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🌤 | Okinawa continues to be vigilant against storm surges and pay attention to the movement of typhoon No. 8


In Okinawa, continue to be vigilant against storm surges and pay attention to the movement of typhoon No. 8.

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The maximum temperature is around 30 degrees Celsius nationwide, and in some places it may exceed 35 degrees Celsius.

Typhoon No. 6 will travel northward near the Maejima Islands in Okinawa on Saturday, 24th, and will move northward in the East China Sea on Sunday, 25th. → Continue reading

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Wikipedia related words

If there is no explanation, there is no corresponding item on Wikipedia.

Around 30 ℃


temperature(Kion)atmosphere OftemperatureThat.weatherOne of the elements that make up.It usually refers to the temperature of the atmosphere on the ground.

Expression of "temperature"

The word that expresses only "temperature" isJapanese,ChineseThere is only in some languages, such as English, "Temperature" which represents "temperature" is substituted for the meaning of temperature, and when strictly "temperature" is represented, Air temperature or Atmospheric temperature is used.

Temperature measurement and statistics


The temperature when thinking about the weather and climate is the "ground temperature". The temperature isthermometerHowever, since there are several types of thermometers having different structures and characteristics of measured values, it is necessary to pay attention when using the measured values. How to measure the temperature on the groundWorld Meteorological Organization(WMO), the height is 1.25 ~ 2.0m above the ground and the thermometer should not be exposed to the outside air.MeasurementIt is stipulated to do. In Japan,Japanese Meteorological AgencyHas set a measurement height of 1.5m[1].

Usually, a thermometer or similar measurement environment is required to meet the above measurement methods.HygrometerIt is,フ ァ ンTsukinoyaHyakuba boxCan be put in[1].

Thermometer(I.e.Invasion ofCondensationGet wet bysnowInvasion ofFrostWhen frozen or due to evaporation or thawing of waterlatent heatThe effect of absorption lowers the temperature and causes an error. Also,Sun lightIf it hits directly or if the flow of air around the thermometer is stopped, the temperature rises above the original ambient temperature, which also causes an error. In order to prevent this, the ventilation tube and the hundred-leaf box have a structure that makes it difficult for rain and snow to enter.The ventilation tube forces the fan and the hundred-leaf box allows easy ventilation.ventilationIt is carried out. In addition, in order to reduce the influence of the heat generated by the fan, it is appropriate to have a structure in which a fan is provided at the outside air outlet inside the ventilation tube.[1].

As the environment for installing a ventilation tube or a hundred-leaf box containing a thermometer, the surroundings should be well ventilated in order to bring it close to the original ambient temperature, and the temperature should be kept within a certain range because it does not become unnecessarily low in the shade.TreeIt is desirable that there is no structure or structure, and that there is no heat source in the surroundings so that the temperature does not become unnecessarily high when heated. According to the Meteorological Agency's “Meteorological Observation Guide,” it is a flat land that is open and there are trees and trees nearby.HouseIt is stipulated that it should be done in a place where there are no other obstacles such as, and it should be avoided on a steep slope or in a depression, but if it is unavoidable, compare it with the ambient temperature and grasp its characteristics. Is supposed to be. In addition, the ground (outdoor field) under the ventilation tube and the hundred-leaf box is short.grassIs the most desirable, and if difficult, it can be the same soil as the surrounding area, but artificial grass is also permitted for management reasons to prevent overgrowth of weeds. On the other hand, asphalt, which has a strong glare, is considered unsuitable. It is said that the larger the area of ​​the open field, the better.AmedusAbout 70 at the observatorym2The above open field is secured[1].

The temperature of the sky is also being observed for use in weather forecasts. For timed/fixed point observation, attach a temperature sensor to a rubber balloon and release it to the sky.Radio sondeIs most commonly used. Radio sondeTropospherePass throughstratosphereIt reaches up to about 30km in the sky. Aircraft are also used for aviation weather, observing temperature from time to time.

In addition to the World Meteorological Organization, temperature in many areas including JapanCelsius(° C),The United States of AmericaThen traditionallyFahrenheit(° F) Is often represented.


Temperatures are usually continuously observed at regular intervals. In this data, the highest temperature is the highest temperature and the lowest temperature is the lowest temperature during a certain period such as one day or one year. Generally, the terms "highest temperature" and "lowest temperature" are often used in weather forecasts, and thus often refer to the highest or lowest temperature of a day. The average temperature in a certain period is called the average temperature.

In the statistics of temperature, it is necessary to pay attention to the measurement interval.SYNOPEvery 3 hours,MATERIs an hourly measurement (report), the average temperature using these data is the average of 1 or 8 times if it is the daily average temperature. This interval is becoming shorter due to technological innovation,Amedusの例を挙げれば2002年までは1時間ごと、2008年までは10分ごと、2008年以降は10秒ごとと改良されている。これにより誤差が出る事も分かっている。平均すると、1時間ごとの最高気温は0.5℃、10分ごとの最高気温は0.2℃、それぞれ現在よりも低い値であるほか、1時間ごとの最低気温は0.2℃、10分ごとの最低気温は0.1℃、それぞれ現在よりも高い値であると報告されている[2].

Terms related to temperature

Also called the maximum daily temperature. On the day you are paying attention, that is, from 0:24 to XNUMX:XNUMXObservationMaximum temperaturesunny dayIt is often observed between 12:15 and XNUMX:XNUMX on the day of, but at that timePressure patternIt may be observed in the middle of the night.Eur-lex.europa.eu eur-lex.europa.euIf the maximum temperature during the day is specified in the above, it will be the maximum temperature from 9:18 to 0:15. In newspapers, etc., the "highest temperature from XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX" is often posted. The highest temperature observed in the month of interest is called the highest monthly temperature.
Also called the daily minimum temperature. The lowest temperature observed on the day of interest, that is from 0:24 to 3:9. It is often observed between 0:9 and 21:9 on a clear day, but it may also be observed during the day depending on the atmospheric pressure arrangement on that day. If it is specified in the weather forecast as "minimum temperature tomorrow morning", it will be "minimum temperature from XNUMX:XNUMX to XNUMX:XNUMX tomorrow". In newspapers, etc., the "minimum temperature from XNUMX:XNUMX the previous day to XNUMX:XNUMX the day" is often posted. The lowest temperature observed in the month of interest is called the monthly minimum temperature.
Average temperature
In the case of one day, it is the average of the temperature of 1 hours every hour from 24 to 24 hours, and in the case of one month (1 year), it means the average of the average temperature of every day (monthly). Also, when calculating the average temperature of Japan, it is not the average temperature of all the observation sites, it is less affected by urbanization and is not biased to a specific area.189817 points where observations have continued since then[3]The difference between the average temperature and the normal value is shown as the average value at 17 points. Therefore, in absolute value ○° CNot the average difference ±○° CIt is represented by. This methodWorld average temperatureBut it is also used. 
Daily range
The difference between the highest and lowest temperatures observed in one day.
Monthly difference
The difference between the highest and lowest temperatures observed in a month.
Annual range
The difference between the highest and lowest temperatures observed during the year. It may also refer to the difference in monthly average temperature between the warmest month (the hottest month) and the coldest month (the coldest month).
Winter day
Minimum daily temperature is 0° CLess than a day.
Tropical night(I don't care)
Minimum nighttime temperatureIs 25° CThe above (according to the forecast term of the Meteorological Agency).
The Meteorological Agency does not report on tropical nights, but more preciselyDaily minimum temperatureIs 25° CMore days”.
Midwinter day
Maximum daily temperature is 0° CLess than a day.
Summer day
Maximum daily temperature is 25° CMore days.
Midsummer Day
Maximum daily temperature is 30° CMore days.
Intense heatDay
Maximum daily temperature is 35° CMore days.
2006Previously in the media, etc.Hot dayIt was often expressed as (Kokushobi),2007May 4Was officially defined by the forecast term revisions made inNew Word/Buzzword AwardIs in the top 10[4].

Factors that affect temperature

  • Sun light(solar radiation)-Has the greatest impact on global temperature. Due to the change in the incident angle of sunlight due to the celestial movements of the sun and the earth, the temperature changes seasonally in a yearly cycle and daily changes in a daily cycle. Generally, the higher the altitude of the sun, the higher the temperature. Also, since there is less solar radiation and more atmospheric radiation, the temperature changes more slowly on cloudy or rainy days than on sunny days even during the same period.
  • Atmospheric radiation --All substancesStefan Boltzmann's lawByAbsolute temperatureIt emits energy per unit time in proportion to the fourth power of. Mainly in the atmospherewater vapor,carbon dioxideAbsorbs infrared rays emitted from the atmosphere.
  • 地球radiation -The heat received by sunlight goes from the surface to the skyInfraredThis is called Earth radiation. At night, Earth's radiation lowers the surface temperature, and sensible heat lowers the temperature. thisRadiation coolingCall. On days with few clouds and weak winds, the temperature drops significantly. When there is a lot of water vapor and clouds, the infrared radiation from water vapor and clouds cancels out the earth's radiation, and the decrease in temperature decreases. Since radiative cooling continues from night to morning, the temperature of the day is often at its lowest in the early morning when solar radiation exceeds the effects of radiative cooling.
  • Sensible heat
  • latent heat
  • waste heat -Especially in urban areas, exhaust heat from human activities can raise the temperature. Radiant heat from the side of the building also becomes a factor that prevents the temperature from falling.
  • terrain - basinOr inland,DesertIn areas with a lot of clear sky, the temperature changes greatly because both solar radiation and earth radiation are efficient.
  • ocean-Waterside -Water has a large heat capacity and moderate temperature changes, so changes in temperature are small at sea and even on land.BeachThen.Sea breezeAs a result, the air changes between the sea and land, so the change in temperature is small. Flood as wellRiver,LakeHas the same effect, and changes in ambient temperature tend to be small. Also, in areas where warm and cold currents flow north and south, they may become warm or cold due to the influence of the ocean.
  • elevation -The air in the troposphere is temperature stratified, and the higher the altitude, the lower the temperature. This rate of decreaseTemperature decrease rateThe average is 0 for every 2000m increase in altitude from 100 to 0.65m above sea level.° CThe temperature gradually decreases.
  • Vegetation - TranspirationAnd soil moisturelatent heatThe change in temperature is small due to the low emission and the low reflectance.
  • Surface composition-Ground and man-made objects have different reflectance and heat capacity of solar radiation depending on their color and composition, affecting temperature.
  • æ°·The presence of - Glacier,SnowfallThe ice present in the form of, for example, has a high reflectance and thus has the effect of suppressing the rise in temperature due to solar radiation. In addition, since it has a large heat capacity, it has the effect of suppressing changes in temperature, especially when it melts in early spring.
  • Advection -Warm or cold air moving from another location due to wind.Pressure patternHas a lot to do with
    • Fern -When warm and moist air crosses a mountain range, the temperature rises due to the effect that latent heat is released and heated due to rainfall.
    • Bora -Cold air that blows down mountain ridges and cools down.
    • thunderstormCold air - CumulonimbusCold downdraft that blows down during the weakening period and spreads over the surface of the earth (cold outflow).Gust front,Down burstIs this kind.

World temperature and climate

Temperature is also one of the elements that make up the climate. On a global scale, temperature is most significantly correlated with latitude, with higher latitude indicating lower temperatures. Also in the right figure, the areas of the same color with the same annual average temperature are distributed in a band parallel to the latitude line. The second most important factor is altitude and ocean current. In the right figure, the altitude is highAsiaCentralHimalayas-Tibetan Plateau,South AmericaWest bankAndesIs displayed in yellow or light blue, which means that it is colder than at the same latitude. There is also a strong warm currentNorth Atlantic,EuropeIndicates that the yellow and light blue areas are much larger to the north than the surrounding area and are warmer than the same latitude. Also,ArcticthanAntarcticShows a lower temperature, which is ocean in the North Pole but thick in the continent in Antarctica.ice sheetThis is because the altitude is high. The annual averages and extremes are colder in the South Pole than in the North Pole.

In addition, the temperature difference between summer and winter (the temperature difference between the warmest month and the coldest month) is larger in the high latitude region than in the low latitude region and in the continental region than in the ocean region. The places with the largest monthly average temperature differences among the world's observatoriesロシア-Siberia OfOimyakonIn 1971-2000, the average value was 60.2.° CCan also be (January is -1° C, July is 7° C).

In addition to these characteristics of temperature, the climate was classified by comprehensively considering characteristics such as precipitation.Climate classificationIs made.

The temperature at a certain point is not only the seasonal change of the year cycle and the daily change of the daily cycle, but also the daily weather and the scale of several years or more.Climate changeIt changes with. The main ones are the so-calledIce ageCold season and warm season (otherwise calledInterglacial) Is known to alternate,PleistoceneIt is estimated that this fluctuation occurred in a cycle of tens of thousands to hundreds of thousands of years in about 250 million years. Currently"Post-glacialIt is known as a "warm season", but during that period, it is also known that there are repeated fluctuations in the subglacial period (cold period) and the interglacial period (warm period). "Sub-Atlantic" from around 500 BC to the present day(English edition)Is in the warm season, and during that timeMedieval warm season(IPCC AR4According to Europe)Little Ice AgeIt is known that there is a short-cycle fluctuation called (weak cold season when the average temperature drop is less than 4 degree according to IPCC AR1).

Incidentally, especially in the mid-19th centuryIndustrial revolutionSince then, it has been known that the temperature is rising globally (Global warming). For example, the average annual temperature in Japan, which has more than 100 years of data, is on the rise, and the year with the largest normal difference is1990Of +1.04° CThen, in 2004 +1.00° CHas become. The main cause of global warming is artificialGreenhouse gasIt is said that the emission ofFramework Convention on Climate Change,Kyoto ProtocolMeasures are taken by establishing an international framework such as.

August 2019, 2,World Meteorological Organization(WMO) Confirmed that the world's temperature for four years from 2015 was the highest in the history of observation. In addition, it announced that the average temperature of the world in 4 rose by 2018 degree compared to before the Industrial Revolution and was the fourth highest in the past. It is said that this is evidence that unusually high temperatures have continued for four consecutive years since 1, and the rising trend has continued and global warming is progressing. According to the WMO, the average temperature rise in 4 was 2015 degrees, the highest ever recorded. WMO Executive Director Petteri Taalas said that the top 4 single-year records have been concentrated in the last 2016 years: “Long-term temperature trends are far more important than single-year rankings. "Long-term trends are showing rises," he said. "The temperature rise for the past four years has been at an abnormal level both on land and at sea level." It points out that it has also been a cause of abnormal weather such as hurricanes, droughts and floods.[5][6].

World temperature record


Asia54.0° C(129.2° F)
Kuwait flag クウェート
2016May 7
−67.8° C(-90.0° F)
Russian flag ロシア
Republic of Sakha Verkhoyansk
1892May 2
−71.2° C(-96.2° F)
Russian flag ロシア
Republic of Sakha Oimyakon
1926May 1
Africa55.0° C(131.0° F)
Tunisia flag チュニジア
1931May 7
−24.0° C(-11.0° F)
Morocco flag モロッコ
1935May 2
Europe50.0° C(122.0° F)
Spanish flag スペイン
Andalusia Seville
1881May 8
−58.1° C(-72.6° F)
Russian flag ロシア
Komi Republic Ust-Shchuger
1978May 12
−51.4° C(-60.5° F)
Finnmark Karashoke
1886May 1
North America56.7° C(134.0° F)
United States flag The United States of America
California Death Valley
1913May 7
−63.0° C(-81.4° F)
Canadian flag カナダ
Yukon Territory Snag
1947May 2
−66.1° C(-87° F)
1954May 1
South America48.9° C(120.0° F)
Argentina flag アルゼンチン
1905May 12
−33.0° C(-27.4° F)
Argentina flag アルゼンチン
Chubu Sarmiento
1907May 6
Australia53.1° C(128.0° F)
Flag of Australia (converted) .svg Australia
Queensland Cloncurry
1889May 1
−23.0° C(-10.4° F)
Flag of Australia (converted) .svg Australia
New South Wales Charlotte Pass
1994May 6
Oceania42.4° C(108.3° F)
New Zealand flag New Zealand
Canterbury District Rangiora
1973May 2
−25.6° C(-14.1° F)
New Zealand flag New Zealand
1903May 7
Antarctic14.6° C(58.3° F)
Banda base
1974May 1
−89.2° C(-128.6° F)
Vostok Base
1983May 7
Dome Anear
2010May 8
  • ロシア TheUral mountainsThe border is divided into Asia and Europe.
  • Oceania excludes Australia.
  • World highest temperature record:NOAA,NASAAccording to records such as "(I.e.-Azzyia58.0° C (1922May 9)” was said,2012ToWMOIs a mistake due to an observation error in Azigiya's record, in fact, "56.7 of Death Valley, California, United States° C (July 1913, 7)" was announced.[7]. On the other hand, according to the records of the Japan Meteorological Agency,(I.e.-Basra58.8° C (1921May 7)”,2013In Meteorological AgencyMeteorological Research InstituteFumiaki Fujibe of "Mr. Se 1922 reported in the 53.8 journal of the British Meteorological Society"° CMr. Ka 128.9° F], the date when this maximum temperature was recorded is also in the graph of the journalMay 7と17 daysMet(8th was the day when the lowest temperature was the highest)”[8].
  • World's lowest temperature record: Earth observation satelliteLandsatAccording to the observation data of2010May 8On-93.2° CThe temperature of2013It turns out. LocationAntarcticaJapan's Dome Fuji base (elevation 3810 meters)Dome AThe middle of a ridge that runs between the summits (at an altitude of 4093 meters)[9]. However, this is not the air temperature but the ground surface temperature, and the air temperature and the ground surface temperature show different temperatures, so it is unknown whether it will be an updated record.[10].
  • Highest temperature in Antarctica: February 2020Seymour Island(Seymour Island), the highest ever recorded at 20.75℃[11][12].

Other records

Japan temperature record

The observation interval of the temperature, which is the data of the maximum temperature and the minimum temperature,Weather station-Weather station-Special Area Meteorological ObservatoryThen every 10 seconds (rounded up to the nearest minute of observation time),Local weather stationThen.2002Previously every hour,2003Every 10 minutes thereafter.2008May 3The regional meteorological stations nationwide are now observing every 10 seconds, and the observation intervals are the same as for meteorological stations.[14]. Temperature observation at the local meteorological station1994It was held every 4 minutes from April to December 2002, but the official record at that time is an hourly value.


Highest record of maximum temperature

RankingtemperatureObservation pointStarting date
1 bit41.1°CKumagaya City, Saitama Prefecture*2018/7/23
Hamamatsu City, Shizuoka PrefectureNaka-ku■2020/8/17
3 bit41.0° CGifuMino2018May 8
GifuGero CityJinshan2018May 8
KochiShimanto CityEgawasaki2013May 8
reference42.5° CTokushimaItano-gunFuyo-cho(CurrentNaruto)
(Observation station in the ward)[17]
1923May 8
42.7° CTokyoAdachi-kuJiangbei
Research by the Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Environmental Science[18]
2004May 7

Lower record of maximum temperature

RankingtemperatureObservation pointStarting date
1 bit.° CMount Fuji*1936May 1
2 bit.° CHokkaidoKamikawa-gun, IshikariAsahikawa Town (currentlyAsahikawa) *1909May 1
3 bit.° CHokkaidoKamikawa-gun, TeshioWassamu Town1985May 1
4 bit.° CHokkaidoNayoro1977May 1
5 bit.° CHokkaidoShibetsu1985May 1

The observation points marked with * are meteorological stations, and the others are Amedas.


  • 42.5 of care° CWas commissioned by the Japan Meteorological Agency to conduct observation work before the introduction of AmedasObservatory in the wardAlthough it is a record at the time of theHyakuba boxHigher than actual temperature may be observed within[19]Therefore, it cannot be simply compared with the meteorological office or current records. In addition, on the dayTokushimaThe highest temperature is 33.6℃[20], Extremely high temperatures have not been observed.
  • Tokyo (at that timeCentral Meteorological Observatory) In 1923May 9At 46.4° C[21]Or 46.3° C[22](47.3° C[23]I am observingGreat Kanto EarthquakeIt is due to the fire, and is not recognized as an official record. According to the official record in Tokyo, the highest temperature of the day is treated as missing[24].
  • Okinawa TheOceanic climateTherefore, the daily range is small, and the highest observation history in the prefecture is 36.1.° C[Note 1]The highest temperature extremes by prefecture are the lowest in Japan. The highest observation history in Hokkaido is 39.5.° CIs[Note 2].


Lower record of minimum temperature

RankingtemperatureObservation pointStarting date
1 bit.° CAsahikawa Town, Kamikawa District, Ishikari Country, Hokkaido (now Asahikawa City) *1902/1/25
2 bit.° CHokkaidoKasaiShimoobihiromura (currentlyObihiro) *1902May 1
3 bit.° CHokkaido Asahikawa City Etanbetsu1978May 2
4 bit.° CMount Fuji*1981May 2
5 bit.° CHokkaidoEsashi-gunEsashi TownUtabo1978/2/17
reference.° CHokkaidoNakagawa-gun, TeshioBifuka Town
(Observation station in the ward)[17]
1931May 1
.° CEsashi-gun, HokkaidoEsashimura(Currently Esashi-cho) Kamehorobetsu
(Hokkaido Forest Meteorological Observatory)[27]
.° CHokkaidoUryu-gunHorokanai TownMother and child
(Hokkaido University Uryu Forest)[17]

Highest record of minimum temperature

RankingtemperatureObservation pointStarting date
1 bit31.3° CNiigataItoigawa2019May 8
2 bit30.8° CNiigataSado CityAikawa■2019/8/15
3 bit30.5° CFukuokaFukuoka CityChuo-ku■2018May 8
4 bit30.4° CTokyoChiyoda WardOtemachi■2013May 8
5 bit30.3° CNiigataJoetsu City(I.e.■2019/8/15
Ishikawa小松 市2000May 7

The observation points marked with * are meteorological stations, and the others are Amedas.


  • Bifuka-41.5° CWas outsourced by the Japan Meteorological AgencyObservatory in the wardHowever, since it is a commissioned observation, it cannot be simply compared with the meteorological office or the current record.
  • In Maji-ri, it is listed in the standings-41.2° COn the same day-44.8° C(Unofficial), again from 19771982For 6 consecutive years up to -40.0° CObserving the following (unofficial)[28]. -41.2° CIs the lowest temperature record in Japan after the war.
  • An informal reference record is Kamikawa-gun, Teshio, Hokkaido.Furen Town(CurrentNayoro) Personal observation in1953May 1On-45.0° CThere is an example of recording[29]. However, the lowest temperature on that day is -24.8 in Asahikawa City.° C[30], In Obihiro-29.1° C[31]No extremely low temperatures have been observed in the surrounding areas.
  • The ranking table does not show multiple entries at the same location,
    • Asahikawa is a low temperature (-2)° CLess than) -41.0° CIt has been observed 6 times including.
    • Itoigawa experiences high temperature (2℃), which is the second highest.1990May 8I observed it.
  • August 2019, 8 when we observed the highest high temperature of the lowest temperature,Typhoon No. 10The Fern phenomenon was caused by.
  • Although not an observation in Japan,Antarctic OfShowa baseThen.1982May 9On-45.3° CIs recording[32].
  • In the former Japanese territory,KarafutoHoei-gunOchiai Townで1908May 1Observed at -45.6° CThere is also a record[33].
  • Asahikawa's lowest ever -41.0° CObserved in Aomori Prefecture from the 1902rd to the 1th of January 25Hakkoda Snow March Distress CaseAs a result, 210 out of 199 march participants were frozen to death.


[How to use footnotes]

注 釈

  1. ^ IshigakiBetween Ihara (2012May 7),Nanjo CityNumber of Tamaki threads (2013May 8),Miyakojima CityGroundwork (2016May 7) Recorded at 3 points[25].
  2. ^ Saroma Town(2019May 5)[26].


  1. ^ a b c d Japan Meteorological Agency "Guide for Meteorological Observation", 1-3,9, 15-XNUMX
  2. ^ "Regarding the start of operation of the integrated processing system for AMeDAS data and changes in meteorological observation statistics (PDF) , Meteorological Agency, March 2008
  3. ^ Abashiri, Nemuro, Kotobuki, Yamagata, Ishinomaki, Mito, Choshi, Fushiki (Takaoka City), Nagano, Iida, Hikone, Sakai, Hamada, Tadotsu, Miyazaki, Naze, Ishigakijima
  4. ^ Yu Can New and Buzzword Award
  5. ^ "Temperature in 2018, the fourth highest in the past WMO ``Evidence of global warming''". Mainichi NewspapersMainichi Newspapers (February 2019, 2). 2019/2/7Browse.
  6. ^ "World temperature from 2015 to 18 is the highest ever observed by UN WMO". www.afpbb.com. AFP (March 2019, 2). 2019/2/7Browse.
  7. ^ World's highest temperature of 58 degrees is wrong = Libya record of 1922-WMO team surveyed Jiji Dot Com, 2012May 9
  8. ^ Current affairs dot com: "Basra 58.8 degrees" is a typo? = Japan's famous "highest temperature in the world" Newsletter,2013May 8
  9. ^ NASA (December 2013, 12). “NASA-USGS Landsat 8 Satellite Pinpoints Coldest Spots on Earth”. http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-usgs-landsat-8-satellite-pinpoints-coldest-spots-on-earth/ 2013/12/10Browse. 
  10. ^ 93.2 degrees below zero in Antarctica Observed in 10, below record low temperature, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, November 2013, 12
  11. ^ "The first temperature in Antarctica to exceed 20 degrees Celsius, with a record high temperature of 20.75 degrees”(Japanese). www.afpbb.com. 2020/7/8Browse.
  12. ^ "The first 20.75℃ observation in Antarctic history means "no meaning" (Sayaka Mori)-Yahoo! News”(Japanese). Yahoo! News Individual. 2020/7/8Browse.
  13. ^ a b Lyons, Walter A (1997). The Handy Weather Answer Book, 2nd Edition, Detroit, Michigan: Visible Ink press. ISBN-0 7876-1034-8
  14. ^ About operation start of integrated processing system such as AMeDAS data
  15. ^ a b Japan Meteorological Agency successive national rankings Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved October 2019, 10
  16. ^ "Kawagoe 41 degrees hottest in Japan?/Independent observation at 6 metropolitan areas"Nihon Keizai Shimbun] Morning issue July 2017, 7 Science side
  17. ^ a b c Meteorological Agency supervised "Meteorological Yearbook"-See "Reference Japanese and World Meteorological Records" published before 2007
  18. ^ You Ramura Behind the record of maximum temperature Yahoo! News. Retrieved October 2019, 10
  19. ^ MoreHyakuyo box #feature (error of observed value)See
  20. ^ Tokushima August 1923 (Daily value) Main elements Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved October 2019, 10
  21. ^ "Great Kanto Earthquake Survey Report (Meteorology)" Central Meteorological Observatory, 1924, pages 17, 19. Retrieved November 2019, 11
  22. ^ "Central Meteorological Observatory Monthly Report (September 12)" Central Meteorological Observatory, 1925, p. 61. Retrieved November 2019, 11
  23. ^ The weather -There is a description in the introduction of the performance
  24. ^ Tokyo September 1923 (Daily value) Main elements Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved October 2019, 10
  25. ^ 36.1 degrees at Shimojishima Airport The highest Thailand in Okinawa Okinawa Times + Plus (July 2016, 7). Retrieved November 6, 2019
  26. ^ The highest temperature is over 39 degrees in Saroma Town, Hokkaido Japan Broadcasting Corporation(May 2019, 5), as of May 26, 2019オ リ ジ ナ ルMore Archives, viewed May 2019, 5
  27. ^ Hokkaido Agency Takushoku Department"Hokkaido Forest Meteorological Bulletin (Showa 6)"Page 63. However, Hokkaido Forestry Experiment Station"Hokkaido Forest Meteorological Bulletin (Showa 11)"On page 133,1928 - 1935The extreme value of the lowest temperature of1933May 1Recorded at -41.0° CI am trying. Also,Utado-cho Weather[Broken link]At the Horobetsu ordinary elementary school (now Utato elementary school) in Kamihorobe in 1933May 1On-41° CIs recorded.
  28. ^ Hokkaido University Faculty of Agriculture, Experimental Forest "Exercise Forest Business Material No.22 (Meteorological Report of Uryu Regional Forest)" 43, 47
  29. ^ Shakuren's pattern As of November 2016, 3オ リ ジ ナ ルArchived, browsed September 2017, 9-See also 16, "Fengren Town History (Volume 1999)", page 2
  30. ^ Asahikawa January 1953 (daily value) Main factors Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved October 2019, 11
  31. ^ Obihiro January 1953 (Daily value) Main factors Japan Meteorological Agency. Retrieved October 2019, 11
  32. ^ 1st to 10th value in the history of observation at Syowa Station -Meteorological Agency
  33. ^ Phantom days in Japan Retrieved November 2019, 11-See also Sakhalin Agency observatory ``Sakhalin Meteorological Annual Report'' page 6


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