokyo, is taking the leadership.Block net OfLocal showAre produced and broadcast to "7 prefectures of Tohoku" (called "6 prefectures of Tohoku and Niigata prefecture" in the program).Local newspaperCollaboration projects are posted on (→Hebei Shinpo # Paperreference).

As described above, in terms of Tohoku Electric Power related and economic policies, there are some cases where the “Tohoku 7 prefectures” are referred to as the “Tohoku region”. However, other than electric power related, the Tohoku 6 prefectures are more common. There are only a few examples of an organization located in Sendai, which has jurisdiction over Niigata Prefecture as “7 Tohoku Prefectures”. Tohoku history researchersKasai HidetsuIs because the Tohoku regionBad cropIn contrast to the fact that Niigata was hit by the continental route, Niigata is believed to have been developed as a base for continental routes.[9].. Niigata Prefecture has the largest population in Japan in the early Meiji eraPrefectureAnd (→List of prefectures), 1940 statistics show that the amount of industrial production in 1 prefecture of NiigataSouth TohokuThe economic background is different, as it is almost the same as the total of the three prefectures. Therefore, when dividing Niigata Prefecture into the Tohoku region, the name "Tohoku region" is not used, but "Tohoku 3 prefectures", "Tohoku 7 prefectures and Niigata prefecture", "Tohoku region and Niigata prefecture", "Tohoku region", etc. There are many cases to distinguish by saying (→Niigata Prefecture#Niigata Prefecture Classification).

In 1914, the land transportation network connecting Niigata City, which is the prefectural capital of Niigata Prefecture, and the Tohoku regionsBanetsu West Line, In 1924Uetsu Main Line, In 1997Banetsu ExpresswayHowever, the speed has not increased compared to the transportation network to the Kanto area and the Nagano / Hokuriku area.Niigata AirportThere is no regular air route from to the Tohoku region (Sendai Airport-Niigata AirportRegular flights between them have been suspended for a long time).

History

KinaiOf the regimeRitual system-CentralizationUnder the system, DewakuniVietnam(Hokuriku Expressway) coastal countries (reachable by ship and close to Kinai), MutsukuniHigashisendoTo go on foot, "Dooku = Michinoku (Michinoku)” That is, it was considered a landlocked country. Therefore, like the presentSurveyingIn the era when there was no map that was created, Dewa was considered to be a map of political power on the coast of the Sea of ​​Japan, Mutsu was a map of political power in the hinterland of Honshu, and its boundaries changed according to the rise and fall of political power there. necessarilyOu MountainsIt wasn't a clean division into east and west.Ezo(Prisoner) The power has recededKamakura PeriodSince thenKamakuraFrom here, Mutsukuni became closer, and because Kamakura and Dewakuni did not have a ship connection, the meaning of Dewa as a coastal country diminished, and Oku and Ryogoku were collectively referred to as Oshu. Became.

Oshu (Tohoku region)KinkiGovernments of (Taira administration,Muromachi Shogunate,Toyotomi Administration) Was dominated by the fact that it was far from the seat of administration, a semi-independent political force was born. However, governments in the Kanto region (Kamakura Shogunate,Edo Shogunate,Meiji government), the tendency to be subordinate to the regime becomes stronger. After the Meiji era, a large amount of knowledgeable samurai class was lost due to migration to Hokkaido and Tokyo,Nobiru Port typhoonDue to the closure of the port in two years, it became the only region without an open port.資本主義I missed the economy. Also,Ground revisionUntil the beginning of the Meiji era, the penetration of the monetary economy was delayed compared to other regions, and its importance as a domestic market was low.

Now that the population has increased and the development of expressways has progressed, the reorganization of land transportation and the formation of an economic zone are progressing in the Tohoku region. On the other hand,Sendai metropolitan areaConcentration in the area and depopulation in other areas are also progressing.

Prehistory

Paleolithic

Paleolithic TheIce ageIt was colder than it is now. As a result, the coastline at that time is more offshore than it is today and is now sinking to the bottom of the sea, so little is known about life on the coastline. For inland life, even in the Tohoku regionTomizawa Ruins,Kantori RuinsAs you can see, there are several other early Paleolithic sitesPaleolithic fabrication caseSince the research has been returned to the starting point, research is currently underway.

Jomon Period

Jomon PeriodThe climate is believed to have warmed, and the Tohoku region is believed to have been warmer than it was in the middle Jomon period. In the life centered on gathering, hunting and fishing at that time,West JapanthanEast JapanAre more suitable for daily life, and the Tohoku regionKanto region,Central highlandsAlong with it, it is known as a region where the remains of the Jomon period are densely distributed. Lowest population densityKinki-Chugoku-ShikokuCompared to rural areas, the population density is highest in Kanto, more than 30 times, and in Tohoku, about 5 to 10 times more inhabited. Therefore, it is a huge settlement that continued for 1440 years.Sannai Maruyama SiteThere was such a thing, and primitive things such as chestnut cultivation started and played a central role in the Jomon culture along with Kanto and the Central Highlands.

Jomon culture declined due to cold weather in the late Jomon period, and from the continent at the end of the Jomon periodPaddy fieldRice cultivationIs introduced, and Yayoi culture develops mainly in western Japan such as northern Kyushu and Kinai. In the Tohoku region, the Yayoi culture spread relatively early, and it is thought that paddy rice farming was introduced in the early Yayoi period. Not accepted, in the northSequel Jomon cultureThere is also a view that it was[Annotation 4]. Also in the south, abandonment of rice cultivation and the southward movement of the Jomon culture can be seen.

Kofun period

Kofun periodToKinaiThe ancient tomb culture has arrived fromOld tombWas built. The areas where the burial mounds are concentratedSendai Plain,AizuRegion/YamagataIt is located in the southern part of the Tohoku region such as the inland area. Also,Nara BasinSeems to have originFront and rear circleWas also made,Yamato kingshipIt is believed that the exchange with him had already started. The largest front burial mound in the Tohoku region is Miyagi PrefectureNatori CityIt is inRaijin Mountain TumulusIs. In northern Miyagi and north of Akita (some say that the Shonai region of Yamagata is included)Terminal burial moundAre distributed[Annotation 5]. In addition, in the Aomori prefecture area in the northeastern part of Japan, the continuous Jomon culture continues and the tumulus is small.Terminal burial moundIs limited to.

Ancient times

Yamato period

Ancient timesWhen you enterYamato kingshipAnd the relationship between the Ouetsu region (Tohoku region and Niigata prefecture) and the various forces in the region gradually shifts from the loose regional coalition level up to the Kofun period to the centralized relationship between the capital and the region.

KinaiThe ancient Tohoku region as seen from the administration side and the current Niigata prefectureMt. Yoneyama PassEast (Chuetsu region-Shimoetsu district-Sado Island) Is an “unconquered land” and is a foreign race that does not submit to the Kinai administration.Ezo(Emishi)" is said to live in (EzoThere are various theories in the area where he lived). From the ancient times to the Middle Ages, the Kinai government conquered war and the Tohoku region (especiallyOkuroku DistrictIn the movement of independence and semi-independence, the conquest army and the Ezo army clashed, and the history of the Tohoku region was created.

Asuka Period

7st centuryIn the middle to lateEmperorWhen a strong bureaucracy centered onNational constructionAs a result, the state system has changed significantly from the decentralization system, which was originally controlled as.

In this process, in the middle of the 7th century, from the present Pacific side of Fukushima prefecture to the central part of Miyagi prefecture and the southern part of Yamagata prefecture (Okitama) And Chubu (Mogami-gun) Submitted to the Kinai administration,Hitachi countryIt is separated from Michiokuku.Mutsu) Was installed.This area is an area where many keyhole-shaped tumuli were built during the Kofun period (Miyagi prefecture was settled within the 7th century).

On the Sea of ​​Japan side, NiigataJoetsu region(Kubiki-gun) Conquered untilYamato kingshipVietnamThe Allied forces (of Koshinokuni)fenceGo north while building a front base called "(ki)".First,Dahua3 years(647)Toe fence(CurrentNiigataCentral), 4 years further (XNUMX years of Taika)648)Banfune fence(CurrentIwafune-gun,(I.e.Around the coast of the Sea of ​​JapanVietnamWas incorporated into. Emperor Saimei4 years(658) Was the national guardianAbe HirafuHowever, with 180 warships heading further north along the coast of the Sea of ​​Japan, from "Agita no Ura" (currently around Akita City?)Tsugaru districtCame to (Japanese calligraphy). There is no established theory as to whether this is an Ezo conquest or an armed trading fleet. At least this Abe Suigun is Emperor Saimei 4 (658)-Emperor Saimei 6 (660), He came to Japan three times, traded and returned.After that, he was in an alliance with the Kinai administration.Baekje SillaDue to the invasion, the Abe Suigun joined the battle line and the expedition to the Tohoku Sea of ​​Japan side was interrupted.

Ritual systemAs the development progressed and it was established as a centralized state, the development of the local control system also progressed. The Imperial Court moved northShonai regionReached the current SakataMogami RiverAround the estuaryDewa fenceInstalled.Koshi no KuniEchizen country-Vietnam-Echigo countryWhen divided into three countries,WadoFirst yearMay 9(708October 11th),Shonai regionToDewa DistrictWas established and incorporated into Echigo country. This Dewa-gun was built on September 5, 9 (712Sept. 10, separating from Echigo and becoming Dewa, and later from MutsuOkitamaMogami-gunAnd the coastal country of Dewakuni gained inlandKokufuIs in the northeastern part of Sakata City todayCastle fenceIt is believed that it was installed in the ruins).

Nara period

Yoro4 years(720) Revolt of Ezo (General of Conquest,Tajihi Mamoru8 years oldTurtleNew Year (724) To the northeast Pacific sideTaga CastleWas built,South TohokuWas completely incorporated into the imperial court's ruling system.The imperial court army that went further northBalance5 years(733) Dewa fence to Akita Takashimizuoka (currentAkita CastleMoved). However, in the current area of ​​Akita Prefecture, only the coastal area came under control, and the inland area was under moderate control. 737(9 years of Tenpyo)Ono TojinDue to this, the communication passage from Taga Castle to Dewa Fence was opened and closed.

North tohokuThen,Kitakami MountainsIsolated from the Pacific OceanTaga CastleAway from the presentIwate内 のKitakami RiverBasin (=Okuroku District,Hidaka country), and in AkitaYokote BasinetcEzoRemains as the territory of theTaga Castle) Will continue to the conflict with.

Houki11 years(780)ofEmperor MitsuhitoAt the time ofIji MaroCaused a rebellion and robbed Taga Castle.

Heian period

Heian period OfEmperor HanmuConducted Ezo Eihei's trip over three times,Sakaue Tamura Maro Conqueror GeneralAnd the Ezo armyAteluiTo win in Okuroku-gunIsawa CastleBuilt up. The defeated Ezo army vowed to submit to the imperial court and became a prisoner of war, and some were forcibly displaced in groups throughout Japan.

When the rule of the Imperial Court was established, many settlers (barriers) entered from the Kanto and Hokuriku regions, and the interiorization of the Tohoku region proceeded. From the prisonerMr. AbeGrows in power,Okuroku DistrictBased in Japan, it had an influence on a vast area from Nukabe (currently eastern Aomori prefecture) to Watari/Igu (currently southern Miyagi prefecture).[13]But,MinamotoWas destroyed in conflict with (Role of the last nine years). afterwardsKiyoharaHas gained power, but this tooOriginatorDestroyed by (The role of the next three years). Through these roles, there is a view that there has been a recognition of bringing together both regions, which were previously recognized as Mutsukuni (eastern back) and Dewakuni (northern end).[14]. The disproportionate state that only two countries were established in the vast area of ​​Tohoku out of the sixty-seven provinces of Japan extends to the Meiji Restoration period. It is also because the national separation system has completely disappeared, and the population density and productivity of Tohoku were not so low. At the Taiko inspection site, Mutsukuni is already more than 2 times the average of other countries, and Dewakuni is about twice as high.

中 世

The end of the Heian period

From the end of the Heian period中 世In the early days, mainly in the Kitakami River basin (Okuroku-gun)Oshu FujiwaraProsper,Hiraizumi HeianjingIt will develop until it becomes the second largest city in Japan. Mr. Fujiwara Oshu seems to have accumulated financial power by collecting taxes on the territories of both Mutsu and Dewa countries and the Setouchia Manor.[15]. But,Yoshitsune MinamotoWhether or notKamakuraReceived a military attack from the administration,Yoritomo GengenDestroyed by

Kamakura Period

after thatBandoMainly from originSamuraiAnd many are placed,HojoWas widely set, but someTsugaru district OfMr. AndoThe powerful tribes, who are considered to be territorial lords, also maintained their power.AndoHojo Tokune FamilyからEzoIt is said that he was appointed to Hokkaido and ruled Hokkaido from the north Tohoku region.Ando's homeXNUMX MinatoFlourished in trade and became one of Japan's leading cities. But,Muromachi PeriodAndoMr. NanbuTsugaru was chased by the conflict with him and moved to the Akita region, and the prosperity of Tosaminato was lost.

Muromachi Period

Northern and Northern Dynasties

Kamakura ShogunateAfter the fallEmperor Godaigo OfKenmu's new governmentThen, for the Oshu peaceAkira KitahataWas dispatched and ruled the Mutsu Kokufu. Northern and Northern DynastiesAs you enter, the Kitahata family from the SouthAkira NobuhataAnd of the NorthMr. Ishito-Kira-Mr. Hatakeyama-Mr. SanamiFought fiercely, eventually in the NorthShiba familyWon as Oshu Kanrei.After that, Mr. Shiba settled power in both Ou and Ou, but gradually declined, so he ruled the Kanto region.Kamakura PrefectureWas integrated into.Kamakura-fu is in the southern part of Oshu to strengthen its governance abilityShinokawa-Inamura publicBut placeMuromachi ShogunateMr. Shiba (Mr. Osaki-Mogami) Is from the Muromachi ShogunateOshu search,HashuWill be appointed to. Furthermore, because the powerful nations are in conflict with Kamakura Prefecture, they report directly to the Muromachi Shogunate.Kyoto supportersThere were many cases where

Sengoku period

Sengoku periodIsYamagata OfMogami-Date OfDate-Akita OfAkita-Sannohe OfMr. Nanbu-Aizuwakamatsu OfMr. NanaAnd so on.

The early modern period

Azuchi-Momoyama Period

Battle of SekigaharaAfter, in Hitachi, MitoMr. SatakeWas transferred to Akita in place of Mr. Akita, a descendant of Mr. Ando.In particularDate MasamuneRapidly expanded its power at the end of the Warring States period, putting half of the Ou XNUMX-gun counties under influence.

The inland part of Dewa Province (a group of basins extending to the west side of the Ou Mountains) established territorial control centered on the basin and played a leading role during the Warring States period in the Tohoku region. It is a professional infantry (soldier)Ashigaru Separation of soldiersIn the early Sengoku period, which had not been established, there was a limit to the amount of troops that could be organized, and the size of a basin was suitable for territorial control. Got offensive.

Edo Period

The early modern period,Edo PeriodAs a leading daimyo of, he moved from Joetsu City to Aizuwakamatsu and then to Yonezawa.Uesugi, With Masayuki Hoshina as the ancestorAizu MatsudairaFrom YonezawaSendaiMoved toDateMoved from Mito to AkitaMr. Satake,Morioka OfMr. NanbuThere is such a thing (Mr. Mogami of Yamagata was later modified by the house turmoil and became the flag book of five thousand stones in Omi).

Edo PeriodIn the latter half, famine began to occur frequently due to global climate change,Great Famine of TenmeiAs a result, not only 10 people starved to death and plagues, but also many residentsAbsenteeThen, it became a situation of flowing into Edo. Against this backdrop, the clan's finances were rebuilt to withstand famineYonezawa DomainmainUesugi TakayamaAlthough there were examples such asWeather forecastThe situation didn't improve as a whole due to the difficulty of.Tempo's Great FamineBut the Tohoku region caused many deaths.

The Edo ShogunateResignationAfter going to the end of the Edo periodKeio4 years/MeijiNew Year (1868)Hokuriku regionEasternHokuetsu WarContinue fromAizu Warな どBoshin WarAnd the various domains in the Tohoku and eastern parts of the Hokuriku regionOuetsu Reihan AllianceI tried to protect myself from the new government army by forming a military alliance called. However, after losing the battle, all the clan members of the alliance suffered punishment that drastically reduced their territory, and the economy was almost destroyed. In such a situation,SacrificeOf vassals (samurai class, knowledge class) etc.HokkaidoImmigrate toSapporoThere are many examples of cultivating various cities such as and making a mark on the history of Hokkaido. The new government side left the Ouetsu Reihan AllianceAkita domain-Hirosaki DomainAlso, because the Boshin War made many sacrifices and spent a huge amount of money, poverty was inevitable, and many immigrants were also sent to Hokkaido. On the other handShonai DomainFought as the Shogunate side until the end,Saigo TakamoriThere is also an intention of[Annotation 6]The Yonezawa domain was also lightly punished by actively cooperating with the new government after the Meiji Restoration[Annotation 7].

Modern

Meiji Era

The first year of the Meiji eraMay 12(1869May 1),Boshin WarLost toOuetsu Reihan AllianceDisposal was carried out for the various domains. On the same day, MutsuIwaki-Iwashiro-Rikuzen-In the land-MutsuIn addition, Dewakuni was divided into Uzenkoku and Ugokuni ("Rikuzen/Mikuchu/Muttsu" created by this division are also called "Sanriku",Rias coast"Sanriku Coast" and one of the three major fishing grounds in the worldOff SanrikuIs used for words such as). 4th year of MeijiMay 7(August 1871, 8)Abandoned DomainAfter that, the present six prefectures of Tohoku were created.

During this period, the Meiji government established its power base with the victory of the Boshin War, and the traditional rule of the Shogunate system was established.Social orderHas completely lost its authority. Also, the economic base was originally weaker than that of the southwestern clan,Orderly disposalAs a result of the poverty, "Hokkaido emigration" and "return to agriculture" were widely carried out among the lords and vassals of each region who were forced into financial hardship. Also in the Tohoku regionMonopoly systemDue to the fact that there were many clan that tried to increase income, there were many cases where land products were required to be paid as taxes, and there was no market as a system where common people such as farmers could cash the products. However, after the Meiji Restoration, the government ordered that the tax be paid in cash, as in other regions where the market exists. It was in economic turmoil.

Entering the Meiji era,Wealthy soldiers-Aquaculture industryHas entered the era of full-scale all over Japan,Koriyama BasinInAzumi Canal, Miyagi PrefectureNobiru Port,Tohoku Imperial UniversityInstallation of Iwate PrefectureKamaishi Steel WorksWith the exception of, there was no large-scale investment or development by the government in the Tohoku region.Even after the Nobuki Port was destroyed by the typhoon, it was not restored or a replacement port was constructed, and it was the first railway to be laid.Tohoku Main LineWas not carried out as a government-run national plan[Annotation 8].

Lord OkuraMasayoshi MatsukatabyMatsukata DeflationCaused a decline in agricultural prices and nationwidePeasantThe ratio was increased (national average of peasant farming rate 38% → 47%). As a result, the wealthy people nationwideLandlordThe oligopoly of ownership progresses, and industrialization (Raw silkindustry·shipbuildingWhile the economy was favorable in the urban areas of Kanto, whereJoban CoalfieldThe Tohoku region, which had been delayed in industrialization except for the surrounding areas, suffered further economic damage.Therefore, many people are female workers and various types.WorkerAs a result, I had no choice but to work in urban areas.

Furthermore, Japan's tendency to expand overseas, which became prominent after the Sino-Japanese War and the Russo-Japanese War, led to neglect of the development of Japan's mainland, resulting in delaying the modernization of rural areas.In particular, after the annexation of South Korea in 1910 (Meiji 43), the influx of cheap rice from the Korean Peninsula led to a decline in rice prices, which was a major blow to the Tohoku region.

Showa period

Since the Showa era, it has been around for the second and third sons of farmers.ManchuriaImmigrants to Japan have become active. 1930(Showa 5)Showa Tohoku Great HarvestHappened, and there were a lot of children selling and skipping children,XNUMX incidentIt became one of the factors that cause

modern

After the war

Second World WarAfter thatFarmland reformAs a result, the traditional feudal landowner peasant relationship is a thing of the past. Industrialization has finally started in the Tohoku region, and the standard of living has improved remarkably, but reinvestment has progressed.Pacific beltBeing left behind by the remarkable development of the region, the weakness of economic power became more prominent. High economic growthIt doesn't change with the times,InfrastructureDelay in maintenance,TokyoTo the directionMigrant,Group employmentOutflow of personnel due toDepopulationA new problem has come to be recognized.

dialect

Tohoku dialect, so-calledTohoku dialectIt is,DialectThen.East Japan dialectIt is divided into. On the Pacific sideKanto dialect(EspeciallyEast Kanto dialect) And many commonalities with the Sea of ​​JapanKitamaebuneBy tradeKansai dialectCan also be seen.accentIs in the south of the Pacific Ocean (Southern Miyagi Prefecture, inland Yamagata Prefecture and Fukushima Prefecture)No accent, Kitaou style accents distributed from the southern Japan Sea side to most of the north (outer ringTokyo accentSubspecies of),Sanriku CoastThe outer ring of the north is roughly divided into Tokyo accents[17].

As a representative of dialects that were once difficult to understand and understandKagoshima dialectAlthough it was often cited as a reminder, it had a dark image and a negative impression due to the delay in development compared to other regions, but in the present age, it is a symbol of warm humanity and simplicity. A positive outlook was born. However, it is no different from the conventional negative evaluation in that the dialect speaker is merely an "arbitrary image", and it is not always accepted favorably. In modern times, even in the Tohoku region, the common language is becoming more common among younger generations, while the number of people who are not caught up in the old image is increasing.

As a "characteristic that is generally considered to be Tohoku dialect",

  • Confusion between Si and Su and J and Z (Middle tongue vowel,So-calledZoozoo valve
  • Confusion between a and d
  • Ends such as "da (= yes)" and "dabe (= probably)" (the latter is also a feature of the Kanto dialect)
  • Vocabulary such as "beko (= cow)" "menkoi (= cute)"

and so on. However, there are dialects to which these characteristics apply and those that do not.

As a representative of places where you can hear the Tohoku dialect outside the Tohoku region,Ueno Station(Strictly speaking, JR East = Ueno Station of the former JNR. Especially the ground platform where many long-distance trains arrive and depart). Actually, it appeared in Takuboku Ishikawa's tanka and popular songs of Noboru Goto during the high growth period,Tohoku ShinkansenThe connection between Ueno Station and the Tohoku region dramatically weakened as a result of getting into Tokyo Station (1991), and it is already becoming an image of the past.

population

Looking at the population trends of the Tohoku region as a whole, there is a natural increase after the war (the firstBaby boomIn 1960, the population of the Tohoku region reached 970 million in the Tohoku region. 1960sHigh economic growthIn the times,Golden eggMainly in the name ofKeihinIn the directionGroup employmentOrMigrantCame out toEthnic migrationEnter the era of population decline (social decline) similar to. This flow continued until the beginning of 1970, and the secondBaby boomIn 1970, the population declined to 924 million despite a significant natural increase. afterwards,Nixon shockOil shockEntered the era byTokyoTo the Tohoku region will once again enter the era of population growth. After the baby boom, the marketability of more than 900 million peopleTertiary industryDue to the industrial shift to, the social increase of the local core cities has occurred, and the population continued to grow steadily, assisted by the (decrease in mortality) of Japan as a whole.Bubble economyDuring the period, temporarily transferred from the Tokyo area[18]As a result, the number reached to 20 million at the end of the 985th century. Entering the 21st century, the economic downturn in the Tohoku region,金融 OfTokyo extreme concentrationAs a result, the population has begun to decline again due to social decline. In the future, with the limit of longevityBaby boom generationIncrease in mortality due to aging ofYoungerIs expected to continue to decline due to the impact of[19].

*: The following statistical rankings are national rankings, and the unit of population is "people".

Major metropolitan area

The main Tohoku regionMetropolitan area
"":Prefectural office locationUrban area centered on

Population by prefecture

National rankingPrefecture namepopulation
15Miyagi2,348,165
18Fukushima2,029,064
31Aomori1,373,339
32Iwate1,330,147
35Yamagata1,168,924
38Akita1,085,997
Tohoku region9,335,636
Japan128,057,352

*2010CensusFixed value

Major cities

Major city population
order
Place
City road
Prefecture
CityLegal population
(Man)
Estimated population
(Man)
Rate of change
(%)
Type
Estimated population
Statistics date
11MiyagiSendai city1,082,1591,092,090+0.92Government-designated city2021th of February 5
59FukushimaIwaki350,237334,775-4.41%Core city2021th of February 5
66FukushimaKoriyama335,444329,347-1.82%Core city2021th of February 5
68AkitaAkita City315,814302,551-4.20%Core city2021th of February 5
72IwateMorioka297,631288,801-2.97%Core city2021th of February 5
73FukushimaFukushima294,247283,742-3.57%Core city2021th of February 5
75AomoriAomori287,648270,902-5.82%Core city2021th of February 5
90YamagataYamagata253,832246,644-2.83%Core city2021th of February 5
99AomoriHachinohe City231,257219,651-5.02%Core city2021th of February 5
130AomoriHirosaki177,411167,534-5.57%2021th of February 5
165MiyagiIshinomaki147,214138,085-6.20%2021th of February 5
189MiyagiOsaki133,391126,787-4.95%2021th of February 5
194YamagataTsuruoka129,652121,190-6.53%2021th of February 5
203FukushimaAizuwakamatsu124,062117,285-5.46%2021th of February 5
210IwateIchinoseki129,652110,678-14.63%2021th of February 5
216IwateOshu City119,422112,007-6.21%2021th of February 5
251YamagataSakata City106,24499,376-6.46%2021th of February 5
269IwateHanamaki97,70292,594-5.23%2021th of February 5
279IwateKitakami City93,51193,160-0.38%2021th of February 5
283AkitaYokote City92,19784,069-8.82%2021th of February 5
The major cities in the 6 prefectures of the Tohoku region are listed.

Meiji EraTohoku region's population (end of 19th century) (The ranking is national ranking)

RankingPrefecture namepopulation
17Fukushima913,800
27Yamagata742,600
28Miyagi735,100
31Akita684,300
36Iwate655,400
41Aomori527,600
Tohoku region4,258,800
Japan39,626,600

*1888 (Meiji 21)[20]

RankingCity namepopulationRankingCity namepopulation
8Sendai city90,23154Wakamatsu Town21,584
26Morioka31,15356Sakata Town20,918
29Hirosaki30,48760Tsuruoka Town19,562
32Yonezawa29,59162Aomori Town19,484
33Akita City29,56878Ishinomaki16,974
35Yamagata29,01981Fukushima Town16,629
*1889 (Meiji 22)Municipal systemEnforcement year "Meiji Taisho national encyclopedia"
*": Originalcastle town. No color:Port town

At the end of the 19th century, the center of industryAgriculture:Because it wasRice cultivationThere is a large population in the south-northeast, which is suitable forFern phenomenonIn Japan, the yield is stable (Yamagata, Akita), and the population is higher by prefecture than the Pacific (Miyagi, Iwate), where yields are unstable due to quitting. At this timeUrbanizationHas not progressed, it is a remnant of the economy of the Edo period,castle townPort townWas in the position of the city.

Currently, urbanization is in progress (75% of the total population in the Tohoku region is urban), and the population ranking by prefecture is also DID Area rank (→Tohoku region #geography) Is almost the same.

After the Great East Japan Earthquake,Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant AccidentWhile the population of Koriyama City and Iwaki City temporarily decreased by 1000 people due to the impact of the disaster, the population of Sendai City, which had little damage in the inland area, and Morioka City, which had no damage, were relocated from the tsunami-affected areas. It was increasing by 1000 people.

Age structure

Population by age group
Estimated population as of October 2004, 10
Total [Thousands]

agepopulation
0-4 yearsG30.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 414
5 - 9G50.pngG03.png 453
10 - 14G50.pngG05.png 478
15 - 19G50.pngG10.pngG03.png 540
20 - 24G50.pngG10.pngG05.png 559
25 - 29G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png 586
30 - 34G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG01.pngG01.png 617
35 - 39G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.png 568
40 - 44G50.pngG10.pngG10.png 600
45 - 49G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png 659
50 - 54G50.pngG30.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 765
55 - 59G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 682
60 - 64G50.pngG10.pngG10.pngG01.png 607
65 - 69G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png 594
70 - 74G50.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png 579
75 - 79G50.pngG05.pngG01.png 479
Over 80 years oldG50.pngG10.pngG01.png 526

Population by age group
Estimated population as of October 2004, 10
Gender [Thousands]

MaleageFemale
212 G10.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png0-4 yearsR10.pngR10.pngR03.png 202
231 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG01.pngG01.png5 - 9R10.pngR10.pngR05.png 222
243 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.png10 - 14R10.pngR10.pngR05.pngR01.pngR01.png 235
276 G30.pngG01.pngG01.png15 - 19R30.png 264
287 G30.pngG03.png20 - 24R30.pngR01.png 272
300 G30.pngG05.png25 - 29R30.pngR03.png 286
311 G30.pngG05.pngG01.png30 - 34R30.pngR05.png 306
283 G30.pngG03.png35 - 39R30.pngR03.png 285
299 G30.pngG03.pngG01.png40 - 44R30.pngR05.png 301
330 G30.pngG05.pngG03.png45 - 49R30.pngR05.pngR03.png 329
384 G30.pngG10.pngG03.pngG01.png50 - 54R30.pngR10.pngR03.pngR01.png 381
341 G30.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png55 - 59R30.pngR05.pngR03.pngR01.png 341
288 G30.pngG03.png60 - 64R30.pngR05.pngR01.pngR01.png 319
269 G30.pngG01.png65 - 69R30.pngR05.pngR03.png 325
254 G10.pngG10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.png70 - 74R30.pngR05.pngR03.png 325
197 G10.pngG10.pngG03.png75 - 79R30.pngR01.pngR01.png 282
166 G10.pngG05.pngG03.pngG01.pngOver 80 years oldR30.pngR10.pngR01.pngR01.png 360


Transportation

Tohoku regionShirakawa no SekiからHonshuNorthernmostOmazakiIt is more than 630km along the road, which is more than the distance from Tokyo to Himeji. Therefore, for land transportation routes in the Tohoku region, the priority was placed on shortening the arrival time to Tokyo, and the roads, railways, and roads were first constructed by connecting the north and south. In addition, the traffic development on the Pacific side proceeded first, and generally on the Sea of ​​Japan side after that (the following is the approximate number every 5km of the line distance between major stations. It is close to the distance between cities in the Tohoku region.Pacific beltOf cities).

Currently, in north-south land transportation,Tohoku Shinkansen-Tohoku ExpresswayIt is linked to the Kanto region, and the Shinkansen is dominant for passengers. High-speed transportation has been developed to shorten the time to reach Tokyo, but on the other hand, it has also activated passenger movement in the Tohoku region, and especially on the Pacific side, inter-city exchange between north and south has become popular regardless of distance. There is. Also, in Honshu and NorthTerminalAomori Prefecture isTsugaru StraitBetween Hokkaido andSeikan TunnelHas opened, and the relationship between cities has deepened. Previously between Aomori and HakodateSeikan ferryWas operating, but with the opening of the tunnelferryThe route was set and linked with the Tohoku Expressway and Hachinohe ExpresswayTrackIt corresponds to distribution. In addition, in recent yearsTour busEntered at a low price,Express BusAnd is fiercely competing for passengers.

On the other hand, with regard to east-west traffic, railroads and national roads have been developed since the Meiji era, despite being blocked by mountains and mountains, but the response to high-speed traffic was delayed. East-West highway traffic isstemConnect to the Tohoku Shinkansen and Tohoku ExpresswaybranchIs maintained at the end of the 20th centuryAkita ShinkansenAnd the expressway of the connecting line was improved. As a result, Koriyama and Aizu-Wakamatsu, Sendai and Yamagata, Morioka and Akita, etc. are progressing toward the formation of regional and economic zones that transcend natural barriers.

Due to the speeding up of east-west traffic, the present Tohoku region is classified into two areas due to the difference in convenience of transportation infrastructure. In terms of traffic relations with Tokyo, from the Pacific Ocean side to the basin group adjacent to the west side of the Ou Mountains, it can be divided into "Shinkansen area", and the other areas along the Sea of ​​Japan can be divided into "Aircraft area". The east and west boundaries of the two are almostDewa mountain area.

Located in "Shinkansen area"Sendai Airport(Sendai metropolitan area内 のNatori City-Iwanuma City) Has many domestic and international flights, and more than half of the users are non-Miyagi residents when it comes to international flights, which is the base airport of the "Shinkansen area". Coast of Japan (Tsugaru Plain-Akita Plain-Shonai Plain), because it takes time to connect to the Tohoku Shinkansen, there is much air demand with Tokyo, and it is an "aircraft group area."

空港

Currently, there are no routes connecting each airport in the Tohoku region, but once there were four regular routes from Sendai airport, including the Tohoku region, up to a straight distance of about 300 km.

(Reference) Shinkansen...Tokyo Station~Sendai Station: 351.8km (Tokyo station ~Nagoya Station: 366.0km)
(Reference) Expressway...Sendai Miyagi IC~Niigata Central IC: 253.5km

1982 yearsTohoku ShinkansenOpening (Omiya Station~ Morioka Station) Haneda flight was abolished in 1982 by Misawa flights. Niigata flights,Banetsu ExpresswayIt was abolished in 1992 while being maintained one after another. The Aomori service was set because it was a region where the convenience of the Shinkansen was not obtained, but it was abolished due to the competition to reduce the fare with JR.

In addition, there are many cases in which the number of passengers at the airport decreases markedly due to the opening of the Shinkansen. For reference, the fastest required time from the major cities near the airport at the time of the timetable revision on March 28, 3 is also shown.

  • Iwate Prefecture (Hamaki Airport) Morioka Station-The fastest time on the bullet train between Tokyo Station is 2 hours and 10 minutes.
    • Hanamaki Airport-Although there was an air route between Haneda Airport and the Tohoku Shinkansen that opened to Morioka Station, Hanamaki Airport, which is far from Morioka City, where the largest passengers live, has an overall advantage in reaching Tokyo. Since the Tohoku Shinkansen operated more frequently, the Haneda flight was abolished.
  • Yamagata Prefecture (Yamagata Airport) Yamagata Station-The fastest time on the bullet train between Tokyo Station is 2 hours 27 minutes.
    • Yamagata AirportIn 1991, there were more than 70 annual passengers centered on Haneda flights, which peaked, but in 1992Yamagata ShinkansenWith the opening of business, it began to decline, reaching 3, which is less than one-third of its peak. Yamagata ShinkansenMini bullet trainAndFukushima StationBecause the trains are connected by, the effect of shortening the required time is not as large as that of the full-standard Shinkansen, so Haneda flights operate once a day with the support of the local government.
  • Akita Prefecture (Akita Airport) Akita Station-The fastest time on the bullet train between Tokyo Station is 3 hours 39 minutes.
    • Akita AirportIn 1996, there were about 150 million annual users, but in 1997Akita ShinkansenOpened in 1998Odate Noshiro AirportThe number of passengers decreased due to the opening of the port. However, the Akita ShinkansenMini bullet trainDue to the fact that the time required to reach Tokyo has not been shortened so much, passenger movement from the air routes to the Shinkansen has not progressed so much, and it has been flat at around 130 million.
  • Aomori Southern Region (Misawa Airport) Hachinohe Station-The fastest time on the bullet train between Tokyo Station is 2 hours and 42 minutes.
    • Misawa Air BaseIn 2001, the total number of annual passengers reached 58.3, but on December 2002, 12, the Tohoku ShinkansenHachinohe StationAs a result of the extension, the number of passengers on the Haneda Line has decreased, and in 2004 the number of passengers was reduced to 33.4.
  • Aomori Prefecture Tsugaru district (Aomori Airport) Shin-Aomori Station-The fastest time on the bullet train between Tokyo Station is 2 hours and 59 minutes.
    • Aomori AirportAlthough there were more than 1998 million annual passengers from 2002 to 150, it has been decreasing since the Hachinohe extension of the Tohoku Shinkansen.
  • There is no route from one airport to all airports in the Tohoku region. (As an example, there is no Fukushima/Sendai/Hana winding from Haneda, and no Shonai/Odate Noshiro line from Itami.)
Number of passengers in 2008 (Airports in Japan#Passengersreference)[21]
空港Total passengersDomestic flightsInternational flights
Number of passengersregular serviceNumber of passengersregular service
Sendai338Ten thousand7463304Ten thousand7955New Chitose-Narita-Central part-(I.e.-
Osaka-Hiroshima-Fukuoka-Naha
33Ten thousand9508Seoul-Beijing-Dalian-Shanghai-
Changchun-Taipei-Guam
Akita132Ten thousand4736128Ten thousand2222New ChitoseTokyo・Chubu/Osaka4Ten thousand2514Seoul
Aomori126Ten thousand1908120Ten thousand7826New ChitoseTokyo·Nagoya·Osaka5Ten thousand4082Seoul
Fukushima52Ten thousand972643Ten thousand9683New ChitoseOsaka9Ten thousand0043Seoul/Shanghai
Hanamaki44Ten thousand562643Ten thousand4036New ChitoseNagoya/Osaka·Fukuoka1Ten thousand1590
Shonai43Ten thousand142743Ten thousand0006Tokyo1421
Misawa32Ten thousand183032Ten thousand1830Tokyo0
Yamagata19Ten thousand938019Ten thousand8232Tokyo/Osaka1148
Odate Noshiro14Ten thousand607414Ten thousand6074Tokyo0
Total804Ten thousand8170750Ten thousand786454Ten thousand0306
2005 cargo

Port

In the Edo period,KitamaebuneMade the port city on the Sea of ​​Japan side prosperous, and the port city on the Pacific side prospered by the eastbound route. In addition, there are fishing ports of various sizes,Pelagic fisheryIt was very busy in the days when was popular. Currently, local fish (Coastal fishery・There are many lively fishing ports due to the specialization and upsizing of offshore fisheries. Sendai, Onahama, Ishinomaki, Hachinohe, and Akita are important industrial ports and trading ports, and Aomori, Hachinohe, and Sendai are important ports as passenger ports.

Train

TokyoMainly toTohoku ShinkansenIs the main force for transportation.1887Tohoku Main Line Kuroiso-Koriyama-Sendai opened, then1890In Sendai-Ichinoseki-Morioka,1891Opened between Morioka and Aomori and is the "trunk"Tohoku Main LineWas opened.1982Tohoku ShinkansenOmiya - MoriokaOpened,1997ToMorioka - AkitaAkita Shinkansen, which is connected by a direct train1992ToFukushima - YamagataYamagata Shinkansen, which is directly connected to the Shinkansen, opens1999ToShinjoWas extended) and the prefectural capital location and Tokyo were connected by a single bullet train. On the other hand,Sakata-TsuruokaTo TokyoJoetsu ShinkansenAnd limited expressInahoIs superior (there are also routes via Shinjo),IwakiLimited express to TokyoHitachiThere are also shortest routes that do not use the "trunk" Tohoku Shinkansen.These areas are affected by the fact that the east-west connecting line, which is a "branch", was a latecomer.It should be noted that2002May 12Tohoku Shinkansen Morioka- HachinoheSince the opening of the train, the Shinkansen has been used in all prefectures in the Tohoku region, making it the only case in Japan except for Hokkaido, which has only one road.

East Japan Railway (Average of 48.4 people/day, FY2004)
Hokkaido passenger railway
Private railway,Third sector railway(Average of 5.1 people/day, FY2004)
Sendai City Transportation Bureau (Average of 15.0 people/day, FY2004)

道路

Tohoku regionDoctorThe number of people is lower than the national level in terms of the population, and there is a wide medical-free area.MedicalIt has a deep relationship with the system. Highways and national roads are used in hospitalsEmergency lifeIt functions as a transport path to the center,Ambulance emergency exit routeIs also maintained. It is also used as a supply route for sending full-time doctors concentrated in urban areas to districts as part-time doctors.

Main road

highway
General national road

Media

  • Famous throughout the Tohoku regionLocal talentThere are several people, and they appear on block net. Although other local talents are basically active on a prefecture basis, there is a tendency for local talents from all over the Tohoku region to gather in Sendai.
  • Famous for local governments along the Sea of ​​JapanLocal idol,Local heroAnd are known throughout the Tohoku region.

Economy

  Tohoku 6 prefectures total
  Miyagi prefecture flag Miyagi
  Fukushima flag Fukushima
  Iwate prefecture flag Iwate
  Aomori prefecture flag Aomori
  Yamagata prefecture flag Yamagata
  Akita prefecture flag Akita
Gross domestic product (nominal) (Unit: billion yen)[23]
Prefectural gross product (actual: chain system) (Unit: billion yen)[23]
The Tohoku Bureau of Economy, Trade and Industry has the potential to expand its economic ripple effect to "50 billion yen if the concentration of automobile-related industries in the Tohoku region is increased and the procurement rate of parts in the region is increased to 7,366%." I am analyzing.

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ a b 統計日は、青森県が2021年5月1日、岩手県が2021年5月1日、宮城県が2021年5月1日、秋田県が2021年5月1日、山形県が2021年5月1日、福島県が2021年5月1日。
  2. ^ After the Meiji Restoration, Kyushu was renamed "Southwest" (Southwest region) and Ou was renamed "Tohoku" (Tohoku region).
  3. ^ "In the first place, there is no clear legal definition in the range called "-region" (Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications)" Whether the metropolitan area and Kanto region / Yamanashi prefecture are included or not "Nihon Keizai Shimbun" June 24, 6 S16 side
  4. ^ In the middle of Yayoi, at the northern end of Aomori PrefectureTaruiyanagi Ruins-Sunazawa RuinsHowever, although there is evidence that paddy rice was being cultivated, it seems that rice cultivation had to be interrupted for a long time due to the subsequent cold weather.
  5. ^ However, in IwateKakuzuka TumulusExists isolated from the other front and rear tumuli.
  6. ^ However, 30 cars were donated to the new government.
  7. ^ After the abolition of the domain, Shigenori, the feudal lord, disposed of his household assets, paid 10 cars per samurai and 3 bales of paddy, and paid 14 cars to form a bank and moved to Tokyo. The samurai followed the path of self-support based on them[16].
  8. ^ In reality, it was a semi-public and semi-private companyJapan RailwayConstruction by. However,Ou Main LineHas been a public railway since the beginning.

Source

  1. ^ Area adjustment by prefectures, cities, towns and villages nationwide(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismGeographical Survey Institute
  2. ^ Meaning of "outuhou"-Japanese dictionary-goo dictionary
  3. ^ "Encyclopedia of Japanese Place Names" Shogakukan, 1996, pp. 776-777.ISBN 4-09-523101-7. 
  4. ^ Tohoku region's past and future as seen from the sea (3)-Tohoku's future Archived August 2014, 4, at the Wayback Machine.
  5. ^ Area classification (Northern Japan, Eastern Japan, Western Japan, Okinawa/Amami) Archived August 2013, 1, at the Wayback Machine. (Japanese Meteorological Agency
  6. ^ Tohoku area, population and topography
  7. ^ "Central watershed reconnaissance". Japan Mountaineering Club (2006). 2020th of February 2Browse.
  8. ^ a b c d Fumio Yonechi, Yoshikuni Imaizumi, Takao Fujiwara, "View of the Tohoku region in the Meiji period as seen in the newspaper and magazine name "Tohoku""Annual Report of Faculty of Education, Iwate University" February 1998 Volume 2 Issue 57 p.2-55, Faculty of Education, Iwate University
  9. ^ a b Asahi Shimbun Niigata Branch “Niigata?” p.42-43
  10. ^ Niigata is North Kanto? Hokuriku? Tohoku?(asahi.com August 2010, 6)
  11. ^ National Land Planning Act Enforcement Order - e-Gov Law Search
  12. ^ Tohoku International Tourism Promotion
  13. ^ Ito & Yamaguchi 2002, pp. 28-29.
  14. ^ Fumio Yonechi, Kei Hosoi, Takao Fujiwara, etc.Social Studies Education and Area/Place Names -A Case Study of Historical Changes in "Ou" and "Tohoku"-"Bulletin of the Research Center for Educational Research and Practice, Faculty of Education, Iwate University, 1995, vol. 5, p.63-80,NCID AN10359408, Iwate University Educational Research Center
  15. ^ Ito & Yamaguchi 2002, p. 34.
  16. ^ Ono 2006, p. 194.
  17. ^ "Shinmeikai Japanese Accent Dictionary" Sanseido, 2001. 
  18. ^ Changes in the number of people moving in and out(Tohoku Transport Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
  19. ^ Tohoku area, population and topography(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and TransportTohoku Transport Bureau
  20. ^ Meiji period and present prefecture population list Page white excel.png (Microsoft Excel.Xls)(Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and TransportHokuriku Regional Development Bureau
  21. ^ Changes in the number of passengers getting on and off by airport(Tohoku Transport Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
  22. ^ Airport management status report Archived August 2008, 8, at the Wayback Machine. (FY2008)
  23. ^ a b Statistical table (prefectural economic calculation)(Cabinet Office)
  24. ^ "Archived copy”. As of May 2006, 3オ リ ジ ナ ル[Broken link]More archives.2005th of February 12Browse.

References

  • Kiyoo Ito; Hiroyuki Yamaguchi, "Medieval Dewa Lord and Castle", Takashi Shoin <Okuha History Research Series>, 2002. 
  • Ei Ono "Yonezawa Domain" Gendai Shokan <Series Clan Story>, 2006. 

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