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🌤 | Heavy rain of about 1 mm per hour in Yamagata Prefecture Record short-time heavy rain information Increased risk of sediment-related disasters


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Heavy rain of about 1 mm per hour in Yamagata Prefecture Record short-time heavy rain information Increased risk of sediment-related disasters

 
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Due to the heavy rain that continues to fall, it is a very dangerous situation in the sediment-related disaster warning area, etc., where a life-threatening sediment-related disaster can occur at any time.
 

The Japan Meteorological Agency has provided record short-time heavy rain information, saying that it seems that heavy rain that could lead to a disaster has fallen in Yamagata Prefecture. → Continue reading

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Act on Promotion of Sediment Disaster Prevention Measures in Sediment Disaster Areas

Act on Promotion of Sediment Disaster Prevention Measures in Sediment Disaster Areas(The law of the disaster in the disaster) isLandslide,Earth and stone flow,LandslideSuch asSediment disasterTo designate areas where there is a risk of occurrence ofJapan OflawIs. Commonly known as "Sediment disaster prevention law"(Disaster disaster).

Unless otherwise specified, what is simply referred to as "Article ○ of the Act" in this section shall refer to each article of this Act.

Overview

The law that stipulates measures against sediment-related disasters in Japan isLaw on prevention of disasters due to collapse of steep slopes(Slope method) ・Sabo Law-Landslide Prevention LawEtc., but all of theseAdministrationSediment disaster prevention facility (for landslide prevention)Retaining wall,Sabo damEtc.) are stipulated as the basis law when setting up.On the other hand, this law aims to clarify all areas where sediment-related disasters may occur that may affect people's homes, regardless of the presence or absence of sediment-related disaster prevention facilities.The competent government agencyMinistry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and TourismThen, the facility (Hardware) Is premised on the maintenance of "hard measures", but the measures such as the maintenance of information transmission and public relations activities based on this law are collectively read as "soft measures".[1].

Based on this law, we conducted a field survey of areas that may affect people's homes, and the government said,Earth and sand disaster caution area(Commonly known as "Yellow Zone"[2], Law Article 6) and "Earth and sand disaster special caution area(Commonly known as "Red Zone"[2], Article 8 of the law).

In the yellow zone, the government is obliged to establish a warning and evacuation system in the area (Article 7, Paragraph 3 of the Law).

In the red zone, the same warning and evacuation system as in the yellow zone will be established, and at the same time,City Planning Actbased onSpecific development activityPermission is required for (sale of residential land, construction of social welfare facilities, etc.) (Article 9 of the Law),Building Standards Lawbased onBuilding confirmationAt that time, restrictions such as confirming whether or not sediment-related disaster countermeasures based on Article 20 of the Building Standards Act have been taken on the building structure (Article 23 of the Act) are stipulated.

Constitution

  • Chapter 1 General Provisions (Articles 2 and XNUMX)
  • Chapter 3 Basic Guidelines for Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Measures (Articles 5-XNUMX)
  • Chapter 6 Sediment Disaster Warning Area (Articles 7 and XNUMX)
  • Chapter 8 Sediment Disaster Special Warning Area (Articles 25-XNUMX)
  • Chapter 26 Miscellaneous Provisions (Article 28-Article XNUMX)
  • Chapter 29 Penalties (Article 33-Article XNUMX)
  • Supplementary provisions

Specified flow and standards

Specified flow

Prefectural governments specify sediment-related disaster warning areas and special warning areas.A survey of topography, geology, precipitation, land use, etc. conducted for designation is called a "basic survey".Prefectural governments conduct basic surveys approximately every five years based on the Basic Guidelines for Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Measures (Article 3 of the Act) established by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (Article 5 of the Act).A caution area is selected based on this basic survey.The results of the basic survey will be notified to the relevant municipalities without delay after completion (Article 4, Paragraph 4 of the Law, Article 2 of the Enforcement Regulations).

When making a designation, the prefecture must hear the opinions of the mayors of the relevant municipalities in advance (Article 6, Paragraph 3 of the Act).There is no provision that the consent of the residents is required, but there is a problem that it often takes time to get the understanding of the residents because many local governments explain to the residents as a matter of fact.[3]..It is said that it takes about half a year to a year from the end of the basic survey to the designation, but there are many cases where it exceeds one year.[4]..In this way, even if the basic survey is completed, it may not be designated and the survey results may not be published for a long period of time.[3]..In response to this, the 2014 amendment obliged residents to announce it at the end of the basic survey.[5][6].

When the prefecture makes a designation, that fact will be published in the prefectural public relations, and the relevant municipalities will be notified of publicly announced books (position map of sediment-related disaster special caution area with a scale of 50,000 / 1 and sediment-related disaster special warning with a scale of 2,500 / 1). Area area map) will be sent (Article 6 of the Law, Articles 6 and 7 of the Enforcement Regulations).

Criteria for designating sediment-related disaster caution areas and special caution areas

It is stipulated in Articles 2 and 3 of the Law Enforcement Ordinance.

Earth and sand disaster caution area  
Collapse of steep slopes
  • Area with a slope of 30 degrees or more and a height of 5 m or more
  • Areas within 10m of horizontal distance from the top of steep slopes
  • Area within twice the height of the steep slope (2 m if it exceeds 50 m) from the lower end of the steep slope
Earth and stone flow
  • In mountain streams where debris flow may occur, areas with a gradient of 2 degrees or more downstream from the top of the fan
Landslide
  • Landslide area (landslide area or area where there is a risk of landslide)
  • Area within a distance (250 m if exceeding 250 m) corresponding to the length of the landslide block from the lower end of the landslide area
Earth and sand disaster special caution area  
The magnitude of the force acting on a building due to the movement and accumulation of earth and stones due to the collapse of a steep slope may cause significant harm to the lives or bodies of residents against the movement of earth and stones in ordinary buildings. Areas that exceed the force that can be withstood without causing The magnitude of the force acting on the landslide area, and the area within a maximum of 30 m from the lower end of the landslide area)

類 義 語

Synonyms include "earth and sand disaster risk areas" and "mountain disaster risk areas".

Prefectural governments investigate and publish sediment-related disaster risk areas under the direction of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (former Ministry of Construction) for the main purpose of hard measures such as the installation of sabo facilities. There are no development restrictions.However, sediment-related disaster risk areas may be designated as sediment-related disaster warning areas in duplicate, and in this case, there are regulations under the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law. "Debris flow dangerous mountain stream, "Landslide danger points" and "Slope collapse danger points"[7].

Mountain disaster risk areas are surveyed and announced by prefectures under the direction of the Ministry of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries (former Forestry Agency) for the main purpose of hard measures such as mountain restoration projects, and this has also been done before the enactment of the Sediment Disaster Prevention Law. There are no development restrictions. There are three types: "collapsed sediment runoff risk zone", "landslide risk zone", and "hillside collapse risk zone".[8].

In addition, "landslide prevention area" isLandslide Prevention LawThere are restrictions on excavation and construction on slopes of a certain size or larger that may cause landslides specified based on. "Slope collapse danger zone"Law on prevention of disasters due to collapse of steep slopesIt is a slope of a certain size or larger that may cause a landslide, which is specified based on the above, and there are also restrictions on excavation and construction.

Designation status of caution area

Transition of specified number[9][10]
Time point(Red zone)
Number of special caution areas
(Yellow zone)
Number of alert areas
End of August 2003813
End of August 20066,98314,296
End of August 2011103,268219,903
End of August 2016282,516438,321
End of August 2020517,243640,810

As of the end of December 2020, there were 12 warning areas, of which 640,810 were special warning areas (about 517,243%).By prefecture, Hiroshima prefecture (81), Shimane prefecture (47,695), Nagasaki prefecture (32,273), Nagano prefecture (31,362), Yamaguchi prefecture (27,048), Oita prefecture (25,606), Kagoshima prefecture (23,596) ), Wakayama prefecture (21,952), and Hyogo prefecture (21,753), which have more than 21,252 locations, while Okinawa prefecture, which has the smallest number, has 9 locations.In addition, the ratio of special caution areas to the caution areas varies depending on the prefecture, and some prefectures exceed 2% and some prefectures have less than 1,183%.As of the end of December 9, there are about 3 locations where the basic survey has been completed and adjustments are being made toward designation.[10].


初めて指定が行われた平成14年度(2002年度)末にあたる2003年3月時点で警戒区域13箇所(うち特別警戒区域8箇所)、翌2004年3月末時点でそれぞれ100箇所超に留まっていたが、2005年3月末時点では警戒区域3,580箇所(同1,129箇所)、2007年3月末時点では警戒区域43,722箇所(同17,926箇所)と急増した。2007年3月末以降、2020年までは毎年度約4万箇所ずつ(特別警戒区域は約2万箇所ずつ)のペースで増加してきている。なお、全体に占める特別警戒区域の割合は、2005年3月末から半数を下回っていたものの増加に転じ、2013年3月末に再び半数を上回り、2020年12月末には8割を超えた[11][9][10].

Measures in the alert area

Earth and sand disaster caution area

市町村It is,Regional disaster prevention plan(Municipal disaster prevention plan) establishes a system for information transmission and rescue for each caution area (Article 7 of the Act).Persons requiring disaster prevention consideration such as the elderly, persons with disabilities, and infants (Disaster Relief Required) Establishes a method of transmitting information so that users can be evacuated with caution if there is a facility that is mainly used (Article 7, Paragraph 2 of the Law).[1]..However, since there was a problem that evacuation methods were rarely examined, the 2014 amendment stipulates that evacuation sites and evacuation routes should be considered for each caution area, especially in facilities used by people requiring assistance during a disaster. It was stipulated that evacuation sites and evacuation routes should be considered for each facility.[5][6].

It also has a caution zoneMayorIs eachHouseholdOn the other hand, in order to inform the residents of the danger of sediment-related disasters, evacuation routes, evacuation sites, etc. on the land where there are residences and facilities for daily use, the range of caution areas and the types of phenomena that cause sediment-related disasters are shown on the drawing. , Also a printed matter containing information necessary for warning and evacuation (Hazard map) Must be distributed and other necessary measures must be taken (Article 7, Paragraph 3 of the Law, Article 5 of the Enforcement Regulations).[1].

Residential land building traderWhen buying or selling residential land or buildings in the caution area,Explanation of important mattersIt is obligatory to explain that the residential land or building is in the caution area (Residential land and building transaction business lawArticle 35, Article 16-4-3 of the Law Enforcement Regulations)[1].

Earth and sand disaster special caution area

In addition to the measures in the sediment-related disaster warning area, the following measures will be taken.

Used by housing and people requiring assistance during a disaster in the special caution areaSocial welfare facilityorDedicated to pre-school and extra curricularOrMedical facilityTo buildDevelopment activitiesA person who engages in (specific development activity) applies for whether or not the measures for preventing sediment-related disasters conform to the technical standards (Article 7 of the Law Enforcement Ordinance) specified by Cabinet Order in the construction plan, and the prefectural governor Permission must be obtained (Articles 9/10/11 of the Law, Article 6 of the Enforcement Ordinance).Even if the application items are changed (excluding minor ones specified by Cabinet Order) after permission, the permission of the prefectural governor must be obtained (Article 16 of the Act).In addition, when the work done with permission is completed, we will notify the prefectural governor and undergo an inspection.Inspection certificateMust be issued (Article 17 of the Law)[1].

If a specific development activity is carried out without obtaining permission and change permission (Articles 9 and 16 of the Act) or construction that does not conform to technical standards is carried out, the prefectural governor will revoke the permission or permit conditions. It is possible to take measures such as changing the building and ordering the suspension of construction (Article 20 of the Act).In addition, in order to prevent these violations, the delegator of the prefectural governor is allowed to conduct on-site inspections (Article 21 of the Act).[1].

When performing new construction, extension / renovation / relocation, large-scale repair, change of use, etc. of a building with a living room in the special caution areaBuilding confirmationIs required (Articles 23 and 24 of the Act).Among the building standards, it is stipulated as a supplement to Article 80-3 of the Building Standards Law Enforcement Ordinance, and through Article 4 of the Law Enforcement Ordinance, Notification No. 13 of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism 332 "Measures to prevent sediment disasters in sediment disaster warning areas, etc." The formula for calculating the magnitude of the force acting on buildings and the ground surface due to the movement of earth and stones, etc.[1].

The prefectural governor can recommend measures such as relocation to the owner, manager or occupant of a building that has a living room in a special caution area if there is a high risk of damage due to a sediment-related disaster (Act No. 25). Article XNUMX).For relocation, land acquisition, and construction of alternative houses based on this recommendation,Housing Finance AgencyYou can get a "landslide-related housing loan" (Article 13 of the Japan Housing Finance Agency Law).In addition, when relocating a house that does not meet the structural standards (existing ineligible), part of the cost will be transferred to the local government.GrantThere is also a system to subsidize in the form of (social capital development comprehensive grant)[1]..However, there is no record of relocation recommendations by prefectures based on Article 25 of the Act (as of December 1), and the policy for relocation has not been shown.As a result of relocation after the enforcement of this law, only 2014 cases of the subsidy system "Dangerous housing relocation project near cliffs" were carried out by the comprehensive grant for social capital development (as of December 12).[4].

When a building lot / building trader intends to buy or sell a building lot or building through a specific development activity in a special caution area, he / she can only make an advertisement or conclude a sales contract after obtaining the permission of the prefectural governor. ..In addition, it is obligatory to explain that the permission for specific development activities is obtained in the explanation of important matters (Articles 33, 35, 36 of the Building Lots and Buildings Transaction Business Law, Article 2-5, 3 of the Enforcement Ordinance of the same law). Article)[1].

Urgent investigation

Due to a volcanic eruptionMudflow(Lahar),Natural damWhen it is recognized that there is an imminent risk of a large-scale landslide such as a river channel blockage or a landslide dam, the prefectural governor or the Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism will conduct an emergency investigation according to the type and scale. (Articles 26 and 27 of the Act)[1].. In particular,

  • A natural dam with a sedimentation height of 20 m or more and expected to damage 10 or more houses
  • Volcanic mudflow that has ash fall of 10 cm or more in 5% or more of the area with a gradient of 1 degrees or more in the river basin and is expected to damage more than 10 houses
  • Landslides where cracks in the ground and structures are spreading and are expected to damage more than 10 houses

(Articles 3 and 8 of the Law Enforcement Ordinance).If a danger is found by the investigation or the situation changes, it is necessary to notify the prefectural governor and the mayor of the municipality and inform the general public (Article 9 of the Act).[1].

Earth and sand disaster caution information

Earth and sand disaster caution informationIs a heavy rainfall, considering the degree of danger in each region, based on the progress of rainfall so far and the expected rainfall up to about 2 hours later.alarmIf the risk of sediment-related disasters increases during the announcementWeather stationInformation jointly announced by prefectures[6][5]..According to the guidelines of the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism (2015), "If the sediment-related disaster warning information is released, the residents of the sediment-related disaster warning area should take evacuation action."[6]..After the revision in 2014, this is the sediment disaster warning information under this law.Evacuation advisoryPositioned as "information that contributes to judgments such as, etc." (The evacuation advisory was abolished by the revision in 2021.Evacuation instructionsBy obliging the mayors and residents to be informed[5].

According to the guidelines, municipalities should inform residents of sediment-related disaster warning information and evacuation information by multiple means (passive information provision).In addition, since the amount of information is limited in passive means, it is said that more detailed information provision (active information provision) in a format that can be collected by the residents themselves should be used together.[6]..The former method is TV / radio broadcasting (Cable TV,Community FMincluding),Municipal disaster prevention administrative radio(Outdoor speakers), municipalities and fire brigadePR vehicle, Fire brigade and police,Voluntary disaster prevention organization, Direct voices from local residents, etc.The latter means are telephones, fax machines, individual receivers for disaster prevention administrative radio, and mobile phones by communication companies.Emergency breaking mail-Area mail, Registration system email (disaster prevention email) by the municipality,TwitterSuch asSocial Mediaな ど[6].

Background and issues of enactment / revision

Until establishment

Before the enactment of this law, as a system to designate dangerous areas with construction restrictions etc. in areas where there is a risk of sediment-related disastersBuilding Standards LawThere was a "disaster risk zone" system based on Article 39.but,OwnershipIn addition, the topography and geology that are the predisposing factors for sediment-related disasters differ from region to region, and it is difficult to establish building restrictions, etc. in consideration of this in a uniform law nationwide. Was being done.The criteria for designating disaster-risk areas and the contents of building restrictions are voluntary for each local government and are to be determined by ordinance.[12]..In addition, after the enactment of the steep slope law, if it is designated as a steep slope collapse danger zone, it will be designated as a disaster danger zone in conjunction with it, but the steep slope collapse danger zone is on the slope side that may cause sediment disasters. The purpose was to prevent collapse (hardware measures) in Japan, and there was a problem that the designation of the residential land side subject to sediment-related disasters was not taken into consideration.In addition, the Sabo Law and the Landslide Prevention Law have not even been linked to the designation, and there were situations where designation was rarely made in dangerous areas of landslides and debris flows.[13].

Under these circumstances,1999(11) Due to heavy rain in June in Hiroshima prefectureHiroshima citySaiki Ward-Asanami Ward-KureMore than 30 people were killed or missing due to frequent sediment-related disasters in the area centered on6.29 Heavy rain disaster).This area is surrounded by mountains and there is little flat land, and even if residential land is needed due to population growth, due to problems such as land conditions, development had to proceed from the foot of the mountain to the slope at the foot of the mountain. There were many places with cliffs and slopes on the back.In this disaster, a large number of debris flows occurred at the same time in these new residential areas along the mountains, although the scale was not large, and the damage expanded.Since there are many areas in Japan where residential land development is underway at the foot of the mountain, legislation was considered in the wake of this disaster, and this law was enacted in May 2000.[14][15].

After enforcement

However, as of 10, 2011 years after its enactment, only one basic survey was completed, and as of 1, only 2014 prefectures were completed, and it is expected that the survey will take about 13 years in many prefectures.[3][4].. According to the interviews conducted by the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism in each prefecture in 2011, the main reasons why the survey did not proceed were that it took time to explain to the residents, it was difficult to secure a budget, and it took time to make adjustments due to outsourcing of the survey. It was mentioned that it was necessary.By law, it is required to hear the opinions of the mayors of the relevant municipalities when designating, but it is not stipulated that the consent of the residents is required.However, in reality, many local governments give explanations to residents by holding briefing sessions, and it often takes time to gain the understanding of the residents who oppose it.[3]..As a reason for opposition, by designationReal estateValueLand priceOften raises concerns about a decline in[15][3].

Since there are cases where it takes time from the investigation to the designation, there are 2011 caution areas and 12 special caution areas as of the end of December 6, where the basic investigation has been completed but the designation has not been reached. It reached 9 places[3].

In August 14, 2014 years after the enactment of this law, the city of Hiroshima in the same Hiroshima prefecture where the disaster that triggered the enactment occurred.Asanami Ward-Asakita WardSediment disasters occur frequently in the area centered on the area, killing more than 70 people (Sediment disaster in Hiroshima city due to heavy rain in August 26)[16]..In this landslide disaster, many of the affected areas were not designated as warning areas, and in the Yagi and Midorii districts of Asaminami Ward, which were severely damaged, a disaster occurred when the basic survey was completed and the residents' briefing session was scheduled. The issue of this law became clear.[15][4]..With this as an opportunity, this law was amended in November of the same year, and it was stipulated that it should be announced at an early stage after the basic survey.In addition, the Japan Meteorological Agency and prefectures have jointly announced.Earth and sand disaster caution informationIs obligatory to inform the mayor of the municipality and the residents, and the municipal disaster prevention council has decided to determine the evacuation route, evacuation site, and method of transmitting sediment-related disaster warning information for each caution area.[5].

footnote

[How to use footnotes]
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k "Outline of Sediment Disaster Prevention Law (PDF) , Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism River Bureau Sabo Department
  2. ^ a b Sediment disaster caution area / special caution area (PDF) --Sabo Department, River Bureau, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism
  3. ^ a b c d e f "2nd Material 1 Status of Measures Based on the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law (PDF) Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism Policy Review Committee on Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law, January 2011, 10, read January 31, 2014
  4. ^ a b c d Nobuhiro Yamakoshi "Amendment of the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law in response to the sediment-related disaster in Hiroshima City-Points to keep in mind when promoting future sediment-related disaster countermeasures- (PDF) Planning and Coordination Office, Secretariat of the House of Councilors, "Legal and Investigation" No. 359, December 2014, 12
  5. ^ a b c d e "Proposal Information The 187th Diet Law to partially revise the Law Concerning Promotion of Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Measures in Sediment-related Disaster Warning Areas, etc., House of Councilors, November 2014, 11
  6. ^ a b c d e f "About revision of "earth and sand disaster warning and evacuation guidelines", Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, April 2015, 4, viewed January 17, 2018
  7. ^ "Basic knowledge of wind and flood damage 4-1.Sediment disaster danger point, Fire and Disaster Prevention Museum (Fire Science Center)
  8. ^ "Basic knowledge of wind and flood damage 4-2.Mountain disaster risk area, etc., Fire and Disaster Prevention Museum (Fire Science Center)
  9. ^ a b "Changes in the designated status of sediment-related disaster warning areas nationwide (as of the end of March, 2nd year of Reiwa) (PDF) ”Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, read September 2021, 4
  10. ^ a b c "Designation status of sediment-related disaster warning areas nationwide As of December 2020, 12 (PDF) ”Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, read September 2021, 4
  11. ^ National Institute for Land and Infrastructure Management, Civil Engineering Research Institute, 2013, Page 138
  12. ^ "Basic knowledge of wind and flood damage 4-3.Disaster risk areaFire and Disaster Prevention Museum (Fire Science Center)
  13. ^ "About the legal system for comprehensive sediment-related disaster countermeasures, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism River councilReport, February 2000, 2
  14. ^ River Information Center (ed.) "Disaster archipelago 1999-Verifying flood damage in 11- [REPORT2] Hiroshima City, Hiroshima Prefecture, Kure City Sediment disaster rain in residential areas caused by fragile ground and torrential rain, Ministry of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism, viewed December 2014, 12
  15. ^ a b c "Amendment to the Sediment-related Disaster Prevention Law passed, Asahi Shimbun, November 2014, 11
  16. ^ "Damage caused by heavy rain from August 8th (Tuesday) (19th report) (PDF) , Hiroshima Prefecture Disaster Countermeasures Headquarters, September 2014, 9

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