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🌤 | Typhoon No. 6 Very strong force approaches the Toshima Islands on the 24th Okinawa has prolonged storms, high waves, heavy rains, etc ...


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Typhoon No. 6 Closes to the Toshima Islands with a very strong force on the 24th Okinawa has prolonged storms, high waves, heavy rains, etc ...

 
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Storms, high waves, landslides, low land inundation, river flooding and flooding, storm surges require strict caution in the Okinawa region, and high waves require caution in the Amami region.
 

Typhoon No. 6, a large and strong typhoon, slowly moves northward while developing in the south of Okinawa, and is ahead with a very strong force until Saturday, 24th. → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

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Sediment disaster

Sediment disasterWhat's the meaning of(I.e.,EarthquakeAccompanySlope failure(Landslide・Slides),Landslide,Earth and stone flowBecause oflife,propertyThreatened by[Note 1][1].

Definition

Configure the slope of the groundrock,Satsand The重力When it becomes unstable due to some reason, it moves downward. There are several types of styles such as rockfall, landslide, collapse, quicksand, debris flow. Collectively, all of these phenomenaMass movement(English: mass movement)''[2], Or “Slope movement (English: slope movement)” or “(in a broad sense) landslide (English: landslide)''[Note 2][3]The term is technically defined.

"Sediment disaster" is the aboveMass movement(Or slope movement, landslide in a broad sense) refers to general disasters[4].. However, three categories, slope failure, landslide, and debris flow, have been established, and we may explain that these three are landslide disasters. EspeciallySabo, I often make such classifications and explanations in disaster prevention situations.[5].. Note that this concept is not universal (cf.#Japanese peculiarities[Note 3].

"Slope disaster" focusing on the fact that synonyms occur on slopes[6][3], "Mountain disaster" focusing on the fact that it occurs in the mountains[7]There are some cases, and in some cases they are synonymous with each other or used properly. In addition to this, it occurs in the terrain where the ground is artificially shaved or raisedSlopeDisasters such as collapse may be included in sediment disasters[8].

Uniqueness of Japan

Later (#Cause), landslides are more likely to occur on undulating land.Japan7% of the national landMountain-hillsThe land occupiesCrustal movementThe active fluctuation zone (Pacific Rim Zone),VolcanoSince there are many, sediment-related disasters are likely to occur. Moreover, there are few plains and there are restrictions on land use.Second World WarSubsequent economic growth and population growthplateauThe hills and hills have become urbanized, and sediment-related disasters have made it easier to reach residential areas.[8].

On the other hand, in countries with a large land area, such as the United States, Canada, and Russia, although they also have vast mountains, it is cheaper to relocate them even if roads and houses are damaged due to landslides. Therefore, it is rare to reconstruct it in the same place and to perform work to prevent further collapse.[9].. For example, in the case of the United States, public works carried out by the government/administration are mainly for the purpose of preventing the inflow of sediment onto roads and preventing the outflow (erosion) and inflow (accumulation) of sediment such as agricultural land. , Not for the purpose of protecting the house. This is to select the residence by incorporating the risk for disasters such as slope failures.Beneficiary burden principleIt seems that the idea of ​​looking at the weight is the underlying[10].

Also in the field of study, in Europe and the United States, soil mechanics dealing with the properties of clayey ground are widely accepted, and a detailed “landslide classification” based on the particle size of soil and the soil quality, movement form, movement speed, etc.[Note 2]Has developed, and there is little awareness of disaster prevention. On the other hand, in Japan, civil engineering is good at the theory of rocks, gravel ground, slope stability, etc., and the classification is also unique to the classification of "slides" and slopes "landslides".[9][11].

Cause

Generating mechanism

The soil blocks and bedrock that make up the slopes are usually重力,FrictionAs a result of such actions, it is stable in a state in which the "force to resist" is larger than the "force to move the slope". Here, if the former becomes larger or the latter becomes smaller, the balance is lost and deformation occurs.[12].. In terms of soil mechanics, this is called peak failure due to an external force that exceeds the rigidity of the soil mass, and the external force at the time of failure is called the peak strength.[12].. Also, when considering the stability of the slope, slide the mass on the assumed slip surface.Shear failureIs[13][14].

Sliding begins when the "shear stress" that attempts to move the slope exceeds the "shear resistance" that resists it. The ratio of the former to the lattersafety ratio It is called Fs and is an index of slope stability. actually,Coulomb destruction criteriaCalculation is performed using an analysis method that incorporates soil strength constants obtained by[15].

Corresponding to the small deformation that occurs just before the peak breakage, in the experiment of slope failure, etc.CreepIt has been confirmed that a deformation called[12].. This creep is also one of the causes of what is called the precursory phenomenon of landslides.

Occurrence of slope failures and landslides is often related to the action of water contained in the soil mass. This is because the water that penetratedPore ​​water pressureIncrease the effectiveness of soil particlesstressIs the mechanism by which the shear resistance decreases and the shear resistance decreases. It is effective as a countermeasure to reduce the pore water pressure by draining water from the soil or by construction that does not allow water to penetrate.[16].

Predisposition

The main causes of sediment-related disasters on the earth are crustal movements, volcanic activity, and cold climates. Crustal movement isFaultCrushing the ground by movement,Mountain buildingBy the groundUpheavalEtc. Volcano is easy to collapseVolcanic ash,Pyroclastic flowSuch as deposits (Volcanic debrisA) in large quantities at a time to create an uneven lava landform. Repeated freezing and thawing in cold regions such as high latitudes and high mountainsPeriglacial actionCreate a geology that is easy to collapse[17].

Huge collapse/landslide in the world (collapse volume 107 --109 m3) Occurrence area,Indonesia,ネ パ ー ル,Chugoku,Japan,Taiwan,フィリピン,New Zealand,America,カナダ,ペルーMost of them are located in the fluctuation zone (Rim Pacific Rim Zone or Alps-Himalayan Change Zone).[17].. Exceptionallyノルウェー,スウェーデンAnd so onGlacierRock landslide due to the receding ofQuick clayLandslide occurs[17].

Other factors are strong weathergranite(Masago soil) Or volcanic soil (ShirasuEtc.), thick sediment (responseLocal geology, such asOvergrazing,Air pollutionbyVegetationArtificial and social factors such as the destruction of forests, excessive mining, urbanization of mountains and plateaus.[17].

Incentive

Incentive (trigger) of earth and sand disaster,Torrential rain,typhoonHeavy rain due to[18],Earthquake, Volcanic activity,Natural damOut of order, artificialExcavationand so on[17].

Status of sediment disasters in Japan

Since modern times

Historically, in JapanEdo PeriodThroughMountain forestIt seems that the devastation of No. XNUMX continued to progress, and it was in the most devastated state from the late Edo period to the early Meiji era. In this era, most of the materials, building materials, ships and carts, fuels, fertilizers, etc. necessary for the Japanese to live in this erawood,It was because of that, and depended heavily on the forest. The common people used to use it as fuel by digging up strains and roots from their daily lives. It was said that the slash-and-burn field was banned, tree planting, logging and mountain climbing were banned in various places, but the effect was considered to be poor. Tree-free forests that have been cut down mainly in satoyama close to the village spread out over a wide area of ​​Honshu, especially in western Japan.Bald mountainIs presumed to have been widely distributed.As a result, severe soil erosion and severe soil erosion in forestsSurface collapseOccurred frequently[19].

MeijiWhen you enterIndustrial revolutionDue to this, alternatives to timber began to be developed and spread, but there was a high demand for timber due to industrialization and wars, and there were areas where forests were laid down to the depths of the mountains and felling was promoted. On the other hand, for disaster prevention, the Meiji government[Note 4]As a nationControl"Or"SaboStarted the business of. With the introduction of technology from Europe, the technology of hillside construction and sabo dams to stabilize the sediment of the bald mountain has been developed.[20].

After World War IIAt the same time, the demand for timber for reconstruction will result in a rapid expansion of logging to the interior. On the other hand, due to the afforestation policy, the felled areas will be rapidly transformed into artificial forests, and bald mountains will be almost eliminated. Also, during the high economic growth period,Imported timberReplace domestically produced trees, resulting in a rapid decline in logging. However, surface collapse and debris flow occurred frequently in young forests (young plantations) where the collapse prevention function is weak. Furthermore, the urbanization has caused the collapse of urban areas. From the latter half of the 1960s to the first half of the 1970s, more than 100 people fell victim to sediment-related disasters each year, accounting for more than half of the natural disaster victims. In response, hardware measures such as landslide prevention and erosion control dams will be promoted. After that, a large number of forests were planted after the war, the function of preventing collapse increased, and the number of victims gradually decreased due to the progress of hard measures.[21][22].

modern

During the 1979 years from 2008 to 30, an average of about 1,000 landslide disasters occurred annually[23].. Also, in the five years from 2009 to 2013, there are about 5 cases per year.[24]. However,weatherDepending on conditions etc., there is a large change from about 200 cases to over 2,000 cases.[23].. For example, in 2004Niigata/Fukushima heavy rain,Fukui heavy rain, Landslides occurred frequently due to numerous typhoon landings, etc.[24].

The number of deaths also fluctuates from year to year. For example, during the 2003 years from 2013 to 11, the number was 2007 in 0 and 2010 in 11. Man,Typhoon 12In 2011, when there were many casualties due to the flood damage caused by the Kii Peninsula in 85, the number reached XNUMX.[24].

The ratio of landslide disaster damage is not low, even when looking at all natural disasters.1980 eraから2000 eraThe annual fluctuation is large, but it is 1% to 4%, and it reaches 6% depending on the year.[22].

Form and damage of slope failure, landslide, debris flow

Types
/ (Main alias)
FeaturesAspect of damage
Slope failure[13]
/(Landslide[13][25], Landslide[13][25], Landslide[13], Rock fall[26], Steep slope collapse)
  • On a steep slope with an inclination of 20 degrees or more, the soil mass suddenly collapses and is pushed downward, and moves at a speed of 1 mm or more per day.[26].
  • Those that collapse about 2-3 m on the surface of the slope (surface collapse) are common, and can occur anywhere on a weathered slope. Especially likely to occur in areas where aquatic sedimentary rocks, volcanic ash, and weathered soil (mass sand) of granite are distributed or where there is a large amount of rainfall.[26].
  • Those that collapse to the bedrock deep below the slope (deep layer collapse) are less frequent. It is considered that the water pressure in the groundwater vein rises due to the infiltration of a large amount of rainwater, and is triggered by heavy rain, earthquakes, etc.[26].
  • The time to collapse is very short, so if it occurs near a house, it often delays running and causes death.[27].
  • The heavier the clod and the steeper the slope, the greater the collapse force.[13].
  • Many disasters are smaller than landslides and debris flows. However, large-scale disasters such as deep-seated landslides are large in scale, such as inducing debris flows or forming natural dams, and their collapse affects a wide area downstream.[26].
Landslide[28]
  • Inclination 5 degrees-20 degrees on a gentle slope, underground specific layer (sliding surface) as a boundary, the soil mass shifts while maintaining its shape. Move at a slow speed of less than 1 mm per day and continue to move for several days[29].
  • Deeper slip surface compared to slope failure[30], Tend to be large[29].
  • The cohesive soil (landslide clay) is the main slip surface. Occurs frequently in areas where landslide clay is distributed[29].
  • Three types of landslide areas are known in Japan. 3. Nagasaki Prefecture, where weathered clay of the Tertiary layer is distributed in hilly areasKitamatsu area,Hokuriku region, 2. by fault motionShatter zoneAnd the past orogenyCrystal schistAre distributedCentral structure lineAlongTokushima-EhimeEtc., 3.SpaOf extra hot spring soil that has been weathered due to the chemical composition ofHakone,Kirishima,Beppu,NarukoHot spring area[31] .
  • In cold regions, year-round landslides that occur with the melting of snow[30], There are areas where landslides are likely to occur due to periglacial action[17].
  • It is persistent and recurrent. Things that were moving slowly at the beginning may turn faster and then move again after stopping.[29].. Most of the places where the landslide occurred in the vicinity in the past (often the "secondary slip" of the past landslide)[30].
  • Characteristic "landslide topography" such as horseshoe-shaped cliffs, stair-like slopes, and ridges below the slopes often appear in past landslide sites, and by identifying these, we can identify the places where landslides are likely to occur. it can[30].
  • Since the progress is slow and the precursors are easy to catch, human casualties are not often caused. However, in 1985 Nagano City, Nagano PrefectureMounted ground26 people were killed and 55 buildings were completely destroyed in some cases, such as a landslide disaster that caused great human damage[32].
  • Large scale movement of clods causes large physical damage[27].
Earth and stone flow
/ (Flash flood[33], Tsunami[33], Mud flow[33])
  • On the slopesRiver bedSediments fluidize and flow out along the valley[34].. It refers to a mixture of sediment and water of the same degree, and if the proportion of sediment is small, it will be a river flood flow.[35].. Often includes large rocks and driftwood, which can be swept over and over again[36].
  • There are three forms. 3. Unstable sediment in the mountain stream (river bed) is fluidized by heavy rain, 1. Slope failure due to heavy rain, landslide sediment is fluidized with a large amount of spring water and surface water, 2. Slope failure・Landslides block riversNatural damThat form a waterfall, then the water level rises, collapses, and flows down[34] .
  • It is often found in the mountains and volcanic areas, where land production is active. Also, it tends to occur near mountain streams with a slope of about 15 degrees or more.[35].. In many cases, it flows out on a flat ground, becomes gentle, and stops and accumulates near an inclination of 2 degrees.[34].. However, it has a large momentum and tends to go straight without turning the curve.[36].
  • Since it occurs suddenly (like a guerrilla) regardless of geological conditions, it is difficult to predict when and where it will occur. In soil mechanics, it is classified as a "sand flow" with extremely high fluidity.[33].. The flow is usually as fast as 20-40 km/h, sometimes exceeding 60 km/h, making it difficult to escape[27][36].. Compared to landslides and landslides, when it occurs in a residential area, it is more likely to cause death or death, resulting in life-threatening damage.[33].
  • Evacuation can be estimated by obtaining the lower limit of cumulative rainfall (tens of minutes to several days), which is derived from past rainfall and debris flow occurrence in that area.[37].

Other sediment disasters

Rock fall/fall
A piece of rock that separates and falls from a steep cliff. Not only natural factors such as ground loosening and earthquake motion due to rain but also artificial factors such as vibration due to traffic act. In the past cases, the bus and trains are often damaged because vibrations are larger than passenger cars. It should be noted that it is easy to narrow down the danger points, but it is difficult to predict because there are few signs[38].
Collapse/landslide due to earthquake
The force of the seismic motion has the effect of making the slope steeper and increasing the weight of the slope. As a result, collapse due to rain does not occur much, and even collapses occur on slopes with a slope of 10 to 20 degrees, causing a wider range of collapse than during heavy rainfall. It collapses even on steep cliffs without topsoil. The seismic motion is easily amplified in the areas that are higher than the surrounding area, and mountain ridges and ridges that would not normally collapse due to heavy rain also collapse. In addition, the scale of collapse tends to be large, and the movement distance of earth and sand is likely to be long. It is difficult to evacuate because it is sudden[39].
Damage from driftwood
In the case of debris flow and flood, driftwood generated along with the collapse of the upstream of the river may flow down together and spread the damage. In particular, there is a high risk of damage caused by direct impact of driftwood on houses and bridges, and on the way that debris flows down, bridges and waterways are clogged with driftwood and flooded with dirt and muddy water to the surrounding houses. .. In terms of tree species, coniferous forests tend to have a larger volume of driftwood per area than hardwood forests.[40].
Landslide disaster
Disaster such as slope failure. The artificially grounded ground such as cut soil, embankment, valley filling, and belly filling is in a geologically young and loose state, so that it is more likely to collapse or fluidize than the naturally formed ground. In addition, since it is often used in residential areas and the like, and if a disaster occurs, it can have a great impact on human life and property, so it is necessary to carry out construction assuming phenomena that may occur after construction. in Japan,Building land development regulation law(Established in 1961) establishes standards for the safety of the ground in residential areas and establishes retaining walls on cliffs and drainage facilities.[41].
Mountain collapse, debris avalanche
A large-scale collapse of a mountain area due to an earthquake or eruption. Due to the large head, the collapsed soil flows down a long distance at high speed (Debris avalanche). Larger ones have a thickness of 100 m or more and flow down a valley at a speed of 100 km or more, and the horizontal movement distance is about 10 times the height difference. Volcanic areas, especiallyStratovolcanoIt is easy to happen in. When it flows down into the sea(I.e.Generate[42].

(I.e.

In order to prevent damage, avoid using dangerous land in the beginning, and if it is unavoidable, install civil engineering equipment to prevent collapse and refer to the precursory phenomenon and how it rains at appropriate times. Evacuation is effective.

Hazardous areas are especially based on the lawEarth and sand disaster caution areaPlaces designated as, places where basic surveys are being conducted, and places included in sediment-related disaster risk areas surveyed by prefectures (cf.#Dangerous zone announced by the government). However, even if it does not correspond to these, caution is required in mountainous areas and land with slopes and cliffs around it.[43][44].

In order to avoid sediment-related disasters in the danger zone, pay attention to how it rains and various precursory phenomena, and when you notice a precursor, promptly notify the municipalities and neighboring residents, and also take the initiative to evacuate. Is valid[43][45].

The time to be careful is when there is a lot of rain, when it has been raining for a long time, and for a while after it has stopped.[43].. Also, be careful for a while even after a big earthquake[43].. in Japan,Japanese Meteorological AgencyBased on the amount of rainfall so far and the expected amount of rainfall up to several hours aheadHeavy rain warning,Earth and sand disaster caution informationEtc. have been announced, and this is a guide (cf.#Information that landslide disaster is likely to occur[46].

Key points of measures

Japan is,AboveThere are many areas where housing and public facilities may be damaged due to the characteristics of the land.[27], The number is over 2020 as of 60[47]. JapaneseGovernment public relationsPage lists the following three basic methods to protect yourself from sediment-related disasters.[27].

  1. Where I usually liveEarth and sand disaster caution areaTo check[27].
  2. When it starts to rainEarth and sand disaster caution informationBe careful[27].
  3. Evacuate as soon as earth and sand disaster warning information is announced[27].

またTokyoDisaster prevention handbook published in 2015 byTokyo disaster prevention"Lists three points as "ordinary preparations" to protect yourself from sediment-related disasters.[48].

  1. Check the dangerous points (1. above)[48].
  2. Check the evacuation site[48].
  3. Prepare an emergency carry-out bag[48].

In addition, the book also lists the following:[48].

  • If there is a sign of a landslide disaster around the cliff and in the mountains, even if no warning is issued, ensure safety before evacuating.[44].
  • If you feel the danger of a sediment-related disaster, you should change your clothes quickly so that you can evacuate at any time.[48].
  • When evacuating, keep your belongings to a minimum and keep both hands[48].

Relationship with forest

Forests control soil erosion and surface collapse
The presence of trees has the effect of stabilizing the slope against surface collapse at depths of a few meters. Particularly effective on steep slopes[49].. The roots of trees that have spread in the soil resist the shearing forces that try to slide on slopes by deforming by receiving the displacement of the soil layer and resisting pulling out by frictional force[50], Or the root acts as a reinforcing bar to prevent deformation of the soil layer, maintaining an arch structure that resists soil slippage[51]It is believed that.
In addition, it has a high effect to prevent soil surface erosion.[52][53].
However, there is a limit to the deterrent effect, and even if there is a forest, surface collapse may occur if there is an abnormal heavy rainfall. If forests are lost in this way, restoring them as soon as possible will prevent further collapse.[54].
Deterioration effect of deep collapse is poor
On the other hand, deep landslides are less affected by surface vegetation because of the deep slip surface, and even in well-managed forests. The effect of deterrent is considered to be poor[55][53].
Logging accelerates collapse
Slopes from felled forest trees are prone to surface collapse because the roots that support the soil layers are weakened. However, several years after the felling-more vulnerable to collapse after a dozen years. This is because the root decay gradually progresses after logging. However, the degree varies depending on the tree species and environment[56].
Also, in forestry, in order to maintain a strong root system of trees, it is necessary to make the logging intervals longer and to grow them sufficiently, and to expose the forest floor when logging is underdeveloped and young or mature forests. It is desirable not to let it (keep it covered with fallen leaves and undergrowth)[57].
The longer the tree is, the higher the deterrent effect
The older the forest, the less likely the surface collapse will occur. Young forests (young forests) are more likely to collapse than forests over 40-50 years old[58].
Impact of thinning
In planted forests, thinning has the effect of preventing pests and wind damage and promoting good growth. In Japan, the number of forests with delayed thinning tends to increase due to the deterioration of the forestry management environment, and there is concern that the function of forests to prevent collapse will decline. However, some studies have shown that thinning forests increase resistance to landslides due to increased root volume, while others have reduced resistance, and the effect is not clear.[59].

Preventive measures against construction, etc.

There are various construction methods depending on the geology of the land and the purpose of land use.

In areas where there is a risk of slope failure or bedrock collapse, planting trees on slopes including slope spraying (slope protection), concrete spraying on slopes, installation of precast concrete frames (slope protection), and embedding of slope anchors. Vegetation works such as (sowing) and lawn upholstery are effective.[60].

In areas where there is a risk of landslides or landslides that can be caused by the action of water, water must be removed in order to eliminate water.culvertConversion, lateralボ ー リ ン グ, Water collectionwellGroundwater drainage work such as installation of water, surface drainage installation, rainwater infiltration prevention, etc. are effective.[16].

In landslide areas, there is also a method of using an upper earth removal work that removes the soil above the landslide surface and a restraining embankment work that embanks at the end and suppresses it with a retaining wall. The embankment is often used as a park[60].

In mountain streams where there is a high risk of debris flow, construct structures to deposit sediment.Sabo dam-Oyama DamInstallation of is also effective. However, its volume is limited and it fills up over time, so its effect is limited.[61].

For small-scale and sudden collapses/falls, rockfall along roads and railways in dangerous areasShedThere is also a method of installing a rockfall prevention net and a rockfall prevention wall,1989ToFukuiEchizen coastOccurred inCollapse accidentIn rare cases, a collapse of a larger scale than expected may occur and damage may occur.[62].. To compensate for this, rockfall detectors and landslide detectors that detect shocks and movements,Debris flow sensorThere is also a system that installs such equipment and links it with the alarm device of the road management office.[62].

Other than Japan, it has steep land areas and is often damaged by sediment-related disasters.Indonesia,ネ パ ー ルThere are places where Japanese erosion control technology has been introduced, mainlyJICAThrough technical support through[63].

However, it is dangerous to assume that it is safe because countermeasure work has been carried out, since there are many cases where debris flow damage has occurred at the foot of the sand control dam.[64].

Main precursor phenomenon

  • Earth and stone flow
    • There is a rustling noise (sounds of stones hitting each other) in the river, or you can see sparks.[43][48].
    • The whole mountain makes a roaring sound (mountain noise) or trembles like an earthquake. Has an unusual odor (odor of rotten soil)[43][48].
    • The water of the river becomes cloudy, and the fallen trees (raw trees) flow with the water.[43].
    • Rain continues, but river water decreases[43].
  • Landslide
    • Water gushes from cliffs and slopes. Spring water increases[43].
    • Even though there is no wind, the trees in the mountains are awful. There is a cracking sound of a tree and a root cutting sound. Rushing and humming[43].
    • Water in ponds, ponds, and ponds becomes cloudy and suddenly increases and decreases.[43][48].
    • Cracks, steps, or depressions on the ground[43][48].
  • Slope collapse (landslide)
    • New water springs from the cliff. Also, the spring water may become cloudy, the amount may increase, or it may suddenly stop.[43][48].
    • Cracks on the cliff. Or the cliff swells[43].
    • Trees on the cliff sway and tilt. Rumbling[43].
    • Pebbles fall down from the cliff[43].. *A landslide may occur without warning[43].

It should be noted that these precursory phenomena do not always appear before they occur. In addition, it is difficult to detect at night, when there are many people sleeping in the dark, and during times of heavy rain, even if there is a precursory phenomenon. It is effective to avoid sediment-related disasters if you feel something is a little strange and to deal with it and to evacuate early.[65]

Dangerous area announced by the government

  • Sediment disaster warning area/special warning area- Sediment disaster prevention lawPrefectural governments conduct surveys, specify, and publish based on Encourage the evacuation of residents in areas where there is a risk of sediment-related disasters, and limit development especially in dangerous areas.[66].. As of the end of 2020, about 64 designated areas, of which about 52 (about 81%) are special caution areas, and about 3 areas are expected to be designated in the future.[47].
    • Earth and sand disaster caution area -MunicipalRegional disaster prevention planEstablish a warning system and evacuation system for each area[66].
    • Earth and sand disaster special caution area -Establishing building regulations and restrictions on development activities in addition to measures in the restricted area[66].
    • An area equivalent to the sediment-related disaster warning area announced after the basic investigation-Designation of the caution area will take a period of time such as an investigation. To prevent damage during that period, the prefecture is required to announce the area promptly after the basic survey.[66].
  • Sediment disaster danger point -OldMinistry of Construction・ Prefectural governments investigate and publish based on the investigation guidelines established by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.Areas where there is a risk of damage to people's houses and public facilities due to sediment-related disasters[66].. It was conducted from 1966 to the 2000s, and it has been increasing year by year due to the progress of research and development, and as of March 2003, it has counted about 3 locations.[Note 5][67][68][69].
    • Sudden slope collapse danger point-A steep slope with a slope of 30 degrees or more and a height of 5 m or more that may damage people's houses and public facilities, and adjacent areas.[66].
    • Debris flow danger area -An area with a slope of a mountain stream of 3 degrees or more (2 degrees or more in a volcanic erosion control area) and a house or public facility in a dangerous area where damage is expected if a debris flow occurs[66].
    • Landslide danger area-Range of areas that may damage rivers, roads, public facilities, houses, etc., in areas judged to be likely to cause landslides by reading aerial photographs, investigating disaster records, and conducting field surveys.[66].
  • Mountain disaster area- Forestry Agency(Ministry of AgricultureThe department in charge of forests in the prefectures conducts an investigation based on the survey guidelines established by the Ministry of Public Affairs and transmits it to the municipalities. Areas where there is a risk of damage to houses and public facilities due to mountain disasters (hillside collapse, collapsed sediment discharge, landslides)[70].. forest(National forestOr) targeting. As of 2012, about 18 locations in total[71][69].
    • Three types of areas: hillside collapse risk area where there is a risk of slope failure and rockfall, collapse sediment outflow risk area where there is a risk of debris flow, and landslide risk area where there is a risk of landslide.[70].
  • Designated area by the Sabo Law-Drainage works, retaining wall works, and installation work for erosion control dams (project erosion control) is premised on performing a landslide disaster and designating an area with a high need for construction. The number of cases is smaller than that of landslide disaster areas.
    • Sabo designated area- Sabo LawIs designated by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Development such as excavation, embankment, logging of bamboo trees and collection of debris is restricted.
    • Landslide prevention area- Landslide Prevention LawIs designated by the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. Development such as excavation, embankment and debris collection is restricted.
    • Slope collapse danger zone- Steep slope methodIt is designated by the prefecture based on.Development such as excavation, embankment, and earth and stone collection is restricted.

Information to inform that sediment-related disasters are likely to occur

Heavy rain warnings and sediment-related disaster warning information inform the Japan Meteorological Agency that the risk of disasters is increasing, and evacuation orders strongly urge residents in dangerous areas to evacuate.Sediment-related disasters are difficult to escape after they occur, and they have the destructive power to wash away or completely destroy wooden houses, and human damage is likely to occur.On the other hand, dangerous areas can be narrowed down by examining them in advance, and human damage can be reduced by moving away from the dangerous areas as much as possible. Therefore, it is effective to evacuate early using various information as clues.

However, since such information is uniformly distributed to a wide range of cities, towns and villages, "safety" means that "no warnings or evacuation orders have been issued" without the residents recognizing the magnitude of the danger of each place. It may be regarded as.For example, even within one mountain village, a building above the terrace has a lower risk of debris flow than a building below, while on the other hand, even if it is on the terrace, if the slope of the mountain is approaching nearby. There is a high risk of slope failure.Therefore, it is not preferable to regard "no warnings or evacuation orders have been issued" as safe, and it is necessary to judge whether or not to evacuate according to the degree of danger of each place.

If there is a sign of a landslide, it is necessary to evacuate and contact the municipalities, etc. even if no warning is given.[72].

However, the collapse due to an earthquake is sudden, and its location cannot be specified, and it tends to be large-scale. Therefore, there is almost no room for evacuation, and the only effective countermeasure is to avoid the use of dangerous land in advance.[73].

Heavy rain warnings, etc. indicate the risk of sediment-related disasters in stages. Municipal unit. Calculated by cumulative rainfall and expected rainfall, and announced by the Japan Meteorological Agency[46][74].

  • (I.e.Warning(Sediment disaster) - Level 2-Heavy rain can cause disasters[75][74].
  • (I.e.alarm(Sediment disaster) - Level 3 equivalent-Heavy rain can cause serious disasters.One of the factors for municipalities to determine the issuance of evacuation preparation information[75][74].
  • Earth and sand disaster caution information - Equivalent to Level 4-After the announcement of the heavy rain warning, the risk of sediment-related disasters has become even higher.One of the factors that a municipality decides to issue an evacuation advisory[76][74].
  • Record short-time heavy rain information -It rained a few times every few years. Rainfall is rapidly increasing, and the risk of disaster is increasing[77][74].
  • (I.e.Special alarm(Sediment disaster) - Level 5 equivalent-Heavy rain is extremely likely to cause a serious disaster[75][74].
  • Risk distribution of sediment-related disasters"Earth and sand kikikuru"[Note 6] - Note,Be wary,Very dangerous,Extremely dangerous-The risk of sediment-related disasters is shown on the map in 1km square units, updated every 10 minutes.It is open to the public by the Japan Meteorological Agency, provided to the information system for disaster prevention organizations, and can be viewed on the Japan Meteorological Agency website.Shows a detailed degree of risk that reflects regional differences.It also includes forecasting factors based on the expected rainfall up to 2 hours later, but there are cases where rapid local heavy rainfall cannot be predicted.[76][74][79].
  • Sediment disaster emergency information-Information that the risk of disaster due to landslides with relatively slow speed, volcanic mudflow caused by ash fall after volcanic eruption, natural dam collapse, etc. has increased. Prefecture announces[80].

Evacuation orders issued by municipalities strongly urge residents in the target area to evacuate, and are issued by the mayor of the municipality with reference to warnings and rainfall.This means "evacuation evacuation" = evacuation to an evacuation site (movement to a designated emergency evacuation site) or evacuation to a safe relative / friend's house, etc. In that case, "emergency evacuation" = moving to nearby tall buildings, strong buildings, parks, etc., or "indoor safety measures" = staying in a safer place in the building.According to the Cabinet Office's "Guidelines for Evacuation Information" (2021), in the event of a flood, residents other than those requiring special attention should first prepare for evacuation at the stage of evacuation of the elderly, etc., pay attention to the information, and give evacuation instructions. On the other hand, in the case of sediment-related disasters, it is recommended that all residents in the target area "start evacuation at the stage of evacuation of the elderly, etc."This takes into account the nature of sudden and unpredictable sediment-related disasters in 2019.First Year of Reiwa East TyphoonHas been revised from the lessons of[81].

The following points should be noted when evacuating from a sediment disaster.

  • Even if no evacuation order has been issued, if you feel that you are in danger, you should evacuate voluntarily without waiting for the evacuation order.[84].
  • If you discover a precursory phenomenon of a sediment-related disaster, you should take the initiative to evacuate voluntarily and immediately contact the municipalities (reporting the precursor is one of the standards for issuing evacuation advisories and also for the safety of other residents. To contribute)[84].
  • In particular, wooden houses are at high risk of collapsing or being buried due to sediment-related disasters, and it is recommended that the residents move to the evacuation site early at the start of evacuation such as the elderly.[85].
  • Evacuation orders are issued even at night or during storms and heavy rains, where there is a high risk of outdoor activities.In this case, it is necessary to determine the danger of moving to a remote evacuation site and the surrounding conditions, and consideration should be given to moving to a nearby shelter and ensuring indoor safety.Furthermore, if such a situation is expected, it is desirable to evacuate to an evacuation site while it is bright and the wind and rain are weak.[86].
  • If it is dangerous to move to the evacuation site, such as when a flood or landslide has already occurred around the time you tried to evacuate, place as far as possible from the debris flow expected reach area or steep slope, as high as possible, or Consider moving to an emergency shelter, such as the upper floors of a sturdy building. For example, the upper floors of a concrete building nearby, a small elevated place away from the mountains, etc.[86].
  • In areas where small landslides are expected, if it is dangerous to move to an evacuation site, move to the second floor or above of your house, and make sure to consider urgent indoor safety. However, a normal wooden house may be completely destroyed by debris flow, so in areas where debris flow is expected, it is desirable to move to an emergency shelter outside your home. Evacuation to the second floor of your home is an unavoidable option, and it is desirable to evacuate to an evacuation site from an early stage so that it does not happen.[86].

Warnings and evacuation information are issued so that disasters are not "missed".Therefore, the so-called "missing swing", in which a disaster does not occur despite the announcement, is inevitable.Residents' consciousness is to avoid their own damage by thinking that they were vacant but "I'm glad there was no damage" and that they evacuated but "I was lucky because there was nothing" and try not to neglect warnings and evacuation information. In addition, it is thought that it will lead to deterrence of the situation where the administration side hesitates to issue an evacuation order.[87][88].

Case study

Category: Sediment disasters in each countrySee also
Ancash earthquakeLandslide due to earthquake (1970) [Earthquake, mountain collapse, debris avalanche, burial in urban area]
ペルーA large earthquake of M7.7 occurred in the northern part of the 6,000m classHuascaranA steep cliff near the summit of the mountain collapsed on a large scale. The rock mass was under the cliffMoraine[Note 8]It was scraped off to become huge and became a debris avalanche and debris flow. A debris avalanche is a city at the foot of a mountain about 230 km away, over a 10 m high ridge.YungaiStruck. The city suffered a catastrophic loss of 25,000 out of a population of 18,000. Collapse scale is 0.5-1.0×108m3Was estimated to be 280km/h[89][90].
Shimabara very Higo trouble(1792) [Mountain collapse, debris avalanche, tsunami]
Shimabara PeninsulaIt is inUnzendakeOne of the mountains, Bizan, collapsed and became a debris avalanche. After the villages and fields at the bottom were washed away and buried, the still vigorous sediment flowed into the Ariake Sea, causing a tsunami and hitting the coast. The height of the tsunami reached a maximum of 1 m along the opposite coast of Kumamoto Prefecture. 23 dead on the Shimabara Peninsula,KumamotoAmakusaReached 5,000 people. Estimated collapse scale is 2.2×108m3[91][92].
Mount Nevado del LewisMudflow due to eruption (1985) [Eruption, glacier melting, volcanic mudflow]
Eruption of Mount Nevado del Luis in Colombia, followed by a volcanic mudflow caused by melting of a glacier at the summit of the mountain. A city 45km from the craterAlmeloKilled 30,000 people in a population of 21,000 and 2,000 people elsewhere. The mud flow reached up to 80 km from the crater[93][94].
Nagano prefecture west earthquakeLandslide due to earthquake (1984) [earthquake, slope failure, mountain area]
Near the epicenter due to M6.8 earthquake in western Nagano prefectureMt. OntakeA large landslide occurred on the southern hillside. The size of the collapse is 1,300 m in length × 400 m in width × 140 m in depth and 3.4 × 10 in volume.7m3The speed is estimated to be 70-80km/h on average. About 12 km down the riverside valley, 15 people in the vicinity were caught and died.[95].
Disaster(1972) [Heavy rain, slope failure, secondary disaster, mountainous area]
Early in the morning of July 1972, 47 (Showa 7), due to heavy rain, Tosayamada-cho, Kochi Prefecture (currently Kami City) A landslide occurred in a village along the valley of Shigeru. A second collapse occurred during this restoration, leaving one fire brigade alive. A large volume of 2 m was added to the place where many other members and residents were working to rescue the members.3, A large-scale collapse of 130 m wide attacked a village andShigetou StationI washed away the train that was stopped at. Sixty people were killed in a second disaster that killed many of the victims. In addition, the main line connecting Kochi prefecture and Kagawa prefectureNational Route 32And JNRDosan LineBoth were buried, and it was cut off for more than 20 days, and the road was forced to make a large detour.[96][97].
Haribara debris flow disaster(1997) [Heavy rain, slope failure, debris flow (collapsed debris flow), mountainous area]
June 1997, 6, Kagoshima PrefectureIzumi CityHeavy rain caused landslides in the upstream of the Harihara River in the Harihara area, and the sediment that entered the river became a debris flow that flowed down along the river. The landslide was a deep-seated landslide on a highly weathered slope, which was a debris flow that collapsed and then fluidized. At the top of the fan (close to the mountain of the fan), most of the houses were washed away and destroyed, 21 people were killed and 13 were injured. Houses and mandarin orange fields are buried in mud and flooded in the central and fan ends, and in the middle and lower reaches of the plains, driftwood and damaged houses are caught in bridges and water overflowing from the river causes flood damage. It was The time of occurrence was a few hours after the peak of heavy rain and before 1 am when many people were sleeping, and many people had no experience of sediment disaster in this area and many people were paying attention to floods The fact that there was a witness to the low water level of the river, but no one knew it was a sign of a debris flow, is analyzed as the cause of the greater damage.[98][99].
Slope failure caused by the earthquake in the Republic of Tajik (1989) [Earthquake, combined disaster of liquefaction and slope failure, uncut waterway]
Former Soviet Republic of Tajik (currentlyEur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.eu) Occurred in M5.5. In the town of Gissol near the epicenter, the height is several tens of meters and the slope is gentle.LoessThe slopes of the area were transformed into fluidized mud, which was collapsing everywhere at the same time. The topsoil of this area is loess that easily becomes brittle when it contains water.Waterway[Note 9]It was considered that the liquefaction of the ground occurred due to the action of the water. In the Sharala district, where the most casualties occur, 100 houses were buried and 220 people were killed. The largest collapse was over 800m x 3,600m in width, but the slope from the apex to the end was a gentle slope of only 1 degree.[100].
The collapse disaster caused by the earthquake in the Loess LandKilnThere are many cave-type houses called (Yao Tong) in ChinaLoess PlateauIn 1920Umihara earthquake(Chinese)But it is believed to have occurred[101].
Nagasaki floodDisasters (1982) [Intense rainfall, slope failure, debris flow (collapsed debris flow), urban areas, residential areas on steep slopes]
Record heavy rainNagasakiMany slope failures and debris flows occurred around the area. As for the types of landslides, there were many surface landslides and slightly large-scale landslides of weathered ground, but most of the 299 victims of sediment-related disasters were due to slightly larger landslides. Surrounded by mountains, there was not enough land on the flat land with a limited valley bottom, and the land was spread over the steep slopes, which was a factor. It is revealed that the land where the city is formed on the valley floor and the steep slope is vulnerable to sediment disaster.[102][103].
39 7 Mt. Gassan Yin Hokuriku Slope failure in Shimane Prefecture (1964) [Intense rainfall, slope failure, debris flow (collapsed debris flow)]
Heavy rainShimane Kamo-cho and Daito-cho (currently bothYunnan) Caused many slope failures and debris flows. The total number of collapses exceeded 10,000, and 109 people died due to multiple simultaneous collapses and the debris flow that expanded due to the collapse of the riverbed that started from the collapse.[104].
Mounted groundLandslide (1985) [Landslide, speeding up, and disaster victims]
Nagano City, Nagano PrefectureMounted groundThen, the slow landslide, which had been going on for several years, suddenly accelerated. Since the cracks on the hillside were discovered and monitoring was continued for several years, the cracks became more prominent than a few days ago, and suddenly began to slip at high speed on the evening of July 7. I buried the building at the bottom.Nursing home26 bedridden elderly people were killed and 55 houses were completely destroyed[32][105][97].
Byint damLandslide (1963) [Groundwater level rise due to landslide, mountainous area, tsunami, dam construction]
イタリアLandslide occurred at Byint Dam in the north. Was completed in 1960damAlthough the rocks of the bank were hard, there was a gentle slope on the left bank of the reservoir, which is considered to be landslide topography. Shortly after the water was stored, cracks and creeps were found on the gentle slope indicating the start of landslides, so monitoring was continued and a drainage tunnel for draining water was also established. Due to trial and error, the suspended water storage was restarted using this method because the speed of the landslide slowed down as the water level was raised and raised in small steps. However, in the fall of 1963, the speed of the landslide increased again on the way, so when I was trying to reduce the water level, it continued to rain and the water level rose further. A high-speed landslide occurred at midnight on October 10, causing the sand and sand to rush into the reservoir and generate a high tsunami, which attacked the opposite bank (right bank) and the villages upstream. In addition, the tsunami ran over the dam bank and attacked downstream villages. The victims amounted to 9. The tsunami reached a point 2,600 m above the surface of the lake, and the volume of water pushed out by the sediment was 240 x 1.28m3Estimated to be[106][97].
ElmLandslide (1881) [rock landslide, mountain area, mining]
Elm in the Swiss mountains(German)Landslide occurred in a village called. It is a material for slate roofs on the slopesSlateWas mined to a depth of about 50 m, which slipped down on a large scale and hit a village 2 km below, killing 115 people. Collapse scale is 1×107m3[107].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Accompanied by a volcanic eruptionLava flow-Pyroclastic flow-MudflowMay be included.
  2. ^ a b The World Landslide Catalog Committee, established by three international societies and UNESCO, is a collective term for movements that include sliding, falling, forward rotation, extension, and flow."landslideIt is defined as "(Japanese translation: landslide). Detailed landslide classification based on three elements: motion type, shear type, and material (landslide classification) It is carried out. There are three types of shear types: slip, liquefaction and creep, and three types of materials: rock, sandy soil and cohesive soil.
  3. ^ For example, even in Japanese law, the purpose of disaster prevention is to
    • Collapse of a steep slope (a natural phenomenon in which a land with a slope of XNUMX degrees or more collapses)
    • Debris flow (means a natural phenomenon in which debris, etc. resulting from the collapse of a hillside, or debris, etc. in a mountain stream flows down together with water.)
    • Landslide (refers to a natural phenomenon in which part of the land slips due to groundwater, or moves with it)
    It is defined as the damage caused to the life or body of the people with any of the three causes (Act on Promotion of Sediment Disaster Prevention Measures in Sediment Disaster Areas Article 2).
  4. ^ Three methods of flood control: River law(Established in 1896),Sabo Law(Established in 1897),Forest law(Established in 1897).
  5. ^ Approximately 1972 locations in 4.7, approximately 1993 locations around 17 (* steep slopes are 1992 figures), and approximately 2002 locations around 53 (* landslides are 1998). The rapid increase in 2002 was due to the fact that the survey target was expanded to include less than 5 houses, which was about 21 by the previous standard.Around this time, a basic survey based on the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law was started, so no new surveys have been conducted since then.
  6. ^ The name until 2018 is `` Sediment disaster warning judgment mesh information''[78].. Nicknamed in 2021.
  7. ^ A person who needs help in grasping the information necessary for evacuation, taking evacuation action, and protecting himself. Elderly people, disabled people, foreigners, infants, pregnant women, etc. Persons requiring assistance during a disaster.
  8. ^ Sediments and rocks deposited by the action of glaciers.
  9. ^ A plain irrigation canal is a simple form of irrigation that does not have stones laid on it. Water easily penetrates.

Source

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  2. ^ Geotechnical Society (2006), P.196
  3. ^ a b Toki/Kawada (2002), P.171 Jiro Doi "Landslide"
  4. ^ Geotechnical Society (2006), P.459
  5. ^ Fuchida et al. (2014), P.67
  6. ^ Fuchida et al. (2014), P.149
  7. ^ Takaya (2008), P.1
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  81. ^ | Revision of guidelines for evacuation information (May 3rd year of Reiwa)
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  101. ^ Hagiwara (1992), P.190
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References

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外部 リンク

Information to protect yourself from sediment-related disasters (Japan)
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Sediment disaster and erosion control organization

Okinawa

Okinawa(Okinawan,(Okinawan: Uchina / ʔucinaa /[1][2],British: Okinawa Prefecture) IsJapan OfKyushu and Okinawa regionに 位置 す るPrefecture.Prefectural office location TheNaha.

In the westernmost part of Japan,Okinawa main island,Miyakojima,IshigakijimaComposed of many islands[3].

Overview

Kagoshima OfSatsunan Islandsexcept forNansei IslandsIslands (Okinawa Islands,Sakishima Islands,Daito Islands),East China SeaThe Pacific OceanSandwiched between. It covers an area of ​​2,281 square kilometers and is the smallest in Japan's prefectures.Kagawa,Osaka,TokyoIt is the 4th largest after Japan and is also the prefecture that includes the southernmost region of Japan where people live.[Note 2]. Also,Yaeyama DistrictYonaguni TownIs in the westernmost part of JapanMunicipalitiesAndYonaguni IslandAt the northwest end ofTuisiIs the westernmost point in Japan[4].

About 9% of the population of the prefectureOkinawa main island8% of the prefecture's population is concentrated in the central and southern part of the main island.Naha city centerThree major metropolitan areasEqual toThe population densityThere is.

Almost allSubtropicalClimate, partly熱 帯Belongs to.It has a mild climate throughout the year, with minimum temperatures rarely below freezing.

Sea transport (Sea lane) And military points (First archipelago line) Located in important places asUS military bases in JapanExists. As the main US military facilities,Kadena Air Base,Futenma Air Base,Camp butlerAnd so on.

From historical background (described later), religion, culture and customs, personal names and dialects, cuisine,Food culture:And industries, demographics and income disparitiesYoshimaThere is a big difference with.Popularly speaking of Okinawa "outside the prefecture"Inland(Nichi)" and Japanese outside Okinawa may be called "Nichia".

One of the best in Japan because it is one of the few southern islands in JapanResortIt became a place and became a standard summer tourist destination for Japanese people.in particular2001 OfTV drama"ChuraAfter the broadcast, Okinawan culture has become more familiar than the boom outside the prefecture, and the number of tourists and immigrants from outside the prefecture has increased significantly.Cultural experience as Okinawa Prefecture,Okinawan cuisine,leisure,Marine Sports,War ruinsEtc. as a strengthTourismWe are particularly focusing on the field.The global name recognition of Okinawa as a whole is still low,Zamami IslandOnly Michelin Green Guide Japan has won two stars and has become a national park, so it has been widely introduced as a tourist attraction in Japan overseas and has gained a certain degree of name recognition.[5].

Looking at the industry ratio in Okinawa prefecture, it includes tourismTertiary industryAccount for 79.2%Primary industryIs 5.4%,Secondary industryIs low at 15.4%[6].. Okinawa isPacific highLocated on the south side ofTropical cycloneBecause it is close to the sea area where typhoons occur, the weather in Okinawa tends to be rough from the beginning of September to the beginning of November during the typhoon season, and it departs and arrives in Okinawa.Passenger planeIs easy to cancel. However, since September is the off-season despite the high temperature, it is possible to travel cheaply under almost the same conditions as in summer.

In the martial arts worldkarateIt is world-famous as the birthplace of Ryukyu Karate, and many foreign students are practicing in the karate dojo in the prefecture. From boxing in IshigakiGushiken High SchoolHas produced many world champions and famous players.

Name

The origin of the place name "Okinawa" comes from "Oki (offshore) (fish) is (place)" which means "offshore fishing ground" (Inami Fuyu), and "Oki (Oki/Far) Naha (place)", which means "a place off the coast" or "a place far" (Hiro Onna).

Tankai MifuneWritten byKangenIn the biography of "Toudaiwajo Toseiden", which was established in 779,Tenpyo KatsuhoIt is stated that the envoy to Tang China arrived at Akonahashima on November 5, 753.[Note 3][7]I heard that this island was referring to the main island of Okinawa[8].. Later, it was called “Ryukyu” or “Ryukyu” by the Chinese name.

Ryukyu disposalAt the time ofMeiji governmentWithinRyukyu prefectureWas also considered. this is1879(12th year of Meiji),Ryukyu DomainWas abandoned and was climbing up when Okinawa was established. Lord of the InteriorIto HirobumiFrom the Prime MinisterMimi SanjoThe text on the Ryukyu disposal dated March 3 of the same year, which was submitted to Ryukyu Prefecture, states that "Ryukyu Clan was abolished, Ryukyu Prefecture was abandoned, and the fact that it was announced was declared by the Prefectural Office Ha Shuri Ni." Was used, but it was not adopted. The history of this period is unknown,ChineseIt can be inferred that Okinawa was selected because the intention to belong to Japan became clearer than the origin of Ryukyu.Also oldShinano country Nagano, OldUeno country GunmaIt is thought that one of the reasons is that there was a principle that a wide range of area names such as the old country name should not be used as the name of the prefecture.Originally, "Okinawa" as a termOkinawa main islandThe Amami archipelago was officially incorporated into Japan with the establishment of Okinawa Prefecture.Okinawa Islands-Sakishima IslandsThe whole area came to be called "Okinawa" and it was also broadly interpreted.[9].

Geography / Region / High Seas

Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismOkinawa, which is one of Japan's 14 regional divisions, consists of only one prefecture in Okinawa.[Note 4].. In addition, it may be called a part of "Kyushu region" or "Kyushu/Okinawa region" ("Kyushu #Modern "Kyushu"See).Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismIs "Okinawa main island","NativeIt's one of the five islands[Note 5][Note 6]. Geographical Survey Institute,Japan Coast GuardAccording to Okinawa Prefecture consists of 363 islands[3].. 49 manned islands and numerousUninhabited islandConsisting of 0.01km2There are 160 islands with the above area[13].. About 1,000 from the easternmost point to the westernmost pointkmWith a vast prefectural area, the northernmost to the southernmost area is about 400km.[14].. The Nansei Islands extend from Kagoshima Prefecture to near Taiwan, and are geographically distributed in the north.Tokara IslandsUp toAmami archipelagoOkinawa IslandsandSakishima IslandsIt is roughly divided into three. Okinawa main islandMiyakojimaBetweenMiyako KaikyoIt is called 145 even in the narrowest sectionnautical mile(About 270km), of which about 48 nautical miles (about 89km)WatersConnected water areaAnd the remaining 97 nautical miles (about 180 km)Exclusive economic zoneIt has become. The distance between Yonaguni Island and Taiwan is about 54 nautical miles (about 100 km).

Edge of Okinawa[15]
(I.e.Local governmentRemarks位置
NorthernmostIwo TorishimaKumejima TownLimited to manned islandsIheya Island[16]
Location of Okinawa Prefecture (in the Nansei Islands)
Iwo Torishima
Iwo Torishima
Hateruma Island
Hateruma Island
Kitadaito Island
Kitadaito Island
Yonaguni Island
Yonaguni Island
Naha
Naha
Iheya Island
Iheya Island
Okinawa Prefecture (Nansei Islands)
Southernmost pointHateruma IslandTaketomi TownJapan's southernmost inhabited island[17]
Easternmost pointKitadaito IslandKitadaito Village
Westernmost pointYonaguni IslandYonaguni TownJapan's westernmost island[18]

Although there are many remote islands, medical care in remote islands is lacking due to human resources or economic reasons,hospitalWithoutClinicThere are many islands called Minami. Therefore, in the case of emergency patients who cannot be treated on remote islandsOkinawa main islandBy airJapan Ground Self-Defense Force,Japan Coast GuardIs going. In addition,Miyakojima,IshigakijimaSince there are prefectural general hospitals in the area, emergency cases on remote islands around these islands may be transported to Miyako Island or Ishigaki Island instead of Okinawa main island.

Within a radius of 1,000 km of Naha City, which is the prefectural capitalKyushu IslandWhole areaShimonoseki,Shanghai,Fuzhou,Taiwan IslandThe entire area is included, and within 1,500 kmOsaka,Nanjing,Seoul,Pyongyang,Manila,Hong KongAnd so on. Within 2000 kmTokyo,Sendai,Beijing,Shenyang,Haikou City, Hainan Province,Changchun,VladivostokEtc., and within 2500 kmWakkanai,成都,Chongqing,Hanoi,Guam,北 マ リ ア ナ 諸島,パラオIs exactlyEast Asia-Southeast AsiaJapanIt is in a position that can be said to be a contact point with.

The central and southern part of the main island of OkinawaNaha,Okinawa CityUrbanization and population concentration are progressing mainly in, and more than 5 million people live in about one-fifth of the total area (Okinawa main island See also). Moreover,Extraterritorial lawThere are many U.S. military bases, and the available area is even more limited. for that reasonThe population densityIs the 9th place in the whole country,Three major metropolitan areasExcluding the prefectures ofFukuokaSecond highest after.

Geology

Ryukyu Islands on the Pacific Ocean sideRyukyu TrenchAnd on the East China Sea sideOkinawa TroughSandwiched between. Ryukyu TrenchPhilippine Sea Plate Eurasia plateIt was made by diving intoNankai TroughThe cause is similar to. In the back sea basin Okinawa trough, the Eurasian plate was torn in a new age and collapsed 1000-2000mIt is a pit and there are hydrothermal deposits. Geologically, Okinawa Island and Amami Oshima of the Ryukyu Islands (islands) are called Naka Ryukyu, which is sandwiched between the Kerama Sea Fissure and the Tokara Straits. When the Philippine Sea Plate sinks below the Eurasia Plate, which becomes the land-side slope, it is composed of sediment on the oceanic crust that is pressed against the edge of the land-side slope Eurasia Plate of the trench) It is roughly divided into the northern side of Okinawa Island, which is made from old accretionary deposits of 3 million years ago, and the southern side of Okinawa Island, which is made up of local deposits made 5000 million years ago.

NATURE

Biology
SubtropicalIn the zoneBiology Blessed with a favorable climate, there are many valuable flora and fauna. In the northern part of Okinawa main islandYamaharaと 呼 ば れ る森林Has spread,Noguchi Gera,Yanbaru Kina,Yambaru Tenaga Kogane such asNatural treasureAnd precious creatures inhabit. Part of the coastline between Yamahara and the main island of Okinawa,Kerama IslandsEtc.Okinawa Coast National MonumentIs specified in. A part of Iriomote Island and Ishigaki IslandIriomote Ishigaki National ParkHas been designatedmangroveIn addition to spreading the forest,Iriomote WildcatSuch precious creatures inhabit. In addition,Ministry of the EnvironmentSpecified byImportant wetlands in Japan 500Of these, 55 are in Okinawa Prefecture. this is,HokkaidoThis is the second largest number in Japan after (61 locations).
(I.e.Water shortage
2005From (17)2007(19) Each year6ToRainy season frontWith heavy rainThunderAttacked the main island of Okinawa, flooding everywhere,Landslide,LandslideAnd so on. In the normal year, there is a lot of precipitation throughout the year,rainy seasontyphoonDue to the fact that there is a lot of rainfall due to rain, large fluctuations from year to year, and because there is no large river and it immediately flows into the sea, it is easy to fall into a water shortage in terms of climate and topography.[19].. In addition, the population of about 1946 in 51 was restored to the mainland.1972(Showa 47) increased to about 96,1990 eraOften due to lack of water until the first halfWater outageWas made[20][21].. Especially1981-1982 droughtIn Japan, water supply was restricted for 326 days, the longest in Japan. Therefore, many houses have a water tank installed on the roof. However, the water transfer from the northern part of the Okinawa main island to the southern part has progressed,1997(9) stable water supply possible regardless of climateDesalinationFacilityChatan TownBecause it was completed in[22],2005Although the prefecture's population increased to about 17 million in 136, the number of people running out of water has decreased.
Earthquake
In Japan, which is called an "earthquake powerhouse,"KyusyuAs with the above, the number of (feeling) earthquakes per year is small. But,Non-life insurance rate calculation mechanismAccording to the latest collection of statistics, the area is second-class, and it is no longer considered to be an area with a particularly low risk. in the past1771 OfYaeyama earthquakebyBig tsunamiso,Sakishima IslandsHas caused a lot of damage. recently2010(22)Earthquake near the main island of OkinawaFor the first time in about 100 years, we observed seismic intensity of 5 or more on the main island of Okinawa,Katsuren Castle RuinsPart of the castle wall collapsed[23].

climate

The climate classification in JapanSouthern Japan climateBelong to.

Miyakojima,Tarama Island,Ishigakijima,Iriomote Island,Yonaguni Island,Hateruma IslandandOki Daitojima The熱 帯In a sex climateKöppen climate classificationThen.Rainforest climate (Af), other areasSubtropicalBy sexWarm and humid climate Belongs to (Cfa). High temperature and high humidity in each region of OkinawammAs a result, the average annual temperature is about 22.° CHas become. However, the maximum temperature exceeds 35℃Extremely hot dayAlmost never[24].. This is because Okinawa has a small land area and is surrounded by the sea (Oceanic climate) FromFern phenomenonAnd a large scale brought by the weak winds and urbanizationHeat island phenomenonThis is because there is no such factor (however, there are research reports on the small-scale heat island phenomenon in urban areas).Also in OkinawaTyphoon ginzaIs called and manytyphoonApproach. If we focus on each month,rainy seasonIt is common in May, which is the average period of entry, and in August, when many typhoons approach.In addition, the daylight hours are long in July and short in January and February in winter.In winter, there are many rainy and cloudy days due to the influence of the monsoon from the north.By the end of the rainy season,Summer solstice south wind(Kurachibe on the main island of Okinawa, Kurchibai around Miyako and Yaeyama[25]) Called a strong southward wind with a speed of 10 m or more per second, signaling the arrival of summer(I.e.Known as[26].

Snowfall

It is very rare to have snow in winter,1977(52)May 2ToKumejimaso,2016(28)May 1In Kumejima and Nago City respectivelySleet(On the weather recordsnowSame treatment) was observed[27][28].Japanese Meteorological AgencyOfficially announced the only two snowfall records in Okinawa Prefecture, and Kumejima snowfall is the southernmost snowfall record in Japan.[29].

Before the start of observation,Ryukyu KingdomAccording to the "Kyuyo"1774,1816,1843,1845,1857Each of them records that there was snowfall in the current area of ​​Okinawa prefecture.[30].

Incidentally,Heavy snowfall in January 38Then in various parts of the prefectureFrost,Hailstone,leopardEtc. have been observed and damage to agricultural products has occurred.[31].

1999(11)May 12And before and after that, there were several sightings reported that "it snowed" in Naha city etc.,NHK Okinawa Broadcasting StationThe video of the "Snow-like thing" was broadcasted in Japan, but the weather station was negative because the temperature was high.[32][33], It is not an official snowfall record.

Meteorological data for various areas in Okinawa Prefecture[34]
Average price
(Monthly)
Okinawa IslandsDaito
Islands
Miyako IslandsYaeyama Islands
Okinawa main islandYi
Be
First name
(I.e.
Handing over
Jia
apply
(I.e.
Long time
Rice
(I.e.
south
L
to East Malaysia
(I.e.
Palace
ancient
(I.e.
many
good
while
(I.e.
IshigakijimaIriomote Island
Photo
while
(I.e.
versus
that
Country
(I.e.
Kunigami Village
Oh
NagoKin TownNahaNanjo City
Number of threads
Tono CastleBetween IharaSonoOhara
Climate classificationcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAcFAAfAfAfAfAfAfAfAf
average
temperature

()
Warmest
Month
26.7
(May)
28.8
(May)
28.6
(May)
28.9
(May)
27.1
(May)
28.3
(May)
26.7
(May)
28.8
(May)
28.5
(May)
28.7
(May)
29.0
(May)
29.5
(May)
28.8
(May)
28.9
(May)
28.9
(May)
28.9
(May)
28.8
(May)
The coldest
Month
14.5
(May)
16.3
(May)
16.2
(May)
17.0
(May)
15.2
(May)
16.1
(May)
15.3
(May)
16.7
(May)
17.7
(May)
18.0
(May)
18.4
(May)
18.6
(May)
18.3
(May)
18.3
(May)
18.0
(May)
18.8
(May)
18.4
(May)
Precipitation amount
(mm)
most
Month
309.5
(May)
248.2
(May)
228.8
(May)
260.5
(May)
253.3
(May)
269.9
(May)
268.8
(May)
263.9
(May)
200.6
(May)
262.5
(May)
249.6
(May)
261.6
(May)
250.6
(May)
273.6
(May)
284.1
(May)
197.7
(May)
293.2
(May)
Minimum
Month
138.3
(May)
96.2
(May)
78.3
(May)
102.8
(May)
111.7
(May)
97.5
(May)
124.1
(May)
119.0
(May)
84.7
(May)
130.8
(May)
127.2
(May)
126.3
(May)
122.3
(May)
141.6
(May)
137.6
(May)
106.2
(May)
138.5
(May)
sunshine
Time

(Time
Longest
Month
239.2
(May)
245.7
(May)
218.1
(May)
238.8
(May)
210.1
(May)
289.8
(May)
230.5
(May)
255.4
(May)
278.8
(May)
246.7
(May)
199.1
(May)
264.5
(May)
245.6
(May)
253.2
(May)
245.4
(May)
259.3
(May)
258.9
(May)
Shortest
Month
78.3
(May)
86.2
(May)
88.3
(May)
87.1
(May)
93.0
(May)
91.5
(May)
87.8
(May)
77.4
(May)
114.5
(May)
82.6
(May)
73.9
(May)
82.1
(May)
70.5
(May)
74.5
(May)
86.5
(May)
91.9
(May)
55.7
(May)
  • Average value from 1981 to 2010 (However, from 1971 to 2000 for Kin Town and Tarama Island)

islands

nature Park

terrain

Mountain
River

The characteristics of rivers in this prefecture are that they are steep and the length of the river is short,Basin areaIs small[39].. Therefore, the river flow rate changes significantly, and it is easy to fall into water shortages due to heavy rainfall and light rainfall. AlsomangroveIt forms a natural environment unique to the subtropical zone, such as forests[40].. Currently in northern OkinawaRed soilSpill, from a barn in the South CentralDrainageRivers affected by汚染Is a problem[41][42].

This prefecture is the only one in Japan,First-class riverDoes not exist.Second-class riverIs based on the request of the governorOkinawa Promotion Special Measures ActIs under the direct control of the Japanese government to carry out improvements and repairs.[43].

  • Urauchi River -With the longest river in Okinawa Prefecture, including the Mariyudu Waterfall.
Lakes and tidal flats

Area classification

As of 2019, there are 11 cities, 5 counties, 11 towns, and 19 villages in Okinawa Prefecture.

In modern times (2020), the area of ​​Okinawa Prefecture isNorthern region,Chubu region, southern region (southern remote island region), Miyako / Yaeyama regionOita[44][45].

The southern remote island area may be included in the southern area, but excludes the main island of Okinawa, Ie Island, Iheya Island, and Izena Island.Okinawa IslandsDaito IslandsIt is a concept that includes the towns and villages of the islands of.

In addition, the village areas of Iejima, Iheyajima, and Izenajima are included in the northern region (the term "northern remote island region" is not official).

However, it is a remote island around the main island and belongs to Kunigami Village, Ogimi Village, Nakijin Village, Motobu Town, Nago City, Onna Village, Uruma City, Tomigusuku City, Itoman City, Nanjo City.[Note 7]Is not included in these remote island areas.

Historical regional division

1896(29th year of Meiji)May 4 OfCounty systemWith the enforcement (Okinawa prefectural system)Naha Ward,Shuri WardWhen,Kunigami,Nakagami-gun,Shimajiri,Miyako-gun,Yaeyama District5 counties were established (2 wards, 5 counties).At this point, it had continued since the inauguration of Okinawa Prefecture.Old common policyThe Magiri system remained during the Ryukyu Kingdom era[Note 8][Note 9]..This continued until April 1908, 41 (Meiji 4), when Okinawa Prefecture's own island town and village system was enforced, and it was transferred from Magiri to the village (Son).

In particular, the county division at the time of the enforcement of the Okinawa prefectural system in 1896 was "oldCounty systemMay be said[Note 10], The custom of dividing into 5 areas (5 districts) with this boundary still remains in the system.

Due to this historical background, from the beginning of the old county system to the present dayIheya Village-Izena villageBelongs to Shimajiri District, but on the other hand, it is incorporated into the northern region as a modern administrative division.In addition, excluding the main island of Okinawa and Ie IslandOkinawa IslandsWhen,Daito IslandsMunicipalities of the islands also belong to Shimajiri-gun, and are included in the southern region (southern remote island region), which is not necessarily the southern region.

Other administrative divisions and metropolitan areas

In addition to the above, the regional divisions by the government are on the main island of Okinawa (including surrounding remote islands).Wide administrative areaAsNorthern wide area,Chubu Wide Area Municipal Area,Southern area municipalitieshave.

These wide-area administrative areas are influenced by the Okinawa metropolitan area and the Naha metropolitan area, and constitute areas that are more realistic in terms of administrative function and commerce.Therefore, Urasoe City, which belongs to the Chubu region, is included in the Southern Regional Municipal Area.Nishihara Town is officially a central metropolitan area, but there are some cases where it is treated more realistically in the south.

Okinawa main island (including remote islands around the main island, Iheya island, Izena island, Ie island)

Northern wide area
The range of (former) Kunigami-gun plus Iheyajima and Izenajima of Shimajiri-gun.It is also called "Kunigami district" from the name of the county.
Chubu Wide Area Municipal Area
The range excluding Urasoe City from the range of (former) Nakagami District.
Southern area municipalities
(Old) Shimajiri-gun and oldNaha Ward, OldShuri Ward[Note 11]And the range including Urasoe City in the Chubu region (here, the main island of Okinawa is dealt with).
Nishihara Town belongs to the Chubu region and the Chubu wide area municipal area, but some office unions may be joint with the South.


Okinawa Islands (excluding Iheya Island, Izena Island, Ie Island)

Southern regional municipal area (remote island)
Both belong to (former) Shimajiri-gun and the southern regional municipalities.It is also called "Southern remote island" with the same concept as the southern remote island area.

Sakishima Islands

Miyako district
Former Miyako branch office, range of (former) Miyako-gun
Yaeyama district
Former Yaeyama branch office, range of (former) Yaeyama-gun

American base

As of 2017, dedicated facilities of the U.S. forces in Japan occupy 15% of the total area of ​​the main island of Okinawa.[46][47].

History

Outline

Ancient timesJapanese sequelInEmperor Bunmu2 years(698), the order of the Imperial Court was sent to the South Island (Nantou) (Nansei Islands) by Dr. Mitsuhiro Nibun. At that time, Dr. Bunshin's mission was to confirm the relationship between Yakushima, Tanegashima, and Amami Oshima, which was the third year of Emperor Bunmu (699) Describes that he was awarded the rank because of his tribute to the court because of his many bounties, smuts, rewards and feelings. Since then, the Imperial Court has dispatched Koji to Tanegashima and also to Kumejima and Ishigakijima to send messengers.Wado8 years(715) Describes that the Amami, Yaku, Minkaku, Shinkaku, and Kumi Islanders of the South Island came to Japan in the morning and paid tribute to the people of the Ezo. OtherYoro4 years(720) To 232 South Islanders,Turtle4 years(727), the rank was awarded to 132 South Islanders, etc.

Ryukyu KingdomIt was compiled in the eraNakayama Seman"according to,Homoto no RanLost inIzuWashed awaySource morningTo escape from chasingUnten Port), the child was the first King of RyukyuShuntenIt is said to have become, and is treated as orthodox history. In the late 14th centurySanzanKingdom (Kitayama,中山,Namsan) Has risen and China (Light)TributeToothBookletReceivedRyukyu tradeWas going on. Nakayama King in 1429SatoshiDestroyed Nanzan and Kitayama, unified Ryukyu, and founded the Ryukyu Kingdom (First Sho).1469ToShou DeokKanemaru who was a vassal ofRobberyAnd selfNaoAnd was crownedSecond Sho). The prints will be expanded to the surrounding Sakishima Islands and the Amami Islands,1609(Keicho14 years)Satsuma DomainUnder the invasion ofKing NangSurrendered, under the rule of the kingdom at the timeAmami archipelagoCeded to Satsuma Domain[Note 12], The kingdom was under the control of the Satsuma Domain (Ryukyu invasion). Even after the invasion by Satsuma, the kingdom continued to be sealed in China, and it was a system of "both affiliations" with the Satsuma domain of Japan and Kiyokuni.IsolationOf both countries under the regimeRelay tradeIt played a role as a land and maintained its own culture and autonomy through trade. The relationship between mainland Japan and Okinawa at that time continues to the present day in JapanSouth Sea fantasyBecame the beginning of[Source required].

Entering the modern era on mainland JapanMeiji RestorationAngryOpeningWhat I did,1871(Meiji 4) The Nisshin Osamu Regulations were signed in SeptemberclearA diplomatic relationship was established with. However, in October of the same year, about a month laterMiyakojima Islander AccidentOccurs,Meiji governmentTo deal with diplomacyCentralizationRush to establish a nation,1872(5th year of Meiji),Ryukyu DomainIs installed in the Ryukyu kingSho TaiWas sealed as "Ryukyu Clan King" and a clan residence was set up in Tokyo.Sir FukushimaAfter negotiations with Qing by1874(Meiji 7)Taiwan troopsSo, the general authority such as not harming Japanese passengersThe United KingdomConfirmed by the post-treatment treaty by the ambassador's mediation, a diplomatic incident with Qing has resulted.1879May 4(Meiji12), the Meiji government abolished the Ryukyu clanOkinawaInstalled,Sho TaiMoved to a clan residence in TokyoEthnic familyBecomes The ruins of the castle ruins of the Gusk era areGusuku and related heritage groups of Ryukyu Kingdom]UNESCO Ofworld HeritageRegistered in.

1945(Showa20 years),Pacific WarIs called "the largest ground battle in Japan"[Note 13]Battle of OkinawaBecame the battlefield. US ArmyMay 4On the main island of OkinawaYomitan VillageImmediately landed on the coast of the island, and quickly controlled the northern half of the island, the Japanese army was attacked by the U.S. forces in the south and the Shurijo castle where the general headquarters was located burned down,May 6Of the Okinawa Defense Force Supreme CommanderUshijima ManLieutenant GeneralsMabuniThe self-determination ended the organized battle. Due to the fierce battle for about three months, one in four people in the prefecture was killed and the land was devastated. Mabuni is currentlyOkinawa Battlefield National MonumentHas been designated as, and June 6Memorial DayAs a holiday in Okinawa Prefecture.

After the war in OkinawaGHQ OfSCAPIN --677Nansei Islands by order[Note 14]Was under the U.S. military administration, Japan's administration was suspended, and Okinawa Prefecture as an administrative entity (under the Governor of the Ministry of Interior) once disappeared (Okinawa rule by the United States).Large-scale requisition of villages and farmland for base construction under U.S. military ruleRight-hand roadAs a currencyB yen,laterU.S. dollarTo travel to mainland JapanpassportAfter the war, post-war reconstruction was promoted in an American way.1952(Showa 27)GHQJapan, which was under the occupation ofRestoration of sovereigntyAfter that, Okinawa continued to be under the control of the US military.In the same year, the U.S. military administration ended, and a new U.S.-led initiativeRyukyu governmentEstablished and embarked on full-scale Ryukyu rule and reconstruction.

1950 eraAfter thatKorean War,Vietnam War, Okinawa became more important as a US military front supply base, and many U.S. military personnel were stationed there.B-52Etc.Strategic bomber,Defoliant,nuclear weapons such asWeapons of mass destructionMany were deployed, and it was feared by Vietnam as a “devil's island”[49].. While the economy relied heavily on bases, at the time the dollar appreciated against the yen.Fixed exchange rate systemPrices were cheap and lifestyles were stable, partly due to the influence of the, and the population doubled from about 50 immediately after the end of the war to about 27 million in just 100 years before returning to the mainland. However, the islanders were strongly opposed to the U.S. military's powerful and discriminatory administration, and large-scale anti-base movements calling for a return to the mainland were being carried out in various places (Island gurumi struggle).1971(Showa 46)Eisaku SatoWith the Prime MinisterRichard NixonWith the presidentOkinawa return agreementWas concluded and the next1972In 47, Okinawa returned to Japan, and Okinawa Prefecture was restored (Okinawa return[Note 15][Note 16].. Base problems that have continued since the US military eraUnexploded ordnanceProblem of,US-Japan Status AgreementHas become a major political issue in the prefecture ("Futenma base relocation problemSee).

Chronological Table

population

Of 2015CensusAs a result, the population of Okinawa prefecture increased by 2010 (4%) compared to the previous fiscal year 2.9,PrefecturesApartTokyo(2.7%), the highest population growth rate in Japan[54].. The population growth rate is the highest in Japan. By population, for the first time, the population over the age of 1 exceeded the population under the age of 65. Viewed by regionOkinawa main islandIncreased in the central and southern regions, with the northern part of the main island of OkinawaIshigakijimaIt is decreasing in most of the remote islands except.National Institute of Population and Social Security ResearchPredicts it will grow to 2025 by 143[55].. The rate of natural increase in 2010 is 5.0 per XNUMX population, the highest in Japan[56] However, the rate of increase in society varies with each year[57].. Also in 2010Total fertility rateIs 1.87[56] And since 1975, it has maintained the number one position in Japan[58].. According to the 2015 national census, the ratio of people aged 65 and over (19.6%) exceeded that of people under the age of 15 (17.4%) since the start of the survey.[59].Crude mortalityIs the lowest in Japan for both men and women,[60],Age-adjusted mortalityIs close to the national average[60], Especially adult men have the third or more age-adjusted mortality rates nationwide[61].. Living in OkinawaForeignerIt is,CitizenshipAs of 2010America(U.S. ArmyAnd its parties are not included. ) Is the most common,Chugoku- South KoreaThe number of foreigners registered is also increasing[62].. According to the 2015 census, the number of foreigners in the prefecture was 11,020, an increase of 2010 (3,369%) from 44.[59].

The number of US military personnel, civilian employees, and their families not included in the demographics is 2013 as of 47,300.[Source required].

The statistics of tourists entering Okinawa Prefecture in 2016 reached a record high of 8,613,100 per year, averaging about 23,500 per day.[Source required].

In addition, I was transferred from outside the prefectureSDFOr nationalOfficeDue to the large number of seconded civil servants, the apparent population including these is 7 to 10 more than the statistics.[Source required].

Demography47000.svg
Okinawa Prefecture and National Population Distribution by Age (2005)Okinawa Prefecture Population Distribution by Age and Gender (2005)
Purple-Okinawa
Green-All over Japan
Blue-male
Red-female

Changes in the population of Okinawa prefecture
Ministry of Internal Affairs and CommunicationsStatistics Bureau CensusThan

Politics

Okinawa returnThe former governing mechanism in Okinawa was "Ryukyu government"and"Ryukyu Islands U.S. GovernmentSee.

Governor

Governor of Okinawa
NameTenureperiodBirth PlaceFinal Education
1Yana Asanae
Yara
1972(47)May 5
- 1976(51)May 6
2Nakagami-gunYomitan VillageHiroshima Higher Normal Schoolgraduate
(CurrentHiroshima University
2Yoshiyuki Taira
I'm Koichi
1976(51)May 6
- 1978(53)May 11
1Nakagami-gunNishihara TownOkinawa Normal Schoolgraduate
3Saimei Junji
Junji
1978(53)May 12
- 1990(2)May 12
3ShimajiriChinen Village
(CurrentNanjo City
Tokyo UniversityFaculty of Lawgraduate
4Masahide Ohta
Masahide Ota
1990(2)May 12
- 1998(10)May 12
2ShimajiriGushigawa Village
(CurrentKumejima Town
米 国Syracuse UniversityGraduated
5Keiichi Inamine
Inamine Keiichi
1998(10)May 12
- 2006(18)May 12
2KantoDalian
(CurrentChugokuLiaoningDalian
Keio UniversityFaculty of Economicsgraduate
6Makoto Nakai
Nakaima Hirokazu
2006(18)May 12
- 2014(26)May 12
2OsakaOsakaTokyo UniversityFaculty of Engineeringgraduate
7Oshi Nagashi
Takeshi Nagana
2014(26)May 12
- 2018(30)May 8
1Mawashi Village(Current: Naha City)Hosei UniversityFaculty of Lawgraduate
8Tamaki Denny
Tamaki Denny
2018(30)May 10 -1Nakagami-gunYonagi Village(Current:Uruma CitySophia College of Social Welfaregraduate

Organization/Government building

Parliament

  • Number of members 48
  • Term of office June 2020, 2 (Reiwa 6 years) --June 25, 2024 (Reiwa 6 years)

Okinawa prefectural assembly electionUnified local electionsThis is one of the few prefectural assembly elections that is not held inTokyo,Ibaraki,Iwate,Miyagi,Fukushima). This is the election after returning to Japan1972(47)May 6Because it was done in Tokyo, Ibaraki disbanded parliament, Iwate, Miyagi and FukushimaGreat East Japan EarthquakeIt is because of the postponement due to, and the situation is different.

finance

2015

  • Standard financial scale 3567 yen
  • Financial capability index 0.29 (prefecture average 0.47)
    • Fiscal strength index is classified into E group (0.3 municipalities) less than 11
  • Current account ratio 95.1% (prefecture average 94.6%)
    • It is an index that indicates that fiscal consolidation is progressing
  • Future burden ratio 81.3% (prefecture average 210.5%)
  • Real debt service ratio 12.2% (prefecture average 14.1%)
  • Number of employees per 100,000 population 1,412.52 (prefectural average 1,110.90)
  • Laspeyres index 107.0 (prefecture average 107.4)
Local bond balance
  • Local account current amount of ordinary account 6829 million yen
  • Current amount of local bonds (corporate bonds) for special accounts other than the above: 1541 million yen

Economic and industrial

industry

Okinawa is one of Japan's leading tourist prefecturesService industryIs well developed and is the center of the prefecture's economy.In addition, Okinawa Prefecture has no outstanding industry other than tourism.[Source required]It is,US Army in JapanIt depends on the economy generated by the base (military employee income, military rent, stores/restaurants for US soldiers, etc.), while the economic dependence dropped from 1972% in 15.5 to 5.7% today. Occupy Offices, hospitals,Shopping centerThere are facilities such as about 9,000 prefecture residents working at the base facility,Okinawa Prefectural OfficeIt is the next largest employment destination.

The industrial structure of Okinawa Prefecture is characterized by a lower weight in the secondary industry and a higher weight in the tertiary industry than in the whole country, but this tendency has not changed at all since the return. The proportions of the secondary industry and the tertiary industry in the gross domestic product in 2 are 3% and 25%, respectively, and the difference is clear compared with 2% and 3% in the whole country. In particular, the percentage of the manufacturing industry is 13.9% in the whole country and 84.4% in Okinawa prefecture, showing a very large difference. In addition, the proportion of government service producers (economic activities such as public electricity, gas and water industries and public affairs) is as high as 24.4% in Okinawa (73.9). This high percentage has continued since the return.[63].

2014(Heisei26) gross domestic product was 4 billion yen, and the economic growth rate compared to the previous year increased by 1749%. The nominal increase was 1.5 trillion yen to 3.5 billion yen, each showing positive growth for six consecutive years.[64].. The prefectural income per capita in 26 was 212 yen (national average was 9000 yen).Unemployment rateIs the highest in Japan, but in 2016 the unemployment rate in Okinawa fell to the 23% level for the first time in 3 years.

For products produced or supplied in Japan outside the prefecture, the time and cost will increase due to the transportation distance, and the transportation cost will be more expensive than outside the prefecture.Therefore, except for products produced in the prefecture, outside the prefectureRegionCompared to, the average retail price is not particularly low.For food and mobile phone services, Okinawa's own corporation (,Okinawa Cellular PhoneEtc.)Okiko,Orion beer,Blue sealIn some cases, Okinawan brands occupy a certain genre.

Agriculture/Fishery

Taking advantage of Japan's leading subtropical climate in agriculture,mango,Acerola,Pineapple,Dragon fruitTropical fruits such assugar cane,tobacco,GoyaAgricultural products such as (bitter melon) are produced.In addition, rice cultivation is popular on Iheya Island.

In the fisheryTuna,squid,Yellowtail,Scorpionfish,Horse mackerel, Etc., etc.Prawns,Mozuku[65]Aquaculture is also popular[66].

In the livestock industry, pig farming has been popular since ancient timesAguIs famous. AlsoGoat,cowIs also produced.

Industry/Mining

There are sugar manufacturing industry, food and beverage manufacturing industry, and kiln and earth and stone products manufacturing industry, mainly cement manufacturing, but all are small.

On the main island of OkinawaMotobu PeninsulaThere are high-quality limestones that are mined as raw materials for cement and crushed stone and sand.Oki Daitojima,Kitadaito IslandThe phosphorus mine was once operated in Japan, but Kitadaito Island is depleted of good ore, and Okidaito Island remains designated as a US military shooting bombing site after the war.

On the seabed off Okinawa's main islandHydrothermal depositHas spread,copper,zincBesides,gallium,Bismuthな どRare metalAs a result, the prospecting survey is becoming active as a next-generation marine resource.

Natural gas and oil with estimated reserves of about 1000 billion barrels are sleeping on the bottom of the East China Sea,Mid-day lineAroundChugokuDispute over sovereignty (East China Sea gas field problem) Is occurring.

Can use plant resources for fuelBio ethanolWas in the limelight, and sugarcane produced in the prefecture was attracting attention as a raw material, and a trial operation was also conducted, but eventually it was not profitable and withdrew.

tourism

The main industries of the prefecture are tradition, history, nature, food culture and international colors.tourismAre listed. However, these tourism industries are easily affected by the economy. A resort hotel on the main island of OkinawaBeachA lot ofWaikiki BeachalikeArtificial beachAlthough it is a tourist resource, it is not the "nature of Okinawa". The total number of tourists in 2009 was 5,690,000 in Japan and overseas (Domestic: 5,443,800, Overseas: 246,200)[67] Is. The number of foreign tourists visiting in 2019 reached 1,951,150,Taiwan (40.00%), South Korea (22.99%),Chugoku (18.38%),Hong Kong (10.26%),米 国 (3.51%)[68].. Many tourists from the United States are related to US military bases.

2000(12)Major countries summitSince then, we are promoting the formation of a venue for events such as international conferences and conventions. In addition, prefecture advocates sports island conceptEco tourismIs also becoming active.

情报

1998Based on (Okinawa Prefecture Multimedia Island Concept) from (10),Submarine cableBecause of the large number of landings, the word IX (Internet Exchange) is used to call for IT Exchange.Call centerAnd IT companies are actively attracting incentives. On the other hand, the facility is excellent from inside and outsideBox administrationThere are many criticisms.

2010 eraSince then, the development of smartphone applications has become popular.

Tax incentives/special cases

Many special cases for economic promotion[69] Is set.

Company

Within the prefecture, it is being deployed in Honshu, etc.CompanyThere are many local companies.

Telecommunications carrier
Telecommunications carrierThen on the mobile phone au As a regional company that provides the service ofOkinawa Cellular PhoneThere is. Since this company was established for the purpose of promoting the economy of Okinawa, it owns a majority stake in the company. KDDI Not only for local companiesOkinawa Electric PowerBesides, the business community and leading companies in the prefecture have also invested. There are also services that are unique to Okinawa Prefecture, so in other prefecturesmarket shareIs in the leadNTT DoCoMoIs suppressed (2005(17) Current market share is 49%). The company was excluded from the list due to political considerations.KDDI) Is the target.
In addition,AstelGroup ofPHSFormerly the Okinawa Electric Power Group that provided the serviceAstel OkinawaTake over,2005(17)May 1Started business inWILLCOM Okinawa(HonshuTo provide PHS servicesWILLCOMEstablished as a subsidiary of (formerly DDI Pocket). LaterSoftbankBecame a subsidiary ofY! MobileThere is a brand).
Alcoholic beverages
beerHas a large market share in the prefecture as a manufacturerOrion beerExists. The company has a high share of the prefecture's market with liquor tax exemption measures in the prefecture, but the market share in Japan as a whole is around 1%.Antitrust lawIt is said that it does not conflict with.
News (Chinese)
Newspapers are printed locally due to transportation conditions.Nihon Keizai Shimbun, Within the prefectureLocal newspaperPrinting and publishing in partnership withSports Nippon-Nikkan SportsIt is a local newspaper because it is impossible to deliver it in the morning of the day (except the morning newspaper is delivered outside the prefecture during the evening delivery time).Okinawa TimesandRyukyu ShimpoAccount for most of the subscription rate. In addition, two newspapers are issued to Ishigakijima and Miyakojima, each of which sells mainly on the island or in neighboring remote islands.
金融
A financial institution has a head office in the prefectureLocal bankBesides 3 linesKoza Shinkin Bank,post office(Japan Post Bank) AndJA Bank(JA Okinawa) And many other stores.City bankabout,Mizuho BankOnly the Naha branch exists. Regional banks outside the prefectureKagoshima BankOkinawa branch of2015It is installed in and operates two stores in Naha City.

Major companies headquartered in Okinawa

  • Wholesale trade

Major companies with bases in Okinawa

工場
  • Nippon Iron Works (Itoman City)

Life and transportation

Policemen

Transportation

空港

Due to the fact that it is an island prefecture, air routes are mainly used for movement outside the prefecture and between remote islands within the prefecture.In particular, for the Miyako Islands and Yaeyama Islands, regular passenger routes to and from outside the region have been suspended or abolished, and in principleAir routeIt is mandatory to move in.In the prefecture, the airports in the table belowIzen famous off-airfieldBesides,US Army in Japan baseTo use asKadena Air Base,Futenma Air Baseand so on.

2017 passenger numbers[71]
空港Total passengersDomestic flightsInternational flights
Number of passengersregular serviceNumber of passengersregular service
Naha21,161,68317,524,761Outside the prefectureNew Chitose-Sendai-Ibaraki-Haneda-Narita・(Niigata)・(I.e.-Shizuoka-Central part-Itami-Kansai-Kobe-Okayama-Hiroshima-Iwakuni-Takamatsu-Matsuyama-Kochi-Kitakyushu-Fukuoka-Kumamoto-Nagasaki-Miyazaki-Kagoshima-Amami-Tokunoshima-Okinoerabu-Debate3,636,922Seoul-Busan-Daegu-Beijing-Shanghai-Tianjin-Hangzhou-Nanjing-Hong Kong-Taipei-Taichung-Kaohsiung-Bangkok-Singapore
Within the prefectureKitadaito-Minamidaito-Kumejima-Miyako-Ishigaki-Yonaguni
Ishigaki2,497,1712,411,480Outside the prefectureHaneda-Narita-Kansai-Central part·Fukuoka85,691Taipei
Within the prefectureNaha/Miyako/Yonaguni
Miyako1,700,5901,699,901Outside the prefectureHaneda-Kansai-Central part·(Fukuoka)689-
Within the prefectureNaha/Ishigaki/Tarama
Kumejima258,640258,640Outside the prefecture(Haneda0-
Within the prefectureNaha
Yonaguni105,302105,302Within the prefectureNaha/Ishigaki0-
Minamidaito48,41848,418Within the prefectureNaha/Kitadaito0-
Tarama45,18645,186Within the prefectureMiyako0-
Kitadaito19,30319,303Within the prefectureNaha/Minamidaito0-
Aguni3,7943,794Within the prefectureNaha0-
Kerama490490--0-
Ie Island00--0-
Shimojishima00--0-
Hateruma00--0-
  • The destination is2019XNUM X Month X NUM X Date
  • Charter flightsIncluding the number of passengers
  • Brackets indicate routes that are not operated throughout the year (seasonally operated or have suspension periods)
  • Three major metropolitan areasThe air route toTaiziNotation

Railway line

Before the Pacific War, on the main island of OkinawaOkinawa prefectural railway,Okinawa Electric(Tram),Okinawa orbit,Itoman carriage orbitHowever, the Okinawa Electric tram and Itoman Wagon Orbit were abolished due to the rise of buses, and the remaining Okinawa Prefectural Railway and Okinawa OrbitBattle of OkinawaDestroyed and disappeared. After the war, there was no railroad line for a long time, but in 2003 (15)Okinawa city monorail line(Yui Rail) Naha Airport-Shuri-ma opened[Note 17][Note 18].

As of 2013, the concept of constructing a railway between Naha and Nago, which was revealed in 2006 (18), is the subject of construction and operation, except that the government will bear part (or all) of the construction cost. Are in the process of investigating and considering[72]. AlsoMinamidaito VillageIn order to increase the number of tourists, plans to revive the "sugar train", a railway that had been operating on the island to transport sugar cane until 1983.[73].

The only one in all prefectures,JRThe lines of each company are not laid. this isNational railwaySimilar from the times,Railway parcelaboutRyukyu ShippingIt was handled by contact transportation with[74].. In addition, once in Naha cityKyushu passenger railway(JR Kyushu)Okinawa branchAlthough it was installed, it closed on March 2017, 3, so there is no JR sales office at all.

other than this,Railway Business LawComply withcablewayAs a lift was installed in Shigira Resort on Miyako Island on April 2016, 4[75][76].

bus

On the main island of Okinawa, in Naha City and Urasoe CityOkinawa city monorailSince there is no railroad other than (Yui Rail), a bus route network has been developed throughout the island as a transportation system connecting cities and cities.[77].. In addition, Ishigaki Island and Miyako Island also have a bus route network as a means of transportation on the island.

In addition, there are many islands that operate small-scale local buses as a means of transportation that connects island ports, airports, central villages and tourist destinations.

Also, Okinawa Prefecture is the only one in Japan,JNR busAnd of the posteriorJR busThe regular passenger business route is a prefecture that has never existed in history.

General boarding/general charter work
General charter business
  • Okinawa main island
    • Chubu sightseeing bus
    • Daito Transportation
    • World trance
    • Heianza comprehensive development
    • Okinomiya sightseeing bus
    • Connection
    • Succession planning
    • Churashima
    • Kuniwa first hire
    • Shoyo
    • Okinawa south tourism
    • Highway Okinawa
    • Solar traffic
    • Curry Attractions
    • Location first
    • And indie
    • Fuji Sakura Tourism
    • Island Limousines
    • Tawada Location Service
    • Daito
    • Okinawa Tourist
specific

道路

  • After returning to the mainland,1978(53)May 7Until then, the vehicle was driving on the right.730 (transportation)See also
  • Okinawa main island, especiallyNaha metropolitan areaThen.Traffic jamThe amount of traffic congestion loss per 1km in the prefectureThree major metropolitan areasNext to prefectures of[78].
  • Due to the characteristics of the prefecture compared to other prefectures, the "wa" and "re" numbers that indicate rental cars, and the "Y" and "A" numbers that indicate that they are used by U.S. military personnel are extremely Many.
  • The prefecture owns about one million cars.
highway
General national road
Prefectural road

Port

Ships are widely used to move between adjacent islands without using an aircraft.

Important port

Medical and welfare

Disaster base hospital
Nursery

Education

Targeting 2007th grade elementary school and 6rd grade junior high school students who started in 3National Achievement/Study Status SurveyThen, in 2011, Okinawa Prefecture is the lowest of all subjects.[79] However, in the 2014 survey, Okinawa Prefecture was ranked second in the total number of students in the sixth grade of elementary school.

University

National

public

private

Junior college
College of technology

National

High school, junior high school, elementary school, other schools

See the list article below.

Mass media

News (Chinese)

Top 2Prefectural paperThe total market share ofNational newspaper(General paper) has a very low share compared to other prefectures due to the following circumstances[80]. Also,Sakishima IslandsThen ownRegional paperHas been issued.

Prefectural paper
Regional paper of Sakishima Islands
Local paper and others

West Japan NewspaperAlso issued a newspaper as a de facto "business" for government offices and libraries in Okinawa Prefecture, as well as for offices of companies and corporations headquartered in Kyushu (Okinawa branch etc.),2009Issuance was stopped in (21). The newspaper1967(Showa 42)-1977(Showa 52)2000(12)-The Naha branch was established in 2009 (21).

National newspaper

Yomiuri Shimbun,Mainichi Newspapers,Asahi Shimbun,Nihon Keizai Shimbun,Sankei ShimbunEach company has a bureau/branch office in the prefecture.2008(20)May 11Nikkei started local printing by consignment to Ryukyu Shinposha,National newspaperHowever, only the morning and evening editions (only the morning edition from January 2018, the evening edition was abolished) are delivered at the same time as the local newspaper. The Yomiuri, Mainichi, and Asahi versions of the Tokyo Headquarters and the Western Headquarters are sold, and the Sankei versions of the Osaka Headquarters are sold. All of these regular papers are shipped by air from the place of issue, so delivery is delayed in the afternoon of the day (simultaneous delivery with the evening edition of the previous day). Sakishima Islands andDaito IslandsRegarding, as for not only nationwide newspapers but also two local prefecture newspapers are printed and delivered by air or sea, the delivery of morning newspapers will be delayed compared to the main island.

Sports paper

sports newspaperIt is,Nikkan SportsSports Nippon(Shinpo Sponichi) Does local printing in the prefecture, but both papersHonshuUnlike newspapers published in, etc., it is published in 10 to 12 pages (in Okinawa PrefecturePublic competitionSince there is no facility for public competition, it is not posted.A TV scheduleAlso not posted). At some convenience stores in Naha Airport and in Naha City, the Tokyo headquarters version of each paper is air-shipped and sold on the day of issue, but the price is 50 yen, which is 180 yen higher than the list price.

Daily newspaper

Sacred newspaperIs doing local printing in the prefecture. AlsoRed flagIs printed by a print shop in Fukuoka Prefecture and sent by air, and like the national newspaper, it will be delivered from early afternoon,South Korea OfReligious groupOperated byWorld daily reportAs with general national newspapers and sports newspapers, newspapers issued in Tokyo are air-shipped and sold in the afternoon at major airport terminals and convenience stores, and outsourced to some regular newspapers (regardless of national or regional newspapers). It takes the form of home delivery[Note 20].. For this reasonA TV scheduleIn addition to those in the Tokyo metropolitan area, two starting stations in Okinawa Prefecture[Note 21] The program schedule from noon of the day to morning of the next day is recorded.

Broadcaster


Special notes on TV broadcasting

The NHK receiving fee payment rate was 23%, the lowest in the whole country at the time of the initial announcement at the end of 42.0.

Special notes on Sakishima Islands and Daito Islands
Daito IslandsSince I could not receive the TV broadcast in the prefecture for a long time, in analog broadcastKanto wide areaOf the TV stations that are targeted for broadcastingNippon TV-Television Tokyo Channel 12, Ltd.Broadcast of each station exceptOgasawara IslandsWas relayed using a satellite line that was transmitted toNHK satellite 1st-NHK satellite 2stTV also broadcast on the ground). In addition, about the topic in the prefecture, the caption information using the telephone line was inserted as needed. afterwards,2011(23) It became possible to send TV broadcast waves from the Okinawa main island by the signal sent by the submarine optical cable whose construction work was started from the beginning, and the NHK Okinawa Broadcasting Station and commercial broadcasting stations in July of the same year With the opening of the digital relay station, RBC became available for viewing 7 years after the start of TV broadcasting on the main island, OTV for 51 years after the opening of the main island, and QAB for 52 years after the opening of the main island.Daito Islands #TV BroadcastSee).
Sakishima IslandsRegarding the above, as for the beginning of the television broadcasting, the relay stations of the starting 3 companies and 4 stations (each of NHK and 2 commercial channels) were not installed, and the radio waves from the Naha main station were directly received, or via the cable TV relay line. Reception was also technically impossible, so199312I couldn't receive any ground wave in Japan until the relay station was opened. for that reason,Miyako TV,Ishigaki Cable TVIn the independent broadcasting of theKey stationFromProgram salesThe state that the program which purchased independently was netted continued.
In addition, Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting (QAB)1995Since the relay station in the Sakishima Islands was not maintained even after the station opened in Miyako, Ishigaki continued to be broadcast by cable TV.TV AsahiI was broadcasting the program of staggered,2009(21) On October 10, a QAB relay station was set up as a new digital station, and it was finally available 21 years after the opening of the main island. Along with this, even on cable TV in Miyako and Ishigaki, as an alternative to not installing a relay station,Digi-ana conversion[Note 22] Was doing a complementary rebroadcast by.
Blank for network affiliates
There are no broadcasting stations of both NTV and TV Tokyo affiliates in the prefecture (along with Saga prefecture, NTV affiliates including cross-net stations are also outside the broadcasting target area), Some of the programs produced by each of these affiliated stations belong to other affiliated stations in the prefecture and are broadcast in the local frame. On OTV, the annual summer broadcast "24-hour TV], [High school quiz"andNew Year's Holidayof"High school soccerIn addition to participating in the broadcast of "(Okinawa Prefectural Games and Matches of Okinawa National Teams at National Games), Nippon Television has acquired broadcasting rights.FIFA World Cup OfRepresentation from JapanBattleSummer olympic OfWomen's marathonResponsible for the online competition broadcast in Okinawa Prefecture. (If the broadcast time falls during the time zone of a national broadcast program of the Fuji TV series, the program will be temporarily returned to the Internet or will be broadcast at a later date.)
On NTV, for the purpose of news coverage in the prefecture where there is no affiliated stationNippon Television Naha BranchHas been installed. Regarding affiliated stations of the same station in the 1990sSouthwest broadcastWas scheduled to open, but it did not happen.
Events due to isolation from other prefectures
All of the prefectureCable tv stationThen, there are problems such as topography and technology in both analog and digital,Redelivery outside the prefectureWas not done at all, but from September 2019, 9Okinawa Cable NetworkIn the independent TV program "TV Mirai"Kagoshima Yomiuri TVStarted the internet of some programs of (Nippon Television Network System). From October 2020, 10 "NTV live distribution”, But it will be possible to watch programs of the Nippon TV series for a limited time.[82]. AlsoRyukyu Shimpo-Okinawa Times OfA TV scheduleAlso, the out-of-prefecture broadcasting including Kagoshima prefecture is not posted at all, including the radio.[Note 23].
About AM radio stations
  • Okinawa main islandNorth,Sakishima IslandsAnd in the Daito Islands, since it is easy to receive interference from neighboring countries mainly at night-early morning,Using FM radio wavesRelay broadcasting is being conducted.
  • FM Okinawa1984AM radio station until converted toFar East BroadcastingWas being broadcast as.
  • After returning to Okinawa, English broadcasting by private broadcasting continued for a while, and broadcasting by Ryukyu broadcasting (KSBK→ JORO) when returning1973Until, Far East Broadcasting Company (American corporation. Japanese broadcasting was handed over to Far East Broadcasting in December 1972)1977Was continued until.
About FM radio stations
  • FM Okinawa cannot be directly received because there are no relay stations in the south of Tarama Island and the Daito Islands of Sakishima Islands.[Note 24].. NHK-FM cannot be received directly because there is currently no relay station in the Daito Islands.[Note 25].
Rebroadcast on internet radio
  • radikoThen, RBC i Radio, Radio Okinawa, and FM Okinawa are distributed for free distribution within Okinawa Prefecture and for services with a paid membership "radiko.jp Premium (Area Free Listening)" in other prefectures.
  • NHK Net Radio Rajiru RajiruIn, you can listen to radios 1 and 2 and FM by selecting prefectural broadcasting of each broadcasting station in Tokyo, Nagoya, Osaka, Sapporo, Fukuoka, Sendai, Hiroshima, Matsuyama, but you can not select local broadcasting in Okinawa prefecture You can't listen with the same app.
About callsign

The United States of AmericaUnder the administration of KSxx I used to return to the mainland (1972(Showa 47)) After that JOxx Is used.

Cable TV

Culture/Sport

Ryukyu KingdomBefore it was establishedJapanNativeUnder the influence ofMainland China,East AsiaAccepts and mixes cultures ofcultureHas built up[83]. AlsoPacific WarlaterOkinawa returnFor a long timeRuled by the US ArmyBecause it had beenThe United States of AmericaThe culture of is also widespread.

Religious

animismIs based on the mainland of JapanShintoOriginal form of (Old Shinto) Is said to be close.Ryukyu ShintoAlso known as, outside the prefectureShrineAs something that hitsChopsticksThere is. Also,Ancestor worshipThe wind also remains strong.

BuddhismIs believed only by the royal family and some upper classes, and has hardly permeated ordinary farmers,funeralIt was only used as part of the rituals of. Even now, the number of Buddhist believers (danke) is extremely small compared to outside the prefecture. In recent years, funerals have come to be held in Buddhist ceremonies, but they are often held by non-denominational monks, rather than by denominational monks like outside the prefecture. Also, apart from the monkUtahThere are also cases of calling.

GraveWas influenced by China from rocky tombs using natural dens and graves dug into cliffs.Tortoiseshell graveHas changed toGable tombIs common. Also, how to process the remainsCremation,Bone washingThere was a unique custom of doing exercises, but in recent years, as a result of the guidance of public health centers and the women's movement,CremationCame to be implemented.

After the war, due to the influence of the US militaryキ リ ス ト 教Faith is also prosperous. Many of themProtestantBelong to a faction. About 210 places in the prefectureChristian churchExists and has the highest proportion of Christian population in the country.[Source required]

Language/Dialogue

The words used in Okinawa can be roughly divided into the following three,Baby boom generationThe common language is remarkably common among prefectural citizens born laterHeiseiAfter that (especially2000When it comes to the citizens of the generation born after that, not only the Ryukyu language but also the Okinawan Japanese language (Uchina Yamatoguchi) has declined significantly, but no particularly strong protection policy has been taken.

  • Ryukyu -From the standpoint of the Japanese government, although it is often treated as the Ryukyu dialect, which is the Japanese dialect,UNESCOIs different from Japanese among international organizations such asJaponicIs said to be an independent language belonging to. Although it is a traditional Okinawan language, its daily use is mostly limited to the elderly. From Meiji to the middle of Showa periodDialectIn addition to the promotion of a powerful movement to spread the standard language using, through the movement to return to the mainland and the post-war mass media and the development of school education,RyukyuWhile neglectingStandard languageSince the number of opportunities to come into contact with Ryukyu has increased overwhelmingly, the use of Ryukyu has become extremely rare, and it is particularly difficult for most of the generations born after Heisei to understand it. Roughly,National acronym(Kunigami dialect),Okinawan(Okinawa dialect),Miyako(Miyako dialect),Yaeyama(Yaeyama dialect),YonaguniAlthough they are divided into (Yonaguni dialects), there are some differences between these languages ​​(dialogues) that may be different languages.Endangered languageIt has been.
  • Uchina Yamatoguchi -Most of Okinawans' words are used on a daily basis, and the elements of Ryukyu are mixed based on the common Japanese language.New dialectIs said to be.Also known as the Okinawa Ben.However, even Uchina Yamatoguchi has a marked decline as the age of Okinawans born after Heisei (especially after 2000).accentIn terms of vocabularycommon languageIn many cases, there is almost no difference.
  • Japanese common language ――It is used in mass media, school education and public institutions.Ryukyu, Okinawan, and common languages ​​are used by the elderly born by the early Showa period (generally until the 1930s).Trilingual, A common language with Okinawa Ben in the generation born from the postwar period to the end of the Showa period (generally from the 1940s to the 1980s)bilingualMost of them can be used properly.On the other hand, in the generation born after Heisei (generally after the 1990s), a common language (Metropolitan dialect) Has a strong tendency to speak almost the same language, and is close to monolingual with almost only common languages.Also, the tendency is getting stronger year by year as the age goes down.[84].. In this way, it is feared that it is a region in Japan that is becoming increasingly common.
  • English - Okinawa under American ruleSo English is virtually[Note 27]SecondOfficial terminologyMet.Elderly people who are still educated in English, military employees who are still working in the U.S. military base even after returning to work, those who are doing business with the U.S. military and soldiers, and families who are married to U.S. There are many people who understand English.

Race/ethnicity

People with ancestors in the land of Okinawa are ``from the geographical, historical and cultural background.Ryukyu peopleThere is a position to say. Racially, it is said that northern traits (Kyushu, etc.) were introduced from prehistoric times to the 10th century,Molecular biologyIt has been confirmed that this study is genetically similar to the Japanese archipelago race (Yamato people).The Japanese government calls the Ryukyu people "Indigenous peopleAlthough it has not been certified, in August 2014United Nations Committee on the Elimination of RacismIs in conflict with the fact that it is an "indigenous people" with the reason that "the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization recognizes the unique ethnicity, history, culture and traditions of Ryukyu and Okinawa."[86]..There is growing opposition from the Japanese government and LDP lawmakers that it is an "ethnic division work".[87].

Name

Many of Okinawa's surnames are derived from place names. In the Ryukyu Kingdom era, royal families and samurai are equivalent to their current surnames.family nameName yourself,territoryIt changed every time was changed.Satsuma DomainOf the Satsuma domain after the invasion bypolicyRyukyu Royal Government OfMeasureAs a result, many families have changed their family names from Japanese-style surnames to so-called Okinawan-style surnames. After disposing of Ryukyu, it is also possible for ordinary people to give their surnames, and after the Meiji era, many of the surnames in Ryukyu Yomi were changed to Japanese Yomi.

building

Traditional building techniques in Okinawa developed mainly in the late Ryukyu period (early modern times). Many buildings are constructed in the surrounding area (mainly in terms of construction style, materials, technology, etc.).Japanese architecture・There are many similarities with the Chinese architecture, but the unique development of Okinawa can be seen because of the different resource status and climate.

During the dynasty, the tiled wooden structure of the Ryukyu tribe, Nukija, and the common people are mainly called anaya.HutHad a residence in. Besides the residence,Castle wall,BridgeFor stone buildings such asRyukyu limestoneMany buildings were used, but many buildings were lost due to the Battle of Okinawa. Not only many wooden houses but also forests disappeared due to the war, a lot of craftsmen and materials were lost, and the American military led the reconstruction.Two by fourMany structural buildings were built.

Currently strong against typhoons and termitesReinforced concrete structureIn the water tank (without a big riverWater shortageHouses that have installed) are becoming more common[88][89].

Built outside the base for residence of U.S. military personnel and their familiesForeign houseThe number of households continued to increase even after returning to work, contrary to the reduction of bases outside the prefecture.Demand for housing to accommodate an increasing number of U.S. military personnel has increased, and private investment has led to large-scale land reclamation and residential construction for Americans.Even now, there are "foreigner residential areas" in Ginowan City, Kitanakagusuku Village, Okinawa City, Uruma City, Chatan Town, etc., forming a unique cityscape.

Traditional crafts

Traditional crafts designated by the Minister of Economy, Trade and Industry

Entertainment etc.

Acer TheJodo sect OfNembutsuIs a traditional performing art that was formed based onCreative acerIs also developing.

In the era of American rule,Koza City(CurrentOkinawa City) Then,Korean War,Vietnam WarMany hard rock musicians played an active part in the popularization of clubs and live houses for the US soldiers who had lost their lives. The end of the war,U.S. dollarDecline in relative value of,A signAlthough it declined due to changes in the environment such as the closure of the bar, many musicians are still active throughout the country.

Celebrities from Okinawa Prefecture are also active today,Okinawa Actors SchoolHas produced many singers, idols, and talents, led by the graduates of.

Clothing

It is a traditional costumeRyusoBesides, in recent yearsAloha shirtSimilar toKariyushi wearCan also be seen.

After the war, residents living in the camp were provided with clothing released by the US military.Even after the camp was dismantled, U.S. military-released clothing was used for durability and convenience, and continues to this day.[Source required]It is on sale.

Martial arts

Okinawa's unique martial arts that existed beforeHandWas introduced during the Ryukyu Kingdom eraChinese martial artsWas born by fusingKarate(Starting from today), and laterkarateDeveloped into[90].. After the war, he went to overseas from Japan and American soldiers who learned karate.KarateHas gradually spread to the world.

Broad senseRyukyu martial artsConsists of manual karatetsu (karate) and weaponry. Generally, old martial arts refers to the latter, but karate and weaponry are closely related to each other.[91][92].Stickman,TonfaThere are various techniques, but especiallyNunchakuWeapon technique using is famous in the world.

Equestrian

Compete for beauty, not speedAncient horse racing.. The Ryukyu Horse Racing (Nmaharashi) has been held for about 300-500 years, and since the Meiji era it has become an event for all citizens of the prefecture until the Pacific War.Ryukyu Horse RacingWas actively performed. From 2013 as a revival business of Ryukyu horse racingOkinawa Children's CountryWill be held in.

Cuisine

In mainland Japan7st centuryOr later,Rice cultivationWhile sacred toCarnivore TheFilthWas considered and was ostensibly contraindicated.However, Okinawa did not have this idea, and meat dishes developed from early on.Especially because of the influence of China豚 肉Cooking is traditionally developed.,(I.e.,boar,(I.e.Chii Richa, which cooks goat meat and blood, is unique to Okinawa.Ryukyu cuisine is far from the tradition of a maritime trading nationHokkaidoProductionKelpHas been used for a long time[93].

One of the best in JapanlongevityHealthy traditional for the reason of being a regionFood culture:It is thought that there may be.On the other hand, it developed during the U.S. military ruleFast food,American foodHas taken root, and the westernization of food is progressing.

In addition, the food culture of the American occupation has been passed down today.[94]

Discrimination, oppression

Discrimination by Ryukyu people

Nimbucha (Nembutsu, Chongdara) under the jurisdiction of the Chuzan royal government (Ryukyu kingdom royal government) during the Ryukyu Kingdom era:Kyotaro) Other thanDiscriminatory peopleThere was no[95]Because of YamatoBuraku discriminationAlthough there is no such thing, it was an identity system society in which the disparity between royalty and samurai and the common people (serfs) was enormous.Also outside the cityShima societyThe old practice of still remains strong,Male and femaleAnd there is a tendency to exclude outsiders. What is "Sima"?islands"In addition to the"VillageIt also means "division".Mainland JapanVillage societyThere is a composition similar to.

Discrimination by Yamato

In mainland Japan, Okinawans were often treated discriminatoryly as being foreign. In 1903, at an exhibition, a prostitute from OkinawaAinu,Native TaiwaneseAlong with that, there was an incident that "exhibited" as a different ethnic group, causing repulsion of Okinawans (for details,Human Hall IncidentSee). When the number of migrants from Okinawa to the outside of the prefecture increased from the Taisho era to the early Showa period, there were many people unfamiliar with the language and customs outside the prefecture, such as the standard language and the sense of time. There was a proviso that "No Ryukyu people".

Opposition by the U.S. forces in Okinawa

During the post-war American era, the US military seized the land with bayonets and bulldozers, and a series of robbery, rape, and murder cases by US soldiers spurred anti-American sentiment among Okinawans. EspeciallyPaul W. CallawayHigh Commissioner for the Ryukyu IslandsSuppressed Okinawans with a very powerful attitude in those days (Caraway whirlwind).1970In December, triggered by a traffic accident by U.S. military personnelKoza riotHas evolved to.

Discrimination against people from Amami

Geographically and culturally closeAmami archipelagoWas invaded by the Ryukyu Kingdom from the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century, but the Ryukyu Kingdom was the Satsuma Domain.Indirect controlReceivedBakuhan systemEven after entering below and being annexed from the Meiji Restoration through the Ryukyu disposition, it was still a region where human exchange with Okinawa was active.But,Pacific WarWhen the Amami Islands returned to their homeland first under the administration of the U.S. Occupation Army, basic human rights such as expulsion of Amami natives who returned to "Japanese nationality", deprivation of suffrage, and restrictions on property rights were severely restricted. Measures to be taken were introduced one after another by the petition of the residents of the main island of Okinawa.In addition, discriminatory sentiment spread to the private sector.The Okinawan media also reported on these issues.

Suppression of the Sakishima Islands

The Nakayama kingdom (Ryukyu kingdom) is harsh against the Sakishima islands that were in the Ryukyu Kingdom eraHead taxWas introduced and forced into oppression. In addition to the Satsuma domain and the royal palace, the history of double exploitation, forced enforcement, oppression and persecution of farmers by the local rulers of the Sakishima Islands continued until the extinction of the Ryukyu Kingdom, and even after the Meiji Restoration after Ryukyu disposal.Old common policy-Based forced exploitation by local rulers continued through the 20th century[96].. Due to the oppression by the authorities of Satsuma and the royal government, forced migration of farmers by the royal government and ruling groups, poor crops due to droughts and storms, andBig tsunamiNatural disasters such as these, epidemics and outbreaks of famine caused a great decline in the population.Yaeyama earthquake"reference).

The head tax of the Sakishima Islands1637It is said that it was institutionalized, and was taxed even in the year when the tax was heavy and the harvest was small, which caused the islanders to suffer. The head tax was taken to reinforce the vested interests of the former Ryukyu Kingdom even after the Ryukyu disposal.Old habitationSurvived by the plan.1893(Meiji26 years)Nakamura Jusaku,Joan Masayasu, Maira Hirara and Gama NishizatoOkinawa main islandAt the time, the petition of the Diet was overcome by overcoming the obstacles of government officials and samuraiInterior MinisterMetJun InoueWas delivered to. Nakamura's hometown (Niigata)ofYomiuri ShimbunA reporterYoshikazu MasudaArticle was made known to the public and was supported by public opinion. 8thImperial Assembly[97]In1903(Meiji 36) Abolished, JapanNativeSimilar toland taxWas switched to[98].

Discrimination against mixed-race children

Children born between Americans and Asians, especially American soldiers who came to the Asian region and local womenAmerasianCalled. Many American military personnel and military members still live in Okinawa today, and many Amerasians continue to be born, but discrimination is deep-rooted. What you see on US military bases and on TV is often all about American culture that Amerasians raised in Okinawa know.[99].. Nonetheless, I can not be put in a public pool that is decided to be American by appearance and is picked up from a store[100] Have been discriminated against.EspeciallyAfrican AmericanThis tendency is strong for mixed-race children.Before and after Memorial Day at public schoolsAnti-AmericanAs learning progresses,Yankee・Go home"BullyingTake a bath[101].. Moreover, not only Amerasian, but also her mother is being discriminated against and prejudiced.[102].. Also, the new school building site of Okinawa Christian School International, where many Amerasians were gathered,Industrial wasteWhen the students suffered from nausea and skin irritation due to the dumping traces, Okinawa PrefectureDioxin,PCBI issued a "safety declaration" without conducting an inspection, and eventually about 80 people dropped out of school.[103][104].

Discrimination against leprosy

Okinawa PrefectureLeprosyIt is a region where a lot of cases have occurred, and from the end of the 20th century, 6% to 7% of new cases of Japanese are from Okinawa prefecture.[105][106] However, discrimination and persecution against leprosy in the Okinawan society were severe.[107].StripedIn Hansen's disease (called "Kuncher".beggarIs a Ryukyu dialect that meansGamaThere was a culture that quarantined cliffs, rubbish dumps, etc., and prohibited them from returning to Shima.[108].. If you die, do not put it in the clan's tomb, bury it upside down, and never be born againcurseApplied[109].. In the 50'sCrematoriumSince the number of funerals has increased, funerals outside the prefecture have spread to Okinawa.[110] However, a curse that puts roasted beans on the remains (under the meaning of "This should come back to life if it sprouts, but never sprout because it is roasted") is still underneath.[111].

Okinawans strongly resisted the movement to create a modern medical leprosy field.[112].National Hansen's Disease SanatoriumA riot (Arashiyama incident) happened to prevent the installation, and a sanatorium was installed.Keiya AokiIn some cases, leprosy patients are being burnt. Aoki et al. finally reached the opening of the Okinawa Prefectural Kunigami Airakuen (currentlyNational sanatorium Okinawa Airakuen) Had less interaction with the community than other sanatoriums.

The misunderstanding about infectiousness is persistent,Ryukyu ShimpoArgued for the false idea that the faculty during treatment was spreading to children (later pointed out by other reporters as "the biggest spot on postwar Okinawa journalism").Leprosy prevention methodAbolition (1996), a public opinion poll before 87) found that XNUMX% of the population agreed to isolate all leprosy patients.[113].

Discrimination against people with mental illness

A pre-return survey found that Okinawa had twice the prevalence of mental illness as outside the prefecture.[114]In recent years, mental illness, sexual violence, family violence, school violence, suicide, etc. are top-level nationally.[115].

What is characteristic of Okinawa is the view of disability based on indigenous beliefs and old practices that are not consistent with Western medicine. Family with mental illnessZashiki prisonLock inPrivate houseWas banned outside the prefecture in 1950, but in Okinawa, people with disabilities remained in prison even after returning, and their families were alienated from the local community and abandoned.[116][117].. Mental disorders are evil spirits (Madimun), and call for denial of this as superstitionPsychiatristWhile there isUtahChristianity is indigenous to the influence of faithOkinawa Christian GospelCriticized the claim itself as being said by evil spirits,schizophrenia,EpilepsyToEvil spirit payerIt is carried out[118][119].. There is a saying, "half a doctor, half a Utah," and there are cases where psychiatrists recommend Utah to patients with mental illness.[120].

On the other hand, there are many people who recognize that people with mental illness are useful to society from the perspective that Utah is close to people with mental illness.[121].. Of those who have suffered from mental disorders, those who have come into contact with or possess possession with gods and ancestors are called Kamidari, and can exist as "positive madness" that is accepted by society.[122].

Discrimination against SDF

Occupational discriminationAs,SDFThere is discrimination against.Return to mainlandAlong withSDFWas deployed to Okinawa, the SDF officers were called murderers,Self-defense personnelChildren were unable to attend school for more than half a year. In addition, after being shut down by various events, he was not allowed to claim himself as a Self-Defense Force even if he was allowed to participate. In some cases, local governments refused to register residents of SDF and their families, and refused to dispose of garbage.Naha HarleyIt was in 2001 that I was allowed to join the SDF in[123].

September 2017, 3Miyakojima City CouncilKaoru Ishimine isFacebook"(US) Marine CorpsTrained fromJapan Ground Self-Defense Force MiyakojimaWhen you come toU.S. ArmyWill never comeWoman assaultAn incident will happen”BurningTherefore, I apologized that "I am not criticizing the entire Self-Defense Forces" and referred to "(criticized) the mechanism of the army for war", but it became a flame again and Ishimine posted two posts Deleted from Facebook[124].. Miyakojima city council said, "Posting is a professional discrimination against SDF personnel and U.S. Marines, it must be said that it is a rant that can not be forgiven and it seriously damages the dignity of the city council." Passed 20, Opposition 3, Absence 1). Ishimine refuses to resign, saying, "I am not a member of parliament."[125].

Sports

Sports team

Main sports event

Sports Facilities

Professional baseball OfSpring campThe land is concentrated in Okinawa Prefecture,2011(23), 12 teams out of 10 teams (only one army) camp in the prefecture. Below are the main sports parks andBaseball fieldWas mentioned.

Tourism

Works set in Okinawa Prefecture

movies
TV drama
Literary arts
Anime
Game

person

Honorary citizens of Okinawa

The title of the Honorary Citizens of Okinawa Prefecture is based on the Okinawa Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance (March 2003, 15 Okinawa Prefecture Ordinance No. 3) established on March 31, 15. Is given to those who are proud and respected by the citizens of the prefecture (Article 3 of the Ordinance)[128].. The target person is "a person from Okinawa prefecture, a person who has lived in Okinawa prefecture or a person who is related to Okinawa prefecture, and contributes to the improvement of social welfare, the promotion of academic culture or sports or the industrial economy, and other social development. It is stipulated that the governor of Okinawa shall select the person with the consent of the Okinawa Prefectural Assembly (Article 2 of the Ordinance).[128].. Those who are selected as honorary citizens will be presented with the honorary citizenship title of Okinawa prefecture, the Okinawan honorary citizenship badge and commemorative items (Article 3 of the Ordinance).[128].

Name of winnerOccupationSelection dateRemarksSource
Yamanaka Sadanori政治家2003/12/17First generationOkinawa Development AgencySecretary[129]

Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award

沖縄県県民栄誉賞は、1999年(平成11年)4月8日に制定された沖縄県県民栄誉賞表彰規則(平成11年4月8日沖縄県規則第45号)に基づき、「広く県民に敬愛され、県民に明るい希望と活力を与える顕著な功績があったもの」へ、沖縄県知事から贈られる(規則第1条・第2条)[130].

Name of winnerOccupationDate of award ceremonyRemarksSource
Okinawa Shogaku High SchoolBaseball club1999/4/1971th Selected High School Baseball TournamentFirst in OkinawaKoshienVictory.[131]
Hirokazu UeharawheelchairRace player2008/10/23Beijing ParalympicsWheelchair marathonsilver medalAcquisition.[132]
Konan High SchoolBaseball club2010/9/1382th Selected High School Baseball TournamentandThe 92rd National High School Baseball ChampionshipWon. Koshien Spring-Summer consecutive title, the sixth school in history.[133]
Ai MiyazatoProfessional golfer2010/12/275 wins on the US Women's Golf Tour of the same year.[134]
Susumu NakazatoWheelchair rugbyplayer2016/11/22Rio de Janeiro ParalympicsWheelchair rugbyRepresentation from Japanplayer. Teambronze medalContribute to acquisition.[135]
Namie Amurosinger2018/5/23He has been active as a leading Japanese artist for 25 years.[136]

footnote

[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ Burned down in the 2019 Shurijo Castle fire.
  2. ^ The southernmost tip of JapanTokyoBelongs toOkinotorishimaHowever, people do not live in and civilians cannot enter freely.
  3. ^ Although there is a theory of "drifting", there are no documents or studies that interpret it as "drifting", and the original text is simply "Dou Agonawa".
  4. ^ 14 regions: Hokkaido, Tohoku, Kanto Inland, Kanto Seaside, Tokai, Hokuriku, Kinki Inland, Kinki Seaside, Sanin, Chugoku Sanyo, Shikoku, Kyushu Kitakyushu, Kyushu Minamikyushu, Okinawa[10].
  5. ^ In the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport,Island country(territoryIs all(I.e.6,852 islands that make up Japan, which is a country consisting of Remote islandDivided into 6,847 islands[11].. However, there is no such classification/division for the islands geographically.
  6. ^ Japanese(I.e.Top 10 islands by area:Honshu,Hokkaido,Kyusyu,Shikoku,Etorofu Island,Kunashiri Island,Okinawa main island,Sado Island,Amami Oshima,Tsushima[12].
  7. ^ Posted in the following "Locations of municipalities belonging to the main island of Okinawa".
  8. ^ In other words, it is probable that the Magiri system at this time almost inherited the Magiri system at the end of the Ryukyu Kingdom era (final).
  9. ^ In addition, the main island of Okinawa was roughly divided into three categories, "Kunigami", "Nakagami", and "Shimajiri".this isOld Ryukyu14-15th centurySanzan periodDerived from the national world (with some differences). "Underground three-way" in "Jiji-san Poshu Hanari" refers to Kunigami, Nakagami, and Shimajiri. "Morori" generally refers to the remote islands around the main island and the surrounding remote islands.
  10. ^ County officeIt refers to an era when it was functioning as an administrative entity.Since the abolition of the county system, the county remains a mere geographical name.The same is true outside Okinawa Prefecture, but the historical background is different in Okinawa Prefecture.
  11. ^ However, there was a time when Shuri Ward functioned as a part of Nakagami, such as the establishment of the Nakagami District Office for a period under the old county system.It was incorporated into Naha City after the war in Okinawa.
  12. ^ However, it was nominally regarded as a part of Ryukyu. Detail isThe history of the Amami archipelagoSee.
  13. ^ at that time,Inland(Non-colonial mainland Japan)Karafuto Agencyas well as the KurilButSoviet armyIt wasn't the "only ground battle".[48].
  14. ^ Osumi IslandsandKami Mishimaexcept for.
  15. ^ "Act on Special Measures for Return of OkinawaFormally, from the prewar Okinawa prefecture and the prewar prefecture's municipal system, after the warLocal government lawIt was decided that it would be inherited by Okinawa Prefecture and municipalities based on.It is just a matter of legal formal inheritance.
  16. ^ Upon return, Japan paid a total of $3 million to the United States (about 2000 billion yen at the current exchange rate (as of October 2016)).
  17. ^ In October 2019Urasoe City OfTedako UraniExtended to.
  18. ^ As a result, the prefectures where the train is not runningTokushimaOnly became.
  19. ^ Yaeyama Daily2017On April 4st, the Okinawa main island version was published and the morning edition started, but from the end of February 1, it was integrated with the Yaeyama version and the delivery was canceled and switched to mail.[81].
  20. ^ Currently, daily newspapers are sold mainly in the Tokyo metropolitan area (Tokyo, Kanagawa, Chiba, Saitama), and other areas are delivered by mail.
  21. ^ Ryukyu Broadcasting and Okinawa TV. Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting and radio are not posted.
  22. ^ On cable TV in Miyako and Ishigaki, the starting 3 companies and 4 stations also delivered analog broadcasting, but unlike those that had normal image quality of 4:3, QAB was started from the beginningLetterbox 16:9Was using.
  23. ^ In the past, there were many cases where re-transmission was not performed due to management reasons in other areas (equipment costs on the cable TV station side or pressure of existing stations in the prefecture), but the cable TV station in the center of the mainland prefectural office is It is common for all four major series to be retransmitted.In addition, since the two papers publish the program guide of the original channel of the major cable TV in the prefecture, the program guide of "TV Nirai" which partially retransmits the Kagoshima Yomiuri TV is posted.
  24. ^ A relay station was opened on Irabu Island in January 2019, and FM Okinawa can be received on Miyako Island and its surrounding remote islands.
  25. ^ However, NHK-FM2011(23) From September, it became possible to listen to it by simultaneous distribution via the Internet together with Radio 9 and 1, but since it is all broadcast from Tokyo, the original program and rights of Okinawa prefecture area and Kyushu / Okinawa block If there is a program that is not delivered at the same time due to the above reasons, it cannot be listened to unless a relay station is set up.In 2TokyoOgasawara IslandsOf Chichi-jima-Hahajima but both the relay station has been opened, still has started broadcasting the prospect not stand in the Daito Islands, has become can not be received directly by the radio broadcast of only NHK-FM area in the country.
  26. ^ 16 stations on the main island of Okinawa (2 stations in Naha City, Okinawa City, Ginowan City, Urazoe City, Tomigusuku City, Itoman City, Nanjo City, Uruma City, Nago City, Yonahara Town, Kitaya Town, Honbu Town, Yomitan Village 1 station), 1 station each on Kumejima (Kumejima Town), Miyakojima (Miyakojima City), Ishigakijima (Ishigaki City).
  27. ^ Although the official language is not specified in the Ryukyu Government Code and various laws and regulations, Japanese is used for the Ryukyu Government Code and various laws and regulations, and English is used for the decrees issued by the US military.[85].

Source

  1. ^ "Uchina”(Japanese). Shuri/Naha dialect voice database. 2020/6/9Browse.
  2. ^ National Institute of Japanese Language (2001) "National Institute for Japanese Language Institute 5 Okinawan Dictionary", Ministry of Finance, Printing Bureau, p. 538.
  3. ^ a b "Overview of remote islands / Okinawa Prefecture". 2017/10/12Browse.
  4. ^ 260m north-northwest of the westernmost part of Japan Using rocks from Yonaguni Island, Okinawa Prefecture as a topographic map Ryukyu Shimpo, viewed June 2019, 6.[Broken link]
  5. ^ "[Island Trip Topic] Very popular with foreigners!5 remote islands in Japan ♪ | From island day, from travel day”(Japanese). shimatabibiyori.com. 2021/5/4Browse.
  6. ^ Industry in Okinawa / Reason of Industry -2014-12-4 Browse
  7. ^ Yamazato (2004)
  8. ^ "Okinawa Compact Encyclopedia" Published by Ryukyu Shinposha, Akonawajima March 2003, 3
  9. ^ "Ryukyu History Dictionary" written by Morishige Nakayama, Ryukyu Educational Book, 1969
  10. ^ "Glossary”. Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism. 2013/6/1Browse.
  11. ^ "Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism" website Remote island promotion section What is a remote island? (Basic knowledge of the island)[1] Retrieved February 2009, 11
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  30. ^ "Snowfall at high temperatures-Limits and possibilities-Did it snow in Okinawa?"
  31. ^ About low temperature accompanied by strong cold (PDF) -Okinawa Meteorological Observatory, January 2016, 1
  32. ^ Asahi Shimbun January 2000, 1 The first page of the Asahi Shimbun "Tensei Human Language" (Asahi Shimbun compact edition, January 26, p. 1)
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  36. ^ Kerama Islands National Park was born -Okinawa Times (March 2014, 3, viewed on the same day)
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  39. ^ Okinawa river -Okinawa Prefecture Civil Engineering Department River Division
  40. ^ Topography and geology of Okinawa and rivers, erosion control, coasts, etc. -Okinawa General Secretariat Development and Construction Department
  41. ^ University of the Ryukyus River characteristics and life history of fish in Okinawa
  42. ^ Okinawa International University Okinawa River
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  47. ^ [Return to Okinawa 45 years] 70% of US military facilities are still concentrated 15% of the main island
  48. ^ Okinawa Ground Wars Japan's only → The largest government in Japan decides the Cabinet(Ryukyu Shimpo)
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  50. ^ Jie Liu / Hiroshi Mitani / Daikei Yang, "History Recognition Across Borders" 12p University of Tokyo Press ISBN-4 13-023053-0
  51. ^ From "XNUMX Years of Submarine Lines"-Chronology of submarine communication cables in Japan/NTT World Engineering Marine HP
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  60. ^ a b "Deaths by Prefecture -22 Age-Adjusted Mortality by Prefecture- (PDF)”. Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare (March 2012, 3). 2012/6/28Browse.
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  62. ^ "Okinawa Prefecture Population, Households, Housing (PDF)”. Okinawa Prefecture Planning Department Statistics Division (October 2011, 10). 2012/6/28Browse.
  63. ^ Fiscal 28 Economic overview of Okinawa (PDF)
  64. ^ 26 prefectural economic calculation (PDF)
  65. ^ Okinawa Mozuku
  66. ^ Living Information Center, editorial department, "Collection of fish catch, aquaculture, processing, import/export, distribution, consumption 2005" Living Information Center, 2005
  67. ^ General Statistics on Tourists to the Area in 2009 (Okinawa Prefecture Tourism Planning Division)
  68. ^ "Inbound demand in Okinawa”(Japanese). Visit Lab. 2020/6/29Browse.
  69. ^ Request for tax reform in 19 5. Promotion of Okinawa -Cabinet Office (read October 2010, 10)
  70. ^ Request for tax reform in 19 (PDF)
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  73. ^ "Minami Daito Village plans to revive the railway "Sugar Train"". Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2013, 9). http://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/storyid-212834-storytopic-5.html 
  74. ^ Okinawa geography trivia(Although it is introduced as "National Railway Naha Port Station" in the link, it was accurately connected with the national railway.Ryukyu ShippingIs the station of
  75. ^ Okinawa's first pair lift "The Shigira Lift Ocean Sky" - Unimat Group, August 2016, 4
  76. ^ Authorized Okinawa's first cableway project (PDF) - Cabinet OfficeOkinawa General Bureau, August 2014, 8
  77. ^ For a list of bus operators,Okinawa General Bureau Transportation Department FY 19 Transportation Manual (PDF) More excerpts.
  78. ^ Congestion loss amount per 1km by prefecture (Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism)
  79. ^ “The bottom of the academic ability test is important to create a learning environment”. Ryukyu Shimpo(July 2012, 8). http://ryukyushimpo.jp/news/storyid-195444-storytopic-11.html 2012/10/8Browse. 
  80. ^ Yomiuri Shimbun Advertising Guide Average number of copies sold by prefecture in the second half of 2010 (read September 2011, 9)
  81. ^ "Notice of cancellation of morning edition of Okinawa mainland version" (Press Release), Yaeyama Daily, (February 2019, 2), http://www.yaeyama-nippo.co.jp/archives/news/%E6%B2%96%E7%B8%84%E6%9C%AC%E5%B3%B6%E7%89%88-%E6%9C%9D%E5%88%8A%E9%85%8D%E9%81%94%E4%B8%AD%E6%AD%A2%E3%81%AE%E3%81%8A%E7%9F%A5%E3%82%89%E3%81%9B 
  82. ^ "[NTV / Yomiuri TV / Chukyo TV] Trial for live distribution of terrestrial prime time on TVer Starts at 10 o'clock on Saturday, October 3!". Nippon Television Network Corporation, Yomiuri Telecasting Corporation, Chukyo Television Broadcasting Co., Ltd. (September 2020, 9). 2020/9/21Browse.
  83. ^ Ryukyu Culture Overview Ryukyu Culture Archive
  84. ^ Internationalization of Japanese and language situation in Okinawa Tokyo University of Foreign Studies Fumio Inoue
  85. ^ Okinawa Prefectural Archivesreference
  86. ^ "United Nations Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination Recommends Respect for Okinawan People's Will to Japan”(Japanese). Ryukyu Shimpo. 2020/10/28Browse.
  87. ^ INC, SANKEI DIGITAL. “The Liberal Democratic Party vehemently opposes the UN view "Okinawa people are indigenous peoples" "It is an ethnic division work"”(Japanese). Sankei News. 2020/10/28Browse.
  88. ^ Okinawa Prefectural Board of Education Okinawa History and Culture
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  90. ^ Okinawa's traditional karate and old martial arts
  91. ^ History of Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts
  92. ^ Koden Karate/Recommendation for Ryukyu Ancient Martial Arts
  93. ^ "Forty-seven Prefectures Unchiku Encyclopedia," page 47 publisher-PHP library and author-Kazuro Yawata
  94. ^ Post-war American food culture
  95. ^ Akasaka, Norio, "Is there a discriminated person in Okinawa (below)?" Buraku Liberation, No. 554, 2005, p.55.
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  98. ^ Kurakichi Takara "People's Tax" ("National History Dictionary 15" (Hirobun Yoshikawa, 1996)) ISBN 978-4-642-00515-9
  99. ^ Local children interact with marines-JSDF.ORG
  100. ^ Lee Kyo-Ai, Toyozumi Marcia, Naomi Noiri, Ran Haei, Tokuhei Akibe, Enoki Enui "Thoughts of "Japan" and "New Japan" living in Japanese society"Mukuge, No. 173, 2003
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  117. ^ Kiwako Naito "Thinking from Ie Island, Okinawa""Monthly Normalization" November 1999 issue
  118. ^ Yoshimasa Ikegami, “The Stage of Evil and Holy Spirits, The Salvation World in Okinawa's Popular Christianity,” Animal Publishing, 1991, p.84, 138
  119. ^ "The "cultification" of the Christian Church"July 2008, 7 issue of "AERA"
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  124. ^ Facebook of Miyakojima City Council burns down "A woman assault case will occur if the Self-Defense Forces trained by the US military come" Sankei Shimbun 2017.3.12
  125. ^ “Resignation to Kaori Ishimine/Miyakojima city council, who posted on FB when “Self-Defense Forces come and rape women”” Miyakojima city council approved by majority. Sankei Shimbun(July 2017, 3). http://www.sankei.com/politics/news/170321/plt1703210032-n1.html 
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  128. ^ a b c Okinawa Prefecture Honorary Citizens Ordinance -Okinawa prefecture, browsed on July 2019, 7.
  129. ^ Those selected as honorary citizens -Okinawa prefecture, browsed on July 2019, 5.
  130. ^ Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award Commendation Rules -Okinawa prefecture, browsed on July 2019, 7.
  131. ^ Those who received the prefectural honor prize -Okinawa Prefecture Governor's Office Secretary Division, updated November 2012, 11
  132. ^ Prefectural Citizen's Honor Award to Beijing “Gin” Kamyonara -Ryukyu Asahi Broadcasting Q Plus, October 2008, 10
  133. ^ Konan High School Baseball Club awarded "Prefecture Award" -Miyako Shimpo, September 2010, 9
  134. ^ Indigo Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award "Hope and spirit" -Nikkan Sports, August 2010, 12
  135. ^ Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award Commendation Ceremony (11 November) -Okinawa Prefecture Governor's Office Secretary Division, updated November 2017, 2
  136. ^ Commencement ceremony for the Okinawa Prefecture Honor Award for Namie Amuro (May 5) -Okinawa Prefecture Governor's Office Secretary Division, updated November 2018, 6

Related item

外部 リンク

Predecessor:
Ryukyu Domain
Changes in administrative districts
1879 - 1945 (First Okinawa Prefecture)
Next generation:
Ryukyu Islands US Military Government
Predecessor:
Ryukyu Islands U.S. Government
Ryukyu government
Changes in administrative districts
1972 - (First Okinawa Prefecture)
Next generation:
-----

 

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